Top PDF Direct Torque Control System and Sensorless Technique of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Direct Torque Control System and Sensorless Technique of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Direct Torque Control System and Sensorless Technique of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

is a st rat egy t o produce mult iple volt age space vec- tors in t he sampling int erval. For convenience, this st rat eg y is called SV M -D T C, and the t radi- tional st rateg y, w hich produces only one volt ag e space vect or, is called Basic DT C. How ever, t he DT C syst em of PMSM has many basic theoret ical problem s t hat hav e not been clarif ied yet. F or ex- am ple, what kind of role exact ly do t he zero volt- ag e space v ect ors play on t he DT C system of PM SM ? It show s clearly in R ef . [ 2] t hat zero volt- ag e space vectors should not be used in the DT C syst em of PM SM w hen Basic DT C is adopt ed; otherw ise, t he system cannot w ork properly. So, there are no zero voltage space vectors in t he corre- sponding sw itch table but six ot her volt ag e space vectors. How ever, for t he SV M-DT C, w hy does the syst em run in order when using t he zero volt- ag e space vect ors? Certainly, some abnormal st at us could be emerged w hile debug ging t he SV M -DT C control program. Is it because of t he zero volt ag e space vect ors? T herefore, w hat t he zero volt ag e space vectors act as in the DT C sy stem of PM SM is one import ant theoret ical problem. If t his prob- lem is not solved, it cannot be said t hat a perf ect theory on t he DT C of a PMSM is established.
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Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Sliding Mode Variable Structure

Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Sliding Mode Variable Structure

In this paper, the super-spiral sliding mode variable structure control is used to design the flux linkage and torque controller. The velocity controller is designed by using the sliding film control method based on the approach law. The system designed in this paper is compared with the traditional direct torque control system. It shows that the method adopted in this paper can effectively reduce the ripple of flux linkage and torque, and accelerate the speed response and an- ti-disturbance capability.

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Modelling And Analysis Of Sensorless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor By Using Fundamental Excitation

Modelling And Analysis Of Sensorless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor By Using Fundamental Excitation

Recently, motor drive systems are widely used in various servo applications. The most used motor drive is PMSM as it has high-performance motion control with fast speed and accuracy. PMSM have permanent magnet located at the rotor, back electromotive force (EMF) and need stator current in producing constant torque [8]. PMSM uses permanent magnet to generate excitation and it does not have damper winding. Therefore it is suitable to be use in the direct and quadrature (d-q) model. In transforming three phase abc model to d-q, it causes the sinusoidal varying inductance to become constant in d-q frame [9]. However a major drawback to allow effective vector control of a PMSM is the position sensor. The usage of the position or speed sensor implies more space, extra wiring, additional electronic, frequent maintenance, high price, noise immunity, drive cost and decrease in reliability. In need to avoid these disadvantages a sensorless drives is used. The elimination of the sensor that is used to measure and calculate the shaft speed and position will reduce hardware complexity, size and allow cable elimination. Other advantages of the sensorless motor drives include the increase in reliability, increase in noise immunity, less maintenance and it lower the cost of the drive. There are several sensorless methods such as adaptive observer, sliding mode observer (SMO) and EKF. However by comparing the advantages and disadvantage for each sensorless technique, the speed and position estimator using adaptive controller is selected as its uses simple equation and system structure.
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Modelling And Analysis Of Sensorless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor By Using Fundamental Excitation

Modelling And Analysis Of Sensorless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor By Using Fundamental Excitation

Recently, motor drive systems are widely used in various servo applications. The most used motor drive is PMSM as it has high-performance motion control with fast speed and accuracy. PMSM have permanent magnet located at the rotor, back electromotive force (EMF) and need stator current in producing constant torque [8]. PMSM uses permanent magnet to generate excitation and it does not have damper winding. Therefore it is suitable to be use in the direct and quadrature (d-q) model. In transforming three phase abc model to d-q, it causes the sinusoidal varying inductance to become constant in d-q frame [9]. However a major drawback to allow effective vector control of a PMSM is the position sensor. The usage of the position or speed sensor implies more space, extra wiring, additional electronic, frequent maintenance, high price, noise immunity, drive cost and decrease in reliability. In need to avoid these disadvantages a sensorless drives is used. The elimination of the sensor that is used to measure and calculate the shaft speed and position will reduce hardware complexity, size and allow cable elimination. Other advantages of the sensorless motor drives include the increase in reliability, increase in noise immunity, less maintenance and it lower the cost of the drive. There are several sensorless methods such as adaptive observer, sliding mode observer (SMO) and EKF. However by comparing the advantages and disadvantage for each sensorless technique, the speed and position estimator using adaptive controller is selected as its uses simple equation and system structure.
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A Modified Iterative Learning Controller for Reducing Torque Pulsations in Field Oriented Control Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

A Modified Iterative Learning Controller for Reducing Torque Pulsations in Field Oriented Control Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

PMSM motors plays major role in high performance servo applications, robotics and adjustable speed drives (ASDs) where torque pulsations can adversely affect the drive system performance. DC and AC induction motors are getting replaced by PMSM in the industries due to compactness, efficiency, robustness, reliability and shape adoption to the working environment power density and torque-to-inertia ratio. It is necessary to reduce these torque pulsations to increase efficiency and lifetime of drive system and to improve the production in industries. The causes of torque pulsations includes
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Field Oriented Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Field Oriented Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

now, there are many control methods have been studied to control the speed of PMSM such as adaptive control, PID control, intelligent control etc. Many conventional controls use Digital Signal Processor (DSP) in most studies. Unfortunately, DSP suffers from long time of development and exhaust resources of CPU . The novel technology of FPGA with great advantages of programmable hard-wired feature, fast computation ability, shorter design cycle, embedded processor and low power consumption and higher density on the other hand can provide an alternative solution for these issues and is more suitable for the implementation of Digital System than conventional DSPs. Vector control techniques have made possible the application of PMSM motors for high performance applications where traditionally only dc drives were applied. The vector control scheme enables the control of the PMSM in the same way as a separately excited DC motor operated with a current-regulated armature supply where then the torque is proportional to the product of armature current and the excitation flux. Similarly, torque control of the PMSM is achieved by controlling the torque current component and flux current component independently.
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Field Oriented Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using a DSP

Field Oriented Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using a DSP

As mentioned earlier in section III, the direct axis component produces useless torque while the quadrature axis component produces the torque responsible for rotation. In an ideal case, the current space vector in the d-q frame is fixed in magnitude and direction (quadrature) with respect to the rotor, irrespective of rotation. Since the current space vector in the d-q frame of reference is static, the PI controllers now have to operate on DC quantities rather than sinusoidal signals, thus greatly simplifying the control structure. This isolates the controllers from the time variant winding currents and voltages, therefore eliminating the limitation of controller frequency response and phase shift on motor torque and speed. The block diagram for a standard FOC drive is shown in Figure 5.
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Mathematical Modelling and Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

Mathematical Modelling and Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

The quadratic programming can solve equality and ine- quality constrains as it is indicated in (43). However, for the PMSM drives, it is a quite time-consuming way apart from the pre-computed offline implementations [12]. Finally, the simplest way, possibly tailored for fast dy- namic systems as the PMSM drive are, is a direct search of local minimum of the quadratic cost function (quadratic criterion). This way can lead to explicit forms of control laws, which can be for the PMSM drives pre-computed off-line. Then, during the real-time (on-line) control, control actions are determined by selection of an appro- priate control law corresponding to the topical state of the system. In case of the PMSM drive control, the se- lected parameter or state variable is angular velocity (see model (32)). The described way leads to the following computation form
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Performance enhancement of direct torque-controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor with a flexible switching table

Performance enhancement of direct torque-controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor with a flexible switching table

In recent years, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)-based drive systems are extensively adopted in a variety of applications, such as electric propulsion systems and robotics, because of its high power density, high efficiency, and maintenance-free operation [ 1 ]. To allow high-performance operation for PMSM, several control methods are presented in literature such as current vector control (CVC), direct torque control (DTC), and model predictive control (MPC) [ 2 – 4 ]. Direct torque control becomes attractive for applications that desire fast torque response and strong robustness with the motor parameter variation [ 5 , 6 ]. These are because the DTC technique eliminates the pulse width modulation (PWM) and the rotor parameters dependence as compared with the widely used CVC techniques. Moreover, elimination of the current control loops and their associated coordinates transformation makes sensorless control of PMSM using DTC achievable if the initial rotor position is approximately estimated to calculate the initial stator flux linkage [ 7 ]. However, efforts are
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MODIFIED SENSORLESS CONTROL OF WIND TURBINE WITH PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR POWER GENERATION

MODIFIED SENSORLESS CONTROL OF WIND TURBINE WITH PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR POWER GENERATION

III. . MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING Wind turbine generators needed to be controlled to operate in three different modes; park when the wind speed is below the cut-in speed or extreme cut-out speed. The third state is when the wind speed is within cut in speed and below cut out limit of the wind generator. In order to maximize the power capture maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controls schemes are implemented to adjust aerodynamics of the blade. The optimal tip speed ratio based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control are achieve using several control models. However, Field Oriented Control FOC and Direct Torque Controls DTC are two of the most applied methods to PMSG. FOC is preferred due to its added advantages of Independent torque and flux control (Quang, 2008) and its as easily as DC machines. (Blaschke, 1972)
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Design and implementation of a loss optimization control for electric vehicle in wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor direct drive system

Design and implementation of a loss optimization control for electric vehicle in wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor direct drive system

This paper systematically analyzes the losses of a PMSM drive system in EVs and proposes a novel loss optimization control strategy for PMSM direct drive system which achieves a higher efficiency compared to traditional vector control over the whole vehicle operational range. Based on the loss model of the PMSM, the loss optimization control can optimize the copper losses and iron losses together. In order to characterize the inverter losses accurately, this paper creates a nonlinear loss model of a three-phase half-bridge inverter in the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). This research analyses the harmonic component of pulse width modulation (PWM) output voltage in SVPWM by double Fourier integral analysis, and creates the harmonic model of the PMSM in EVs. Based on the system loss model, the PWM frequency is carefully adjusted to the direct drive system by the proposed control method, which decreases the loss of the inverter while ensuring small current harmonic content. The loss optimization control strategy can reduce the energy consumption without affecting the stability of the PMSM direct drive system for EVs and is validated both theoretically and experimentally.
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Digital Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Digital Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

The FOC consists of controlling the stator currents represented by a vector. FOC is based on projections which transform a 3 phase time and speed dependent system into a two co-ordinate (d and q co-ordinates) time invariant system. These projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC machine control. FOC machines need two constants: the torque component (aligned with the q co-ordinate) and the flux component (aligned with d co-ordinate) as input references. As FOC is based on projections, the control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. Same makes the control accurate in steady state and transient working operation and independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model. The FOC thus solves the classic scheme problems, in the following ways:
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Simulating Vector Control Driver using Maximum Torque Strategy on Current Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Simulating Vector Control Driver using Maximum Torque Strategy on Current Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Electrical energy has also a key role in robotics application [14, 15]. To meet the increasingly electrical demand, different approaches has been proposed, from developing several generation units and integrating renewables into the grid to active participations of the costumer sides in the power flow balancing [16, 17]. Recently, Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor (PMa-SynRM) has attracted attentions in transportation industry. This is due to good characteristics of interior permanent magnet synchronous motoes and that such motors lack any shortcomings. Good characteristic of IPM-SMs is their high efficiency performance, output power, and gain due to magnetic and reluctance torque [18]. Main disadvantages of IPM-SMs are high current of q axis at high speed operations in flux-weakening region [19] and uncontrolled generator operation as a result of which the inverter exits the circuit [5]. The above problems are due to uncontrolled linkage flux generated by magnets. These fluxes can be resolved by employing PMa-SynRM. In PMa- SynRM structure, number and value of magnets and linkage flux of magnets are very low compared to IPM and dominant torque is the reluctance torque [20]. Compared to conventional reluctance synchronous motors, PMa-SynRM has better torque and power factor. Radiation on photovoltaic system is researched in [21, 22] and optimum tilt angle of photovoltaic systems is investigated. It is showed that experimental and theoretical tilt angles are different in that dust effects photovoltaic systems. Also, it is proved that produced energy by experimentally yearly optimum tilt angle is 3% more than theoretical tilt angle.
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A New Scheme to Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter-Fed Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

A New Scheme to Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter-Fed Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

All the 10n±1th (n=0,1,2…) winding space harmonics and voltage time harmonics with abcde phase sequence are related toq − d subspace, while all the 10n±3th (n=0,1,2…) winding space harmonics and voltage time harmonics with acebd phase sequence are related to Z 1 − Z 2 subspace. For a sinusoidally wounded motor, magnitude of third space harmonic within stator winding function is very low, which leads to tiny magnetizing inductance in Z 1 − Z 2 model and the only impedance to Z 1 − Z 2 voltage is stator resistance plus stator leakage inductance as can be seen in (5). Thus, Even a low order voltage harmonic in Z 1 − Z 2 plane, cause to large distortion in stator current.
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A Novel 4WD Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for an Electrical Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Direct Torque Control Space Vector Modulation Techniques

A Novel 4WD Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for an Electrical Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Direct Torque Control Space Vector Modulation Techniques

In this work, a new method of design and optimization for PM brushless machines is proposed to satisfy the requirements of the multiple driving conditions in electric vehicles. It has been shown that the proposed design method taking into account the maximum speed of operation and performance specifications over the entire speed range is effective to give a first brushless PM machine with well yields. Furthermore, based on the increase of the d-axis inductance and while maintaining a constant PM flux link, the proposed optimization method can reach a wider constant power rate range as well as reduce losses and improve efficiency On envelope torque velocity, speed. As a result, the SOC of energy storage is increased, thus improving the utilization ratio of the energy. Both the analysis and the results of the simulation reveal the viability of the optimal PM brushless machine to be applied in the EV, thus verifying the validity of the proposed design and the optimization method for EV traction machines.
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Fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on fault mode for ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor

Fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on fault mode for ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor

The multiphase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has the advantage of high power density, high effi- ciency, and high fault tolerance, which is more and more applied to aerospace servo-actuation system. 9–11 However, under the motor phase windings’ fault conditions, the unbal- anced current will cause torque fluctuation even leading to a serious damage for the motor system. Therefore, the fault tolerant control of the multiphase PMSM is considered of importance. Extensive research work has been reported on the fault tolerant control of the multiphase PMSM under fault conditions. In Refs. 12–14 , the optimal torque control is proposed to compute the remaining healthy phase current using the optimization algorithms for the multiphase PMSM under fault conditions. The current obtained in this approach contained higher order harmonics that cannot be selectively regulated. Refs. 15–17 proposed an optimal current control with
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Direct Torque Control Based Three Level Inverter-fed Double Star Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Direct Torque Control Based Three Level Inverter-fed Double Star Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

To more test the robustness of the sliding mode controller vis-a-vis external shocks, it caused a severe phase, where we reversed the direction of motor rotation and that the load torque figure (Fig.8). Note that the controlled system with the sliding mode regulator is much more robust vis-a-vis changes in the load, as controlled by PI regulator. The responses with both types of control clearly show that the controlled system with the sliding mode control is faster (response time very small) that the controlled system with PI control.
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Artificial Neural Network Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Artificial Neural Network Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

In this work, two neural network methods are suggested to minimize torque ripples of PMSM. The first method of neural network is based on adaptive control technique, in addition to a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique to obtain variable output having a maximum fundamental component with minimum harmonics. Neural controller is based on two loops controller structure (current controller and speed controller) with the modification as converting the reference dq voltages in to αβ voltages (will be discussed later) which serve as inputs to the SVPWM. The second method of neural network controller is based on estimation of torque constant and stator resistance. The torque constant K e , stator winding resistance and stator inductance are time- varying parameters in a PMSM. Accurate information of some of these parameters is necessary for control. Also, for PMSMS with non-ideal rotor flux linkage distribution, the torque constant along the air gap will cause small ripples in the torque, which are called rotor flux linkage torque ripples [1]-[2].
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Performance Improvement of Direct Torque Controlled Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives Using Artificial Intelligence

Performance Improvement of Direct Torque Controlled Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives Using Artificial Intelligence

The proposed GFLC-based direct torque control of an IPMSM drive over wide speed range has been investigated through analyses and simulation. In the proposed IPMSM drive system, an RBFN is used for online tuning of the parameters of optimized FLC. The FLC parameters have been optimized using a GA with a performance index to reflect the minimum settling time, minimum overshoot/ undershoot, and zero steady-state error. Based on the optimized operating conditions and control parameters the RBFN has been developed and trained for online tuning of the FLC parameters. The validity of the proposed control technique has been established in simulation at different operating conditions such as sudden load change, step change of speed, etc. The drive has been found robust in terms of quick response and disturbance rejection. Moreover, Control regimes, such as the MTPA control and FW control with voltage and current constraints have been applied successfully.
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A novel fault tolerant permanent magnet synchronous motor with improved optimal torque control for aerospace application

A novel fault tolerant permanent magnet synchronous motor with improved optimal torque control for aerospace application

decade, 1–3 due to the distinct advantage of replacing the cen- tralized hydraulic system and eliminating all its associated disadvantages. In the past, the majority of the electrically supplied actuator can be divided into two categories: electro- hydrostatic actuator (EHA) and electro-mechanical actuator (EMA). There have been many successful applications, such as flight control surface actuators and fuel pumps 4 (for a sur- vey, see, for example). Electrical machine system is the crucial part of the electrically supplied actuator, which determines the system performance of the servo-actuation system. Therefore, the electrical machine system with fault tolerant capacity has been the fundamental requirement in the aerospace application.
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