The current systematic review continued the work conducted in the prior broad DCE reviews [ 6 , 7 , 11 ] by focusing on DCE 1 applications published between 2013 and 2017. The methodology for this systematic review built on that of the prior reviews to allow comparison of results across review periods and identification of trends. The search was initiated in May 2015 and updated in February 2016 and January 2018. We used the same search engine (PubMed) that was used in the latest review by Clark et al. [ 6 ] and generally used the same search terms. We decided to exclude the search terms ‘conjoint’ and ‘dce’, since these yielded too many irrelevant results (particularly due to the rise of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging in gene expression profiling) and would have substantially increased the number of abstracts to be reviewed. The final search terms included ‘discretechoice experiment’, ‘discretechoiceexperiments’, ‘discretechoice modeling’, ‘discretechoice modelling’, ‘discretechoice conjoint experiment’, ‘stated preference’, ‘part-worth utilities’, ‘functional measurement’, ‘paired comparisons’, ‘pairwise choices’, ‘conjoint analysis’, ‘conjoint measure- ment’, ‘conjoint studies’, ‘conjoint choice experiment’ and ‘conjoint choiceexperiments’. A study was included if it was applied to health, included a discretechoice exercise (rather than rating or ranking), focused on human beings and was published as a full-text article in English between January 2013 and December 2017. Consistent with prior reviews, DCEs without empirical data (e.g. methodological studies) and studies of samples already included in our review were excluded.
In both Dutch discussions, the advantages of international cooperation regarding the outbreak and vaccination were put forward.
We explored public opinion and attitudes regarding vaccination during future pandemics and possible national differences by conducting FGDs in three European countries: the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Participants stated that they would base their vaccination decision on trade-offs between perceived benefits and barriers of the vaccine, also taking into account the seriousness of a new pandemic outbreak. Except for those who belong to a risk group, most participants in the present study expected a low infection risk, resulting in a lower willingness to get vaccinated. A questionnaire study on seasonal Inﬂuenza vaccination coverage and reasons to refrain among high-risk persons in four European countries, including Poland and Sweden  showed that individuals did not perceive themselves as susceptible to seasonal Inﬂuenza either. During future outbreaks, it is therefore necessary to provide the public with information regarding the health status of first cases, especially when also young and healthy people are infected, with information about the general level of susceptibility and a specification of which groups are considered vulnerable and are thus being targeted for vaccination. The displayed concerns regarding the safety of newly developed vaccines were also observed in a Canadian focus group study ; people were hesitant to accept vaccines during future pandemics due to the perceived uncertainties considering novel vaccines and seriousness of disease.
The 2001–2008 review [ 3 ] reported that ‘‘willingness to pay continued to be a commonly used output from DCEs’’ over that period. However, the present review found evi- dence that the proportion of DCE studies using either a ‘per WTP unit’ or a ‘monetary welfare measure’ as their pri- mary outcome has fallen. This could in part be attributable to concerns that have been raised in relation to the use of DCEs to elicit WTP. These include whether estimated WTP obtained via DCEs may be sensitive to the range specified for the monetary attribute or the presence or absence of payment per se [ 222 ], or the presence or absence of a non-zero cost, rather than the level of cost indicated by the monetary attribute [ 223 ]. Other evidence suggests that the way attributes are ‘framed’ in a DCE questionnaire may impact upon estimated WTP [ 113 ]. Fig. 15 Outcome measures. Prob probability, WTP willingness to
Householdsmight be following the CBHI enrollment decision of other households. To asses and test herding bias, the respondents who have CBHI awareness were asked the following question: My neighbors and friends were important sources of information when I decide to join/Not to join community-based health insurance scheme. However, for respondents who do not have CBHI awareness were asked in the following form: In the future when I decide to join or not to join community-based health insurance scheme my neighbors and friends will be an important source of information. This variable was measured on a four-point Likert scale (one=Strongly Agree; 4=Strongly disagree). Afterward, the data were regrouped into two categories as "Agree and disagree” for numerical significance and to simplify the analyses and data interpretation.
(2) QFD has provided a communication tool to designers. Engineers, positioned midway be- tween the market and production, need to lead new product development. QFD renders a powerful arm to engineers as they build a system for product development.
New product development and strategic management were the key topics that JUSE selected at their 61 st QC Symposium (1995) as important for future TQM. New product development methodology needs to be further established in TQM. It is hoped that QFD in particular will develop into a meth- odology that aids new product development based on strategic product planning, a method for creating more attractive products. In order to be able to develop a more attractive product, a linkage between QFD and marketing needs to be developed, and new methods to do so need to be developed. The Seven Product Planning Tools, tools developed in recent years, deserve recognition for their good timing.
# 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: CALL; ICT; Technology; Language teaching; Language learning; Integration
This article seeks answers to three questions: where has Computer Assisted Lan- guage Learning (CALL) been, where is it now and where is it going? It starts from the premise that if we are to maximise the beneﬁts of CALL in future, we need to establish an agenda and a set of aims towards which to work. This in turn requires an analysis of where CALL has been in the past and where it is now—the future must learn from the past and present. Accordingly, it is structured chronologically, beginning with a reassessment of the history of CALL, followed by a brief assess- ment of CALL now. It concludes with a detailed discussion of where CALL could go in future and how we as a profession could help it achieve its maximum potential.
The article looked into the possible future of 3GPP2’s CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO networks. The 3G CDMA2000 family of standards including EV-DO (Evolution Data Optimized) is in the daily use of more than 600 million customers across the globe. The article first focused on the short term interoperability challenges to LTE and WiMAX and provided some antidotes for addressing these hurdles. The key challenges that were investigated include spectrum planning, authentication and security, end-to- end QoS (Quality of Service), voice enablement and data service continuity. The investigation revealed that a new QoS mapping mechanism between EV-DO and WiMAX similar to the one shown in the article is required for smooth operation. The analysis further indicated that CSFB (Circuit Switched Fallback) and SVLTE (Simultaneous Voice and LTE) were two techniques which could be used to support CS voice on an LTE/CDMA network. However they had different inter-radio access technology interworking requirements. In the following section, the performance aspects both WiMAX and EV-DO were highlighted indicating a deep dip in through put values once the users switches from WiMAX to EV-DO. The article concluded by discussing the future roadmap of CDMA2000 from 1X Advanced and DO Advanced perspectives. A performance comparison between 1X and 1X Advanced and EV-DO and DO Advanced was also presented.
In this work, we have revisited some of the problems of object-oriented technologies that motivated a paradigm shift towards component-based software development. We have also reviewed some of the goals component-based development was supposed to achieve and gave a brief overview of the current state-of-the-art in component technology. Based on this overview, we came up with a list of questions that current component technologies do not fully address (or not address at all) and proposed a list of topics for further discussion and investigation. As we have outlined, there is an emerging need to clarify both technical (i.e. specification of components; component composition; verification of compositions; quality of components) and even more so methodological issues (i.e. when and how to apply the technology) of component software. We also briefly outlined in the context of web-services that we still tend to reinvent the wheel instead of reflecting on what problems have been solved and how well these solutions worked. Hence, a more systematic approach to analyze the state-of-the-art of component technology and where we should spend our efforts in the future might be necessary, if not essential.
The condition of government ayurvedic colleges is not good. There is shortage of infrastructure and teaching and non-teaching staffs. The condition of private ayurvedic colleges is also not good. Many teachers and students are present on paper only. They come in the college at the time of visit of CCIM team. Managers of some private ayurvedic colleges do not give pay scale, EPF and gratuity to their employees. There is no hospital work in many private colleges. Therefore, many students go to allopathic doctors to learn modern medicine. After getting the degree of BAMS they do allopathic practice. They join NIMA (National Integrated Medical Association) and demand the right to prescribe allopathic medicine. CCIM is not able to improve the condition of ayurvedic colleges. Therefore, ministry of Ayush wants to minimize the powers of CCIM and wants to control itself. NITI Ayoga has proposed NCISM Bill 2017 to improve the condition of Ayush. Members of NIMA are opposing this bill. Maximum members of NIMA are managers of private ayurvedic colleges and products of private ayurvedic colleges. Managers of private colleges are afraid of this bill because their monopoly will be broken. Products of private ayurvedic colleges are afraid of this bill because they will not do practice in modern medicine. This is the reason why NIMA opposes this bill. There are many courses in Ayurved in India e.g. BAMS, MD (AY), MS (AY) and PhD. There are two year PG diploma courses in panchakarma, stri-prasuti (gynecology) and balaroga (pediatrics) etc. which are conducted in some universities in India. B.Pharma (Ay) and M.Pharma (Ay) courses are also conducted in some universities. CRAV and MRAV courses are conducted by RAV. RAV organizes CME programs for Ayush medical officers and
improvement was developed an array based on comparative genomic hybridisation (48, 49). CGH does not require the preparation of metaphase chromosomes from cells. Instead of hybridising a labelled probe to human chromosomes on a slide, it is now possible to print thousands of different and well-characterised probes on a glass slide. The array-CGH is even more promising than the conventional CGH (50). Array-CGH is the equivalent of conducting thousands of FISH experiments at once, and it provides better quantification of copy number and more precise information on the breakpoints of segments that are lost or gained than does conventional CGH. It is faster and has a better resolution than available molecular cytogenetic tools (51).
Biosimilars provide alternative treatment options competing with the originator’s biotherapeutic products, by this means reducing the price of these biotherapeutics and increasing their availability. However, improving access to biosimilars and ensuring their appropriate uses requires a high degree of collaboration between all stakeholders (for example, physicians, nurses, pharmacists, patients, manufacturer). The prime responsibilities of regulatory authorities are to provide regulatory oversight of biosimilars throughout their product life-cycle and to make sure that only high-quality, safe and efficacious biosimilars are available in the market. Regulatory authorities should monitor the proper use of biosimilars in public health systems in collaboration with other stakeholders. WHO has established global standards to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of biotherapeutics, including biosimilars, at all phases of their life-cycle. These standards could serve as a foundation for mutual recognition of regulatory oversight and for regulatory junction at the global level .
of the book is divided into three sections: the first deals with major sites of sport and leisure (Aintree, the Mersey, Stanley Park, etc.); the second focuses on areas of sporting innovation where Liverpool entrepreneurs have had a particular impact (billiards, goal nets and football pools); and the third examines both a selection of stadiums and grounds and a range of activities including cricket, bowls, golf and many others. The author has drawn together an impressive array of illustrations and matches these with an accessible text which provides a fascinating insight into aspects of organized leisure on Merseyside and, especially, the legacy that it has left on the modern townscape. Some readers will no doubt feel that their particular sporting activities have not been fully covered – and as a former member of Liverpool Harriers I would have liked to see more on the Liverpool athletics scene – but the focus of the book is very much on the sporting and leisure artefacts that have survived to the present and the selection presented provides an excellent introduction to this relatively neglected aspect of the cityscape.
This situation is not surprising given the Iran-Iraq War, which caused much destruction and required the reallocation of resources to the war efforts. As graph shows, there is substantial increase in the ability of the country to pay for its imports with non-oil exports. The ratio increased to 38% in 1373 (1994) but fell back to a little over 21% by 1997. However, this was mostly artificial and due to "the impact of an increasingly appreciated exchange rate, a weaker demand for Iranian products in some export markets, and anti-export bias in policy. In particular, the single largest component of non-oil exports - carpets - declined markedly to US$600 by 1996/97, compared with US$2.1 billion in 1994/95." 7 In any way, the ratios of non-oil exports have improved in 2000s, which should be a good omen for the future of the country.
Plague cannot be eradicated, since it is widespread in wildlife rodent reservoirs. Hence, there is a critical need to understand how human risks are affected by the dynamics of these wildlife reservoirs. For example, the likelihood of a plague outbreak in North American and Central Asian rodents, and the resulting risk to humans, is known to be affected by climate [43,44]. Recent analysis of data from Kazakhstan  shows that warmer springs and wetter summers increase the prevalence of plague in its main host, the great gerbil. Such environmental conditions also seem to have prevailed during the emergence of the Second and Third Pandemics [46,47]—conditions that might become more common in the future .
OBDII is a very sophisticated and capable system for detecting emissions problems. But when it comes to getting motorists to fix emission problems, it’s no more effective than OBDI. Unless there’s some means of enforcement, such as checking the MIL light during a mandatory inspection, OBDII is just another idiot light. Currently under consideration are plans for OBDIII, which would take OBDII a step further by adding telemetry. Using miniature radio transponder technology similar to that which is already being used for automatic electronic toll collection systems, an OBDIII-equipped vehicle would be able to report emissions problems directly to a regulatory agency. The transponder would communicate the vehicle VIN number and any diagnostic codes that were present. The system could be set up to automatically report an emissions problem via a cellular or satellite link the instant the MIL light comes on, or to answer a query from a cellular, satellite or roadside signal as to its current emissions performance status.
and ’80s took two forms: the first very sparse minimalism; the second type of sweet occasional music. 17
Concert venues were mostly small and alternative, often associated with higher education. The British Music Information Centre retained a collection of EMC music in its library. The BMIC also had a small concert facility almost like a parlour, with a piano and room for no more than about thirty people. And this was a major venue for the postminimalist, post EMC performance by Bryars, Hobbs, White, Skempton, Parsons, Dave Smith, and others. The London Musicians Collective (LMC) was primarily devoted to free jazz and other free improvisation, but Michael Parsons directed workshops and premiered his opera, Expedition to the North Pole, there. Hobbs worked at London Drama Centre, as did White. Both wrote prolifically for the theatre: Hobbs through the early 1990s; White to the present. Hobbs wrote more of what Parsons calls empirical music, through-composed; a ironic re-visitation of older styles, as did White and Smith. This resulted in a specific approach by all three composers to piano music. White has written a series of piano sonatas throughout his compositional life—most very short. Hobbs, on the other hand, wrote piano sonatinas—most, despite the diminutive, rather longer than White’s sonatas. Smith has developed the ‘piano concert’: a genre of single and multiple movements or pieces grouped together to fill a typical concert. Smith favours glorious puns and anagrams in his titles, like ‘Nails’ from his ‘Hard As’ series, part of his 10th Piano Concert. 18
Victora et al. (2010) described the typical pattern of
stunting using data from 54 low- and middle-income countries largely drawn from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). They found that child birth length in many developing countries was only moderately below WHO standards, but that children grew too slowly relative to the WHO standards up to the age of 24 months. The children then maintained their position relative to healthy children from age 24 months to 60 months, with mean height- for-age Z-scores falling between -1 and -2 standard deviations and a considerable percentage of children falling below the stunting threshold. Thus, most children who face growth faltering become stunted between birth and 24 months, suggesting that interventions need to be targeted at children at these early ages to prevent stunting. This idea has been transformed into the 1,000 days policy initiative, which focuses policy makers’ efforts at interventions on the nine months a child is in utero and first two years of life, approximately 1,000 days.