situ because of the relatively smooth topography
and the agricultural imprint. The continuous detailed topography provided by digital elevation models along with aerial photographs are advantageous in identifying the network of valleys, the association valleys-dolines, and the chains of dolines in the nearly horizontal platform landscape. Wetlands associated with valleys result from the “drying up” of pre-existing valleys (Sauro, 1996; Ford and Williams, 2007). Similar associations of dolines-valleys occur elsewhere in the Ebro Basin, when a very low structurally-controlled topographic gradient occurs. In Monegros, the valleys did not appear active because downstream run-off was scarce and the infilling has been dated to the Late Pleistocene-Holocene in nearby areas (Sancho et al., 2011). The capturing of the surface drainage network by small dolines has been evidenced in other areas by the alignment of dolines and sinkholes as the only evidence of the original fluvial drainage (Calaforra and Pulido-Bosch, 2003). However, no overall patterns could be determined in other gypsum karst areas as in Southern Spain (Calaforra and Pulido-Bosch, 1999) where a chaotic structure prevails without alignment of the principal axes of the dolines.
A B S T R A C T
Wetlands in semiarid regions have received less attention than wetlands in humid-temperate areas, and the limited amount of information has resulted in little regulatory recognition. A comprehensive map of the salinewetlands that occur in karstic depressions in the semiarid region of Monegros, NE Spain, was developed from historical data, topography, and surveys of vascular flora. Playa-lakes and other saline depressions are expressions of solution dolines largely founded on groundwater dynamics and favored by the limestone and gypsum-rich substrate. Substrate composition, groundwater dynamics, and the network of infilled valleys are key factors in the distribution of the wetlands. In spite of the anthropogenic imprint, wetlands morphometrics are the expression of geological processes. Significant correlations were found between basin area and depth, and between elongation and substrate composition. The predominantly subelongated shape of the Monegrossalinewetlands reflects their origin and a geometry strongly influenced by fractures. Grouping these salinewetlands based on geological and vegetation features, provide a predictable relationship of surficial processes with the occurrence of otherwise complex and undetectable hydrological connectivity. Our ten geology- based Groups showed a high intra-group variation in depth, elongation, and vegetation cover. The eight vegetation-based categories mirror the gradation in flooding frequency and the soil salinity of the Monegrossalinewetlands. The significant contrasts existing in-between the groups of wetlands and the disclosure of their causal factors provides a functional perspective at the landscape scale. This approach will help to monitor the ongoing environmental alterations associated with new on-farm irrigation developments.
The development stage of vegetation in salinewetlands is subjected to water and salt stresses resulting in a complex and highly variable environment  with sudden unpredictable changes. There is no a standard methodology to examine the temporal changes of such environments. European Directives and national rules enforce the conservation and protection of priority habitats. A methodology is needed to overcome the lack of regular ground data in RAMSAR sites such as the Monegrossalinewetlands , in order to face their destruction due to the agricultural intensification, especially new irrigation schemes. Satellite images are a major data source for habitat monitoring, capturing information on the condition of protected areas and their surroundings, and the changes in habitat extent and spatial patterns. The fraction of green cover is a sensitive indicator of land degradation  and can be used to study changes in vegetation in arid areas.
Tectarius sinulosus, T. thiarella, Thais (Mancinella) bufo, Turitella turitella, T. duplicata, T. triplicate, T. terebra, Nucella emerginata, Cronia ourantiaca, C. cf. contracta, Drupa rugosa, Lepsiella reticulata, and L.vinosa, were rare and sporadically collected from the localities. In the present study a great species diversity and distribution of gastropod mollusks was observed on the coast of Ratnagiri Maharashtra, India; intertidal and shallow subtidal zones showed a similar pattern of vertical zonation, which is in agreement with previous studies (Babu et al., 2010). In the intertidal region which some species were abundantly distributed, and some were very scarce, which suggest us a direct relation between specific habitat and population density. Therefore, studies focused on the monitoring of gastropod species (native and non native), and the knowledge of species wise diversity and distribution pattern are a good scope for the conservation, management and culture of gastropod mollusks on the west coast of India.
language is the ‘native language of the majority of the population and used in all domains in everyday life’ (Siegel, 2003, p. 179). The latter consists of formal classroom instruction and naturalistic acquisition through immersion. Often, L2 learning takes place in more than one setting either simultaneously (e.g. naturalistic and formal learning in the dom- inant L2 setting), or at different times (e.g. formal learning in the home country followed by immersion in the target language environment). Although there is a large body of SLA research in each of these areas, few studies look into the family as the object of study. In an L2 family, the variety of variables mentioned above exists simultaneously, for example, there is a mix of learners (adults, children) at varying L2 proficiency levels with varying L2 learning backgrounds (instructed and naturalistic) and motivations. Family members also have many things in common, for example, they speak the same language(s) at home, they arrive in the target language country either together or shortly following each other. Studying the L2 learning processes and outcomes of a family would complement studies that look into certain aspect(s) of SLA one at a time (e.g. children vs. adults, instructed vs. naturalistic learning).
The government approved another labor market reform, Royal decree- law 3/2012, to improve the economies competitiveness through lowering labor costs. The economy fell into recession, unemployment grew and they had to request to euro area members states 100 billion euros for the recapi- talization of its weak ﬁnancial institutions. This implied loan had a series of conditionality’s and a new series of structural reforms designed by the EU state aid rules and IMF ( IMF , 2012, pp. 5-31). Spain had an economic growth of was -1.64%, its debt to GDP ratio exceeded 86% and the primary balance to the GDP was -10.6%.
The LIDAR survey was carried out in March 2003 from a light aircraft flying over the bog using the Purple Crow LIDAR facility developed at the University of Western Ontario. Purple Crow LIDAR transmits both continuous wave and pulsed laser signals from the aircraft which are reflected off the ground surface and detected by an onboard receiver at set time intervals. The system had a reported vertical positioning accuracy of 15 cm for a flight altitude of about 700 m. The survey focused on the area of the bog in the vicinity of the parapet bund using a uniform 5-m square grid spacing.
Background: Pharmacy curriculum must prepare students with the necessary competencies to respond to society health-related needs. Aim: This study aims to analyze the allocation of competencies that pharmacists should acquire during their education in the courses constituting pharmacy curricula in Spain. Materials and Methods: All mandatory undergraduate pharmacy courses from all Spanish universities were analyzed in accordance with the official Spanish competency framework. Information about courses and competencies assigned was extracted from the syllabi available at the websites of all colleges of pharmacy existing in Spain (2016/2017). Elective courses, courses that correspond to the internship period or final dissertation activities and courses that did not present an online syllabus were excluded from the analysis. The allocation of the 15 general competencies and 67 specific competencies defined in the official Spanish competency framework was investigated. Results: The 22 Spanish universities offering pharmacy degrees teach 1261 courses, of which 942 are mandatory courses. Syllabi of 881 courses were available on the internet and were analyzed. A total of 560 could be objectively associated with the following areas of knowledge: 23.8% with chemistry, 6.8% with physics and mathematics, 16.4% with biology, 13.0% with pharmaceutical technology, 29.6% with medicine and pharmacology, 10.2% with legislation and social pharmacy and 0.2% with internships (not taught during the internship period). Competency allocation patterns are very different across universities. Conclusion: The results show that Spanish colleges of pharmacy do not appropriately use the official Spanish competency framework. Competencies and courses are mismatched in pairing basic sciences to practice competencies.
Regarding the symbolic articulations of human habitats, the study refers to the underlying theories that are implicitly or explicitly embedded in architectural forms and spatial configuration of vernacular housing. In fact, these underlying layers orient and mediate the spatial configuration of vernacular settlements. However, two main departure points can be distinguished here in terms of the relations between urban morphology or archi- tectural forms and symbolic articulations or abstract conceptions. In other words, most of the related studies in this field justify their position between these two main departure points in order to designate a kind of primacy whether to start from physical forms, and proceed to the underlying abstract layers, or to start with abstract arti- culations or principles, and proceed to the morphological attributes of the built environment. However, consi- dering that the challenge is becoming overwhelmingly critical when “design-level” theories are needed for in- terventions and decision-making (Hillier, 2008), the study gives primacy to urban morphology, spatial configu- ration, and architectural forms in comparison to symbolic articulations, normative conceptions, and abstract principles. Thus, the study advocates for starting from built environment for exploration of the underlying layers and related sociocultural context. However, it does not necessarily mean that the study tends to ignore the com- plex relations between sociality and spatiality in place.
Wolanski 1986, Nunes and Lennon 1986, de Silva Samarasinghe and Lennon 1987, Burling et al. 1999, de Silva Samarasinghe et al. 2003) and studied in other parts of the world (e.g. Lavin et al. 1998; de Castro et al 2004). In this paper, first insight into the physical oceanographic conditions from an early spring hydrographic survey of Hervey Bay, located off the coast of central eastern Australia, and its physical settings is provided. Middelton et al. (1994) lacked observational evidence in support of their hypothesis that Hervey Bay potentially exports high salinity water formed through a combination of heat loss, high evaporation and weak freshwater input in shallow regions of the bay. The data presented in this paper together with the application of a simple model provide this evidence and support the notion that a local water mass formation process exists within Hervey Bay.
The influence of the distance between the needle tip to the grounded collector on the fiber average diameter and distribution was also analyzed. Figure 5 shows the SEM images of the samples which were electrospun at various distances from the collector (8, 10 and 15 cm). Increasing of the tip–target distance had no significant effect on the electrospun fiber diameter, as shown in Figure 5. As can be seen, with increasing distance from 8 cm to 10 cm there was no change in the average fiber diameter. When the distance between the needle tip and the collector was low (e.g. 8 cm), the solution traveled less distance to reach the collector plate, therefore the solvent had found less time to evaporate. Residual solvent remained in the mats caused formation of the bind between the inner and outer layers of the fibers and therefore a network was generated which could increase the strength of the mat. When the distance was fixed at 10 cm, the solvent had enough time to evaporate and separate fibers sit on collector. With increasing distance to 15 cm, the average fiber diameter was increased to 2750 ±1369 nm and again fibers were tangled together. The increase in diameter of the fibers was caused by reduction of the electrostatic field strength and hence the fibers were less stretched [7, 30]. The above results showed that in order to prepare single fibers, optimization of the needle to collector distance is required.
MULTI TAPE TWO LEVEL MORPHOLOGY A Case Study in Semitic Non linear Morphology MULTI TAPE TWO LEVEL MORPHOLOGY A Case Study in Semitic Non linear Morphology G e o r g e A n t o n K i r a z * C O M P U[.]
ledge of this issue, just as the idea of legally pro- tecting or managing every where that otter tracks or spraints are found hardly appears to be practi- cal. More focused conservation techniques could focus on the specific needs that this carnivore species has at certain times in its biological cy- cle, especially during breeding, feeding, and resting (Reichman & Smith 1990, Durbin 1996, Oli et al. 1997, Fernández & Palomares 2000). In case of breeding and rearing new-born cubs, such needs can be a limiting factor for a popula- tion because this is a time of high energy re- quirements (Gittleman & Oftedal 1987, Oftedal & Gittleman 1989), especially in a species such as the otter, that has a considerably higher me- tabolism than would be expected for its body mass (Iversen 1972, McNaab 1989).
It is known that rock/soil resistivity varies with texture of the rock, conductivity of electrolytes and nature structure of minerals states. This change from formation formats as well as arising a particular formation. Normally, it increase with grain size and is maximum when for coarse grains. In some cases fine grained compact structure also has high resistivity. There is a sharp fall due to inherit content of clay .For saturated rocks low resistivity is due to increased clay or salinity with depth of investigations up to 50 m. Wenner method combined with schlumberger array can be used to collect data .This principal area are in un consolidated alluvial formats under salt saline intrusion and sedimentary environment .
Although inequality is under-researched in Guyana, Gafar (2004) and Khemraj (2013) have undertaken empirical and theoretical studies respectively. Gafar (2004) contends that growth in Guyana has no relationship with inequality, especially since the Gini coefficient has remained relatively stable during the years 1993-1999. This is contrary to the contention in this article. Gafar (2004) time series is limited; therefore, any definitive conclusion on the relationship between growth and distribution in Guyana would be premature. The advantage of this article is that it traces the evolution of inequality in Guyana from 1974-2013; the evidence proves that growth and wage rates are highly correlated. Although Gafar (2004) explains that Guyana experienced marginal reductions of inequality during 1993-1999, this article labels this experience as a recovery, in light of a deterioration of inequality in the previous decade. Khemraj (2013) proposes that the elected oligarchy in Guyana constructs an uneven income growth between the principal ethnicities. Although this article does not investigate the political economy underpinnings of distributional conflicts, it is likely that the majority of the profit earners are those in the ethnic group with the greatest political power.
A possible predictor of the MPOD spatial profile may be foveal morphology. Almost thirty years ago it was suggested that the spatial distribution of MP was attributable to its position within the individual retinal layers, with maximum concentration of MP in the fovea within the fibres of Henle and in the inner and outer plexiform layers in the parafovea [13, 26]. As the fibres of Henle extend horizontally into the inner nuclear layer, MP has been found between the cell nuclei of the nuclear layer  and there is evidence that the Mu ¨ller cells interleaved amongst the cone photoreceptors also contain macular carotenoids [28, 29]. It has been sug- gested that variations in foveal pit morphology play a role in the spatial distribution of MP across the retina [16–18, 30]. In white subjects, a thicker central retina has been associated with significantly higher MPOD levels [30, 31]. However, such an association has not been reported in other studies [16, 17, 32]. It has been proposed that a sharper decline in MPOD with eccentricity from the fovea is associated with a steeper incline in retinal thickness from the centre of the fovea to the periphery, possibly due to compression of the inner plexiform and cone axon layers of the retina that host MP . On the other hand, wider foveas support longer cone axons and may therefore provide more storage capacity for MP [16, 31].
Heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium are considered pollutants because of their potential toxicity to plants, animals and human life (Banerjee et al., 2012). Anthropogenic and natural activities, from the surrounding environment are the main sources of river pollution (Kankılıç et al., 2013; Mutia et al., 2012). Direct influxes from industrial and agricultural activities are common and may be further supplemented by natural weathering. Physical parameters of wetlands and sediments are pH, redox, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. These contribute to the availability of heavy metals in the lagoon system, and these parameters are often included in various guidelines to monitor and control anthropogenic pollution of wetlands. Metal concentration and physical parameters are compared to wetland quality guidelines to protect the ecosystem (Farkas et al., 2007). The rate of water pollution varies seasonally, depending on discharge, flow rates and interactions with the environment (Tsai et al., 2007; USEPA, 2001). Seasons in Nigeria may be classified as dry or wet; the dry seasons. Studies have shown that watetlands and sediments have varying concentrations per season depending on the type of pollution and region (Kamau et al., 2008; Lokeshwari et al., 2006). Water usually shows high concentrations of metals during the dry season as there is no rapid movement, mixing and/or dilution caused by rainfall. In the dry season water levels reduce due to lower rainfall and evaporation, and precipitation of the metals leads to sediments accumulating most of the metals. Conversely during wet season, previously accumulated metals are released as a result of increased water flow, this is dependent on the physico chemical conditions present in the lagoon (Kamau et al., 2008).
lation by the Andalusian Government (Andalusian Government 2018c). In Andalusia there has been in- stitutional interest in publicly disclosing and using research findings in environmental management for some time. As a result, substantial effort to systemati- cally compile outputs from environmental research on the region has been made by the Andalusian Environ- mental Information Network since 2007 (Andalusian Government 2018c) so today the Network is the larg- est public environmental information repository in the country. Notwithstanding how important information availability may be, it does not guarantee its use in practice, or even the use of the most effective innova- tions (Wandersman et al. 2008). This makes us think that environmental science-management interaction in other parts of the country may be more limited, but this remains to be studied. Engagement experiences by environmental scientists in other Spanish regions showed a range of responses by managers: from en- thusiasm to disregard or even hostility (Rodríguez- Rodríguez and Martínez-Vega 2013).