A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting analloy having a corrosion and/ or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, adispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep
A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/ or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep
Apparatus and method for makingpowder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.
making the products using composite materials. The present work is focused on using walnut shell powder as a reinforcement material for thermoset type polymer named Bisphenol-A as matrix material. Walnut shell powder was added with 5wt% to the epoxy resin to prepare composite test specimens. The hand layup method was used for making the composite. Composite test specimens were prepared as per ASTM standards and different tests like tensile, flexural and compression tests were conducted in order to determine the mechanical properties of composite. Addition of Walnut shell powder to the epoxy led to an increase in the tensile, flexural and compression strength by 10.4%, 17.6% and 42% respectively. Scanning electron microscope test was conducted to study the morphology of composite.
The physical properties of final composite can be increased by adding the reinforcement material into the matrix material. Mostly researcher’s use two type of reinforcement material, the first one is synthetic fiber and second is natural fiber. We can further increase the properties of composite by mixing of secondary reinforcement. The hybrid composite is prepared by mixing of at least two reinforcement material into the matrix material . The classification of matrix material can be as: Metals, Polymers, Ceramics, Carbon and Graphite. Some examples of metal matrix material are Aluminium, Copper, Titanium and ZA-27 . Void is a physical property which remain unfilled during the preparation of composite, it effect the mechanical property. Number of voids reduce the longitudinal compressive strength, interlaminar shear strength and transverse tensile strength . Hardness, compressive strength and charpy impact strength are some mechanical properties of material, where hardness resist the plastic deformation, wear, penetration and scratching , while compressive strength resist the direct pressure of applied compression force  and charpy impact strength resist the impact from a swinging pendulum, this test is carried to evaluate the toughness of any material . Alternatives are the options from which we select the best one after evaluating and the selection of these are impacted by the criteria or attributes. For selecting the best alternative from some available alternatives TOPSIS can be one of the excellent decision makingmethod. The fundamental idea of the (TOPSIS) technique is that the best chosen alternative not just has the lowest distance from the optimum solution but also has the largest distance from the worst solution [7-8]. The TOPSIS technique was first presented by Hwang and Yoon in 1981, with the fundamental thought originating from the compromise idea of the alternative solution selected had the nearest distance to optimum solution and having the farthest distance from the worst solution . J. Papathanasiou et. al.  summarized the particularized steps involved in the TOPSIS method as follows:
Abstract Nowadays, light part production by the strategies of performance improving known as 'Engine Downsizing' by decreasing the engine size is popular. Al-Zn-Mg alloyed composites reinforced by SiC particle are mostly produced by powder metallurgy. In fact, Liquid mixing casting technique alternatively developed against the powder metallurgy has more than advantageous when taking into the consideration of its production capacity, production cost and part production similar to the definitive form. In this study, the hardness variation of SiC particle reinforced composites manufactured by the method of affordable 'Vortex Casting' and in different amounts by weight and 7075 alloy after aging process in different times at 140°C and 230°C was reviewed and their microstructure analyses were made accordingly. After 16 hours aging of 7075 alloy and the composites reinforced by 5% SiC at 140°C and 12 hours aging in the composites reinforced by 3% SiC, at 230°C, after 9 hours aging in all materials, the maximum hardness value was measured. In higher aging temperature, due to the fact that max hardness was achieved in shorter period, in lower aging temperature, higher hardness was achieved.
Lattice composites (AMCs) are seen to be potential materials in perspective on their awesome physical, mechanical and tribological properties .As of late, consideration has been paid for utilizing AMCs as close to home shield . Where higher stiffness, higher specific strength and greater work hardening rate are important considerations. A large variety of production methods have been developed for the processing of FGMs, such as powder metallurgy .Thermal spray . Slip casting . Centrifugal casting .Laser cladding  and chemical vapor deposition . Powder metallurgy is considered as a good technique in producing metal−matrix composites. A significant favorable position in this strategy is its handling temperature is low. Contrasted and melting methods. Then again, great circulation of the reinforced particles can be accomplished . And also favorable position of powder metallurgical method in the capacity to make close net shape item with ease .
The study is to be undertaken to investigate the effect of Alumina particle size, sintering temperature, sintering time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si7-Mg0.3 (A356). This metal matrix composite has been investigated by powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy (PM) is a widely used fabrication method for producing metal matrix composites. This usually involves three major stages: blending of the metal and ceramic powders, pressing or cold compaction, and sintering. These last two steps are often combined during hot pressing. One of the advantages of PM compared to casting is having better control on the microstructure, where better distribution of the reinforcement is possible in PM compacts. Particle size and the amount of reinforcement had pronounced effect on the mechanical properties of composites. Proper addition of reinforcements to aluminum composites has a positive effect on mechanical properties, such as hardness, strength and wears resistance. The difference composition of Nano sized alumina particles is added 2wt%, 3wt%. The average size of aluminium and reinforcement particle size 30µm and 100nm respectively. For Proper production of the powder which will be placed in planetary ball mill. The sintering Temperature and time are in the range of 550-610ºc for 60-120 min. Forging had been involved for increasing the properties of composites at 350-400 ºc. The results that exhibited at elevated sintering temperatures, lower porosity is obtained. Higher relative densities are achieved at higher sintering temperature. Higher hardness was observed in samples containing finer alumina particles. The dependence of the diffusion to time may be explained for sintering temperature. It can be seen that the atomic displacement is proportional to the square root of time. This is responsible for the atomic diffusion leading to grain coarsening. It is seen that, at higher sintering temperatures, a denser structure is formed due to higher diffusion rates.
A fine aluminium alloypowder produced by ball milling (powders of 200 mesh size) and MWNTs (size 7-15nm outer and 3-6nm inner diameter with length of 0.5-200micro meter and 90% purity synthesized using Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) method as reinforcement is being used. The properties of the aluminium alloypowder (LM20) and carbon nanotubes are given in Table 1and Table 2 respectively. The MWNT was rinsed in concentrated Nitric acid, then filtered, washed with de-ionized water and dried at 1200C to remove the surface impurities .
21 | P a g e While Esme  optimized process parameters in Resistance spot welding, Kathuria and Gupta  carried out research work on IS 2062 mild steel plates using the submerged arc welding process. They investigated the effect of the addition of titanium powder to Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) of mild steel plates on the tensile stress of the material. To carry out this experiment, Kathuria and Gupta  used Taguchi’s method to formulate the experimental design. A total number of 9 experimental runs were conducted using an L9 orthogonal array, after which the optimum parameters required to achieve the best values of tensile strength, were determined. The varied parameters for the experiment were voltage, electrode stick out and flux. Three levels of flux were used for the experiment, two of which were 10% titanium powder addition to the normal AUTOMELT B31 flux, and 20% titanium powder addition to the AUTOMELT B31 flux. The results were further analyzed using ANOVA. These results showed that the flux containing 20% titanium powder had a significant contributing effect of 83.77% on the tensile strength of the material. The optimum values derived from the experiment were current of 350 A, electrode stick out of 25mm and flux of AUTOMELT B31 with 20% titanium powder. This experiment strongly suggests the significant effect of titanium powder in improving mechanical properties of mild steel plates.
Alloys of cobalt, chromium and nickel were fabricated using powder metallurgy technique and was compacted using a stainless steel die with 10 mm diameter using a uniaxial press. A pressure of 240 MPa at room temperature was applied to all samples. In powder pressing, the degree of compaction is maximized and fraction of void space is minimized by using coarse and fine particles mixed in appropriate proportions.
The most widely used and least expensive polymer resins are the polyesters and vinyl esters; these matrix materials are used primarily for glass fiber-reinforced composites. The epoxies are more expensive and, in addition to commercial applications, are also utilized extensively in polymer matrix composites for aerospace applications; they have better mechanical properties and resistance to moisture than the polyesters and vinyl resins . This research project is to investigate the yield strength, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of epoxy composites reinforced with varying percentage by weight of glass powder, the filler, with a view to finding out the optimum percentage by weight of the glass powder that can be added to the composites.
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a widespread additive manufacturing technology in which a three-dimensional object is created layer by layer from heat-fusible powdered materials with heat supplied from a moving laser beam[1-4]. Comparing with other additive manufacturing technologies, one of the main advantages associated with SLS is material versatility. The dominance of polymeric materials, relative to metals and ceramics, is their ease of processing at relatively modest temperatures. This permits lower laser energy to be employed by SLS than are required to directly sintering with metals and ceramics. Although in theory any polymer available in powder form can be processed by laser sintering, only a few polymer powders can be used for manufacturing parts with high mechanical properties, surface quality and accuracy[5-9]. According to viscous sintering mechanism, it is difficult to produce fully dense SLS parts from amorphous polymers because of the high viscosity above glass transition temperature. For crystalline polymers, the part bed temperature can be kept near melt point, that fully dense parts can be produced because the powders under the laser heating can be melted completely[10,11]. In SLS process, amorphous polymers like polycarbonate (PC) and polystyrene (PS),have been used to create models, patterns and parts for investment casting applications, while crystalline polymers, like polyamide, have been used to produce functional parts which have fully dense and good mechanical properties. Polyamide 12 (PA12) is certainly the most widely used laser sintering materials at the present time[12-13]. However, the price of PA12 powders is very high leading to the high SLS fabrication cost, so there is a need to develop a much cheaper polymer powders.
composite and in turn stands testimony to the durability of the end cast thus fabricated.The test results concluded that Fracture toughness of the composite increased phenomenally with addition of reinforcement successively and reached peak value of 15.5 Mpa√m for 8wt% addition of reinforcement to the Al alloy and then got reduced for 10 wt% to 14.0 (See table-3). Hence the study establishes the fact that the reinforced composite gains more strength due to the addition of reinforcement since the addition makes Al metal matrix more denser than the monolithic Al alloy (LM13).
electrochemical cell assembly, a mild steel crucible (84 mm in diameter and 200 mm in height) was heated in advance with sponge titanium (Supplied by Toho Titanium Co., Ltd., 99.7% purity; around 20 g) under an argon (99.9995% purity) atmosphere at 1173 K for 3 h in order to remove oxygen and surface impurities. The main experimental conditions (Exps. AE) are summarized in Table 1. The experimental con- ditions for the production of niobium powder by the same method that was previously investigated are also listed in the table for reference (Exps. O, X, Y, Z). 23)
The stirring was done using the four blade stirrer, which is driven by a variable speed motor, to create vortex in the melt. Preheated SiC powder of laboratory grade particulate size of 400 µm at 600 0 C was introduced into the vortex. After the addition of the SiC, the temperature of furnace was maintained at 700 0 C and stirring was continued for 10 minutes with 400 rpm in order to maintain uniform distribution of SiC in aluminum. The semi-solid slurry was poured into specially designed moulds. The cylinders of 22 mm ҳ 210 mm cast composites of Al6061–SiC were obtained.
It is of vital importance for mechanical alloying to select properly the factors, such as (1) process control agents (PCA) which are used to prevent from excessive cold welding the powder onto a wall of vial and milling balls and agglomer- ation of powder, (2) ball to powder weight ratio, (3) rotational speed, (4) milling time, and (5) atmosphere. In this research, the ball to powder weight ratio was ﬁxed on 5:1 and Ar gas was selected as an atmosphere in consideration of the previous reports. 10,11) The optimum fabrication conditions of process control agent, rotational speed and milling time were investigated experimentally.
To be able to determine the relation between the embed- ment depth and pull-out strength of the GFRP con- nectors, small-scale pull-out tests were performed on connector segments embedded 10 mm in plain or textile reinforced RPC panels (50 × 400 × 400 mm), see Fig. 6a. A detailed account of a parametric study with differing embedment depths and connector types can be found in (Flansbjer et al. 2016). The test specimen was positioned using an inclined supporting steel frame to introduce a load along the connector at an angle of 45° from the face of the RPC panel. Based on this loading condition, an axial force is introduced to the panel via the connector end, which is similar to the actual loading in the element (refer to Figs. 4 and 6b). The out of plane movement of the panel was prevented by two steel profiles, one on each side of the connector, whereby the free distance between the profiles was set to 200 mm. Thin fibre boards were placed between the steel profiles and the panel to avoid local stress concentrations. The in-plane movement of the panel was prevented by a steel profile along the upper panel edge.
I have chosen this topic because of most developing country facing shortage of post consumers disposal waste site and it’s become very serious problem for this reasons regenerating and using waste products as resources and prevent environmental pollution From the above mentioned work of various researches and our present experimental work it is clear that glass can be used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete because of its increased strength parameter like compressive strength split tensile strength and flexure strength.As disposal of waste by product problem is a major problem in today’s world due to limited land fill space as well as its escalating prices for disposal utilization of waste glass in concrete will not only provide economy, it will also help in reducing disposal problem. The present study shows that there is a great potential for the utilization of glass powder in concrete as partial replacement of cement. About 20% of cement may be replaced with glass powder of size less than 100um. Without any sacrifices on the strength. There is a great potential for utilization of waste glass in concrete in several forms, including fine aggregate coarse aggregate and glass powder. It is considered that the glass powder would provide much greater opportunities for value adding and cost recovery, as it could be used as a replacement for expensive materials such as silica fumes, metakaolin, calcined clay, fly ash and cement used for manufacturing of fibre reinforced concrete. There is a need for being concerned about sustainability of concrete in India and minimising the CO 2 emission. There is
The quality of the construction material is required to be improved in order to enhance the structure more stable. From the earlier days, admixture plays a vital role in concrete to improve the structural properties. In this work, an attempt has been made to study the possibilities of using tamarind kernel powder as an admixture in concrete. The addition of tamarind kernel powder is varied from 0% to 3% at 0.5% intervals. The flexural strength test was carried out on prisms and beams. The Tamarind kernel powder admixed reinforced concrete beam has higher load carrying capacity than conventional reinforced concrete beam.