Top PDF Diversity and Regeneration Status of Woody Species: The Case of Keja Araba and Tula Forests, South West Ethiopia

Diversity and Regeneration Status of Woody Species: The Case of Keja Araba and Tula Forests, South West Ethiopia

Diversity and Regeneration Status of Woody Species: The Case of Keja Araba and Tula Forests, South West Ethiopia

Deforestation and habitat fragmentation are the major environmental concerns in southwest Ethiopia. Understanding woody species diversity and socio-economic factors causing destruction of natural forests is crucial in the management of the remnant forest ecosystems. However, the forest in south west Ethiopia is poorly studied. This paper examines the diversity, regeneration status, socio-economic importance of the forests in Kaja Araba and Tula forests, southwestern Ethiopia. A systematic sampling strategy was used to collect vegetation data from the natural fo- rests, while Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method was employed to generate the socio- economic data. A total of 60 square plots (30 for each forests measuring 10 m × 10 m) were estab- lished along line transects laid across the forests. Primary data were collected by field observation, semi-structured interview with key informants and discussion with relevant stakeholders. A total 51 woody species representing 25 families were found in the study area and of all the species 30 (59%) were trees, 18 (35%) trees/shrubs, and 3 (6%) shrubs. The most species rich families were Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae. The Shannon diversity and evenness of woody species in Keja Araba forest are 2.81 and 0.79, respectively and in Tula forest they are 3.14 and 0.86, respectively. Millettia ferruginea is the most frequent and abundant species at Keja Araba natural forest, while Vepris dainellii and Phoenix reclinata are the most frequent and abundant woody species at Tula natural forest, respectively. The total basal area of woody species in Keja Araba forest is 2612 m 2 ∙ha −1 and in Tula forest the value is 3751 m 2 ∙ha −1 . In Keja Araba forest, the
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Role of Participatory Forest Management in Woody Species Diversity and Forest Conservation: The Case of Gimbo Woreda in Keffa Zone South West Ethiopia

Role of Participatory Forest Management in Woody Species Diversity and Forest Conservation: The Case of Gimbo Woreda in Keffa Zone South West Ethiopia

other non-timber forest products (Melaku and Tsegaye, 2005). 2.2. PFM approach In Ethiopia the conventional forest management alienates local communities from participating in forest conservation and protection (Abdurahiman and Tsegaye, 2002), which leads to illegal and unsustainable forest resource utilization. Hence, a resulting paradigm shift is necessary in forest management to involve local community in management of natural resources. Thus Ethiopian government has taken actions to stop forest losses and give the chance for NGOs to participate in SFM, through PFM practices. As a result, a number of NGOs and bilateral programs have launched PFM in the country. In this arrangement the government holds ownership of the forest, while the local communities, organized in FUGs, have use rights (Aklilu et al. 2016). PFM was introduced to Ethiopia in the mid of 1990s, by International NGOs such as the FARM Africa, SOS Sahel, GTZ, and JICA (Temesgen et al. 2007), with thematic area of promoting sustainable management and conservation of forest ecosystems and improving the livelihood of people living in or around. The few PFM pilot activities that started in Ethiopia include projects at Chilimo and Bonga forests by FARM Africa, at Borena by FARM Africa and SOS Sahel, at Adaba Dodolla by GTZ, and Belete Gera forest by JICA (Temesgen et al. 2007). PFM pilot activities in Bonga covered three districts namely, Gimbo, Decha and Gewata. In this PFM processes seven forest user groups were formed in Gimbo district. Out of seven old forest user groups three (Wacha, Agama and Matapa) were selected based on the availability of baseline/reference data for comparison purpose of forest status after the introduction of the PFM approach in the study area particularly in the selected FUGs. And Non-PFM forest patches adjacent to each PFM forest patches were selected to have comparison on the current status of the PFM forest. 2.3. Sampling design and data collection
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Woody Species Diversity and Structure of Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in Dallo Mena District, South East Ethiopia

Woody Species Diversity and Structure of Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in Dallo Mena District, South East Ethiopia

When we see the overall species composition of the system, the natural forests were dominated by few pioneer species which are very dominant in area. But the composi- tion of middle aged and regeneration structure of woody species is that much not promising. It is only dominated by few old aged (matured) trees which cover the upper canopy. Most of the trees which are grown in this system are very huge indigenous spe- cies with larger diameter size, height and canopy coverage. In case of shade grown cof- fee agroforestry practice the system is covered by very few woody species. The type of shade plant species are vey limited and only covered by over populated coffee shrubs. But when we observe the overall status of the woody plant structure most of the plant in this system are higher DBH class shade tree species. This is due to the factor that shade trees are the major component of coffee production of the area and the tree are con- served for the longer period of time. This larger diameter size species takes larger space and create great pressure on coffee plants through resource computation. In addition to this the continuity of this important woody species is under question. Also in order to increase the productivity of the system this matured higher diameter size species must be replaced by other new species. Homegarden agroforestry practice is also conserving a number plant species. But due to high market demand for vegetables the farmers concentrated only on the short rotation vegetables. But fruit trees are one of the domi- nant woody species which are grown in area. This farmer’s direction will change their interest to focus on short rotation exotic species. This will affect the number of native woody species conserved in the farmer’s field.
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Woody Species Composition and Natural Regeneration Status of Ades Forest, Oromia Regional State, West Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

Woody Species Composition and Natural Regeneration Status of Ades Forest, Oromia Regional State, West Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

Key words: Regeneration, samplings, seedlings, woody species 1. Introduction Quantitative information on composition, distribution, and abundance of woody species is significant to understand the form and structure of a forest community. It is also very important for planning and implementation of conservation strategy of the forest community. The species richness and diversity of trees are fundamental to total forest biodiversity because trees provide resources and habitat for almost all other forest species (Malik, 2014). In case of forest ecosystems, trees are responsible for the overall physical structure of habitats, and thus, they define fundamentally the templates for structural complexity and environmental heterogeneity (Malik et al., 2016). Forests are increasingly threatened as a result of deforestation, fragmentation, climate change and other stressors that can be linked to human activities such as agricultural expansion, forest clearance for fire wood, construction materials, timber and charcoal production (Yonas, 2001; Getachew and Demel, 2005; Liaison, 2013). These temporary benefit oriented deforestation is followed by land degradation and soil erosion which result in biodiversity loss (Tadesse and Demel, 2001; Feyera, 2006; Tadesse, 2008). In forest management, regeneration study is not only depicts the current status but also hints about the possible changes in forest composition in the future (Malik and Bhatt, 2016; Sharma et al., 2014). Survival and growth of seedlings and saplings determine the successful regeneration (Good and Good, 1972), which is perhaps the single most important step *Correspondence: datomsa@yahoo.com
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Woody Species Diversity in Oxytenanthera abyssinica Based Homestead Agroforestry Systems of Serako, Northern Ethiopia

Woody Species Diversity in Oxytenanthera abyssinica Based Homestead Agroforestry Systems of Serako, Northern Ethiopia

3.Department of Rural Development, Mekelle University, Ethiopia *Corresponding Author; girmaydarcha@yahoo.com Abstract In northern Ethiopia, establishment of exclosures and management of remnant protected natural forests to conserve and enhance forest products and services have been practiced for the past three decades. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of lowland bamboo based homestead agroforestry system in rescuing woody species diversity are lacking. The study was assessed the woody species diversity, density and composition of O. abyssinica based homestead agroforestry systems in Serako, Tselemti district. Data were collected from a total of ninety nine farms and plots with 10m*10m area, ninety from less than five year, five to ten years and greater than ten years domestication of O. abyssinica based homesteads and one exclosure with nine plots as comparison were taken. The study revealed that species density, richness and diversity were significantly higher in the exclosure than in the three homesteads (p<0.000). The study showed that a total of 48 tree species in 25 families and 24 tree species in 11 families for the homestead agroforestry systems and exclosure respectively were recorded. Following the age gradient, there was a significant difference in density, richness and diversity between greater than ten and less than five year domesticated O. abyssinica homestead agroforestry systems (p<0.000). This study confirmed that woody species diversity was higher for those households that domesticate O. abyssinica on their homesteads earlier than those households that domesticate later on their homesteads. Oxytenanthera abyssinica was not found in the exclosure, showing a distinct conscious selection for planting in the homesteads as agroforestry system. It is suggested that homestead agroforestry systems are effective for increasing biodiversity and socio-economic contributions to rural households.
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Review on Woody Plant Species of Ethiopian High Forests

Review on Woody Plant Species of Ethiopian High Forests

Ethiopia is one of the top 25 biodiversity-rich countries in the world, and hosts two of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots, namely the Eastern Afromontane and the Horn of Africa hotspots. It is also among the countries in the Horn of Africa regarded as major Centre of diversity and endemism for several plant species. The Ethiopian flora is estimated to about 6000 species of higher plants of which 10% are considered to be endemic according to Institute of Biodiversity Conservation (IBC) of Ethiopia, 2012 and woody plants constitute about 1000 species out of which 300 are trees.Forests form the major constituents of vegetation resources and thus conservation of forest genetic resources (FGRs) is among the priority areas of biodiversity conservation in Ethiopia. Forests undergo changes in various ways. Its areas can be reduced either by deforestation or by natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions. As a result, the expanse or vastness of forest areas is declining across the globe, partly through logging activities and also due to conversion of habitats to croplands (agricultural expansion) accounts for up to 40 percent of Ethiopian forest losses. A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue. In Ethiopia, biodiversity varies in space and time, and understanding patterns and drivers of Variation in biodiversity distribution has been a central topic in ecology. A diversity index is a mathematical measure of species diversity in a given Community. Based on the species richness (the number of species present) and species abundance (the number of individuals per species). Limited governmental, institutional, and legal capacity; population growth; land degradation; weak management of protected areas; and deforestation, invasion of exotic species, habitat destruction and fragmentation, over utilization, pollution, climate change, trade and transportation are some of threats and causes for loss to biodiversity of Ethiopia. To identify the richness, evenness, endemism, exoticness, enlargement, extinction rate, and to know appropriate management approach, diversity assessment has indispensable role. And ecologists and other related researchers and scientists use different indices to calculate diversity parameters. Among the indices, Shannon and Simpsons indices are commonly used one. Strong work is required to conserve diversity of Ethiopia.
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The effects of cutting regimes on natural regeneration in submountain beech forests: species diversity and abundance

The effects of cutting regimes on natural regeneration in submountain beech forests: species diversity and abundance

The irregular fructification of beech trees may cause problems in connection with planning and implementation of natural regeneration for beech stands. The observations show evidently that the statements about scarce mast years, separated by long sterile periods, in European beech stands are ex- aggerated. Every two or three years the production of beechnuts is sufficient for regeneration in conditions of suitably prepared soil and appropriately applied regeneration cuts (Korpeľ 1978; Peters 1997). In the second phase of shelterwood regeneration – seed cutting accomplished in the mast year after the fruit fall, the stocking is lowered to 0.7–0.6 (Bílek et al. 2004). A sufficient supply of light, heat and water necessary for vigorous emergence and survival of seedlings is guaranteed in such a way. Reducing the stocking value below 0.6 significantly decreases the survival of seedlings at an age of 1–3 years (Korpeľ 1978). The assessment of natural regeneration done after 15 years has confirmed our former hypothesiz- ing. However, the highest number of older seedlings – the most important from the aspect of the succes- sion stand, was found on plot M. The results obtained on our research plots situated in the submountain zone allow us to hypothesize that natural beech re- generation should be most promoted in these condi- tions by lowering the stocking value to 0.5 (50% of the basal area of parent stand according to tabular values), which corresponds to the model plot M (Ta- ble 1). This measure will however reduce the number
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Woody plant diversity along disturbance gradients in the northern afro montane forests of the bale mountains, Ethiopia

Woody plant diversity along disturbance gradients in the northern afro montane forests of the bale mountains, Ethiopia

In this paper, we report a result of study conducted to determine the impact of human-induced disturbance on woody plant diversity in the northern dry afromonatane forets of the Bale Mountains, south-eastern Ethiopia. The Bale Mountains region contains relatively intact Afromontane forest remaining in the highlands of the country (NH 2004, Williams et al., 2004). It is recognized as a biodiversity hotspot by Conservation International (Williams et al., 2004), and as a center of diversity and endemism, where many of the plant and animal species are also locally endemic to the mountains themselves (see NH 2004, Asefa 2006/08 2011, Largen and Spawls 2011 for more information on biodiversity of the Bale Mountains). The ecological importance of the region was acknowledged by establishment of the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) at the heart of these mountains in 1971. The BMNP was proclaimed to conserve the ecological and hydrological systems, and the rare, threatened and endemic floral and faunal species of the region (Hillman 1986, OARDB 2007). However, like so many of Africa’s protected areas (Struhsaker et al., 2005), the BMNP and the surrounding areas have been under increasing pressure from an ever- growing human population in the surrounding area and immigrants from other regions (Stephens et al., 2001, NH 2004, Williams et al., 2004, OARDB, 2007).
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Review on Contribution of Exclosures for Restoration of Woody Species Diversity and Regulating Ecosystem Services in Ethiopia

Review on Contribution of Exclosures for Restoration of Woody Species Diversity and Regulating Ecosystem Services in Ethiopia

Relatively, the diameter class distribution of the most abundant woody species in exclosure showed an inverted J_ shaped (continuous recruitment of tree species), which suggested a normal population structure as compared to adjacent open grazing lands (Kasim et al., 2015; Birhane et al., 2007); Similarly, other studies on Northeastern Botswana by Neelo et al., (2015), indicates that exclosure contributes on protecting the woody species from disturbance and exploitation. In open sites, human disturbance, particularly grazing, is usually the major reason for hampered or poor regeneration (Zegeye et al., 2011). High browsing pressure can lead to the absence of seedlings or juveniles as a result of high seedling mortality (Tremblay et al., 2007; Negussie et al., 2008). As the exclosure age increases, the density of woody species rises and canopy cover expands (Lemenih and Kassa, 2014). The diversity of all woody species soil seed bank including grass and herbs was greater in the exclosure than adjacent open grazing lands (Birhane et al., 2007; Mengistu et al., 2005). this suggesting that the effect of disturbance by human and livestock interface on the soil seed banks is more pronounced in the open areas.
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Woody Species Richness and Diversity Following Successional Stages at Jello-Muktar Dry Afromontane Forest, South-eastern Ethiopia

Woody Species Richness and Diversity Following Successional Stages at Jello-Muktar Dry Afromontane Forest, South-eastern Ethiopia

The number of species recorded in MS successional stage is almost twice more than the number of species recorded in ES succession. In this study, the number of species in MS sites was also higher than the IS sites which is not in line with the intermediate levels of disturbance (ILD) hypothesis [9, 6] but agreed with [5]. It had been reported from northern Chiloé Island [20] that the similarity in species between the successional stages predicts that the composition and community structure of plants change gradually, without total replacement of one community for another. Most Tropical Forest species may be found in all successional stages, but recruitment from MS could be lower in ES according to the initial floristic composition hypothesis [20] where each species had explicit environmental circumstances that limited its final richness and diversity. The number of species recorded in IS successional stage were equal to the total number species reported from Ades dry Afromontane forest [35].
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Effects of pine-hardwood management practices on forest regeneration and woody species diversity at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

Effects of pine-hardwood management practices on forest regeneration and woody species diversity at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

Site preparation bums can be applied at differing levels of severity, depending on the desired effect. The effects of the bum on particular species depend on that species' characteristics. Several authors have investigated the evolutionary adaptations of plant species to fire (e.g., Flint 1930; Mount 1964; Kauffman and Uhl 1990). Species with deep roots, thick bark, and buried buds are more resistant to fire than species with opposing attributes. In addition, many species in the Southeast, while they may not be completely fire resistant, often have traits that enable them to recover easily from fire. Barnes et al. (1998) summarize these traits, which include sprouting from the root collar (e.g., Quercus L. (oaks) and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry)), lignotubers, bole, or directly from the roots. Many coniferous species depend on fire for regeneration. Such species often have serotinous cones that open · and release their seeds when heated to a certain temperature.
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Enhancement of diversity, stand structure and regeneration of woody species through area exclosure: the case of a mopane woodland in northern Botswana

Enhancement of diversity, stand structure and regeneration of woody species through area exclosure: the case of a mopane woodland in northern Botswana

The study was undertaken in a mopane woodland of northern Botswana. The mopane woodlands in Botswana cover 85,000 km 2 , i.e. 15% of the total land mass of the country and 16% of the total area covered by mopane woodlands in southern Africa (Mapaure 1994). The dominant tree species in mopane woodlands is C. mopane, and it is one of the most important tree species in the mopane woodland, which is widely used for firewood, construction and medicinal purposes (Makhado et al. 2012). Poles of C. mopane are highly valued for construction of traditional structures be- cause they are durable, termite-resistant and relatively straight. They are used for the construction of trad- itional huts, maize granaries, fences, animal kraals and utensils, such as mortars, pestles and wooden spoons. The species also hosts the lucrative mopane worms, which are consumed in large numbers by rural as well as urban people and sold to generate incomes. They are excellent sources of protein and even considered a deli- cacy in Botswana. The mopane worms form the basis of a multi-million Botswana Pula trade, providing liveli- hoods for many harvesters, traders and their families. Makhado et al. (2012) have summarized the medicinal uses of the leaves and bark of the mopane species as follows: relieving stomach pain and treating diarrhoea; against whooping cough, cancer and syphilis; and stop- ping excessive bleeding. The roots are used to avoid gum bleeding and as treatment of kidney stones, bilhar- zia, vomiting and healing of wounds.
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Diversity of woody species in agroforestry systems of Sokoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

Diversity of woody species in agroforestry systems of Sokoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

ABSTRACT: Agroforestry has played an important role in increasing land productivity and enhancing livelihoods in developed and developing countries. The geographical location of Ethiopia covers wide agro-climatic zones and very significant biodiversity. This wide geographical condition of Ethiopia has created diverse and convenience environments for the survival and development of a variety of flora. There are about 6000 species of higher plant taxa in Ethiopia of which about 10% are endemic. The main objective of this study was to investigate diversity of woody species in different agroforestry systems of Sokoru District, Jimma Zone. The study was conducted from February to May, 2018. Frist the population density, tree height, diameter at breast height and basal area for each tree were calculated. Next Analysis of Variance (one-way ANOVA) of SPSS version 20 was used to determine the variation of woody species density among different agroforestry systems of the study area. Whereas descriptive statistics such as: tables and graphs were used to present the analyzed data. The results showed high diversity of woody species in home garden (2.79) followed by pastureland (2.77) and cropland (2.1). Moreover, the high similarity in woody species composition was found in home garden and cropland (65.7%). There should be awareness among the people regarding to the direct and indirect significance of woody species in the agroforestry systems of the study area.
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Structure and Natural Regeneration Status of Woody Plants of Berbere Afromontane Moist Forest, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia; Implication to Biodiversity Conservation

Structure and Natural Regeneration Status of Woody Plants of Berbere Afromontane Moist Forest, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia; Implication to Biodiversity Conservation

In this study it has been observed that 37.09% tree/shrubs species exhibited “good” regeneration status, 19.35% showed “fair” regeneration condition and 6.45% showed “poor” regeneration status. A total of 25.81% tree species were “not regenerating” at all and 11.29 % tree species, which were available only in sapling or seedling stage, were considered as “new” in Berbere forest (Appendix 1). The “poor” regenerating tree species were Schrebera alata , Pappea capensis , Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata , and Acacia bussei. Species which were found in “not regenerating” category were Pouteria adolfifriederici , Lannea rivae , Ficus vasta , Ficus thonningii , Diospyros abyssinica , Tamarindus indica , Warburgia ugandensis , Erythrina brucei , Combretum aculeatum , Cordia africana , Buddleja polystachya , Fagaropsis angolensis , Caesalpinia volkensii , Nuxia congesta , Olea welwitschii and syzygium guineense. “New” regeneration status included Rosa abyssinica , Myrsine africana , Maytenus gracilipes , Acalypha volkensii , Aspara- gus aridicola , Carissa spinarum and Croton dichogamus. These species may have reached or colonized to the study site by different mechanisms like disper- sal of seeds through drooping of birds and animals.
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Assessing the influence of harvesting intensities on structural diversity of forests in south-west Germany

Assessing the influence of harvesting intensities on structural diversity of forests in south-west Germany

dimension would accumulate in forests with little or no harvesting, where deadwood would be generated by nat- ural disturbances (Christensen et al. 2005). While unhar- vested, primary forests may have a high degree of structural diversity (Stiers et al. 2018), it may also be high following natural disturbances (e.g. Nagel et al. 2006; Thom and Seidl 2016). For example, windstorms or fires create deadwood, increase light conditions near the ground that influence species richness in the regen- eration layer and lead to establishment of pioneer tree species that increase tree species richness and the diver- sity of pollen and fruit production (Hooper et al. 2005; Bauhus et al. 2017b; Hilmers et al. 2018). However, many of the inventory plots without harvesting in the most recent inventory period do not represent strictly protected forest reserves, which might develop into structurally diverse stands in the long term, but merely patches that were excluded from harvesting for that period. In the state of Baden-Württemberg, the number of forest inventory plots where no trees were harvested amounted to 34% of the total number of plots. This con- trasts with an area of strictly protected reserves of only 2.8% in the state for 2012. Therefore, many of the plots without harvesting in the most recent inventory period might have been harvested in the previous period (about 76% of unharvested plots for inventory period 2002 – 2012). In addition, in the majority of strictly protected forest reserves, which cover only a small proportion of Germany ’ s total forest area (Engel et al. 2016), manage- ment has ceased only recently or a few decades ago and therefore there has been little time to develop high levels of structural diversity. Hence, we do not necessarily have high levels of those structural variables indicative of old and unharvested forests at zero or low levels of harvest- ing intensity. This also indicates that long-term monitor- ing is required to facilitate meaningful interpretation of the relationship between harvesting intensity and struc- tural diversity. Any short-term changes to structural diversity from harvesting will be more pronounced in plots harvested recently before the last inventory, whereas they will be at least partly compensated in plots harvested in the beginning of the last inventory period (see also further below).
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Woody Species Composition, Diversity and Structure of Kumuli Dry Evergreen Afromontane Forest in Yem District, Southern Ethiopia

Woody Species Composition, Diversity and Structure of Kumuli Dry Evergreen Afromontane Forest in Yem District, Southern Ethiopia

Information of species composition, diversity, and structure is important tool in assessing sustainability of any forest, conservation of species, and management of the ecosystems. About 133 woody plant species representing 107 genera and 53 families were recorded in this study. Shrubs had the highest proportion (44.3%) followed by trees (26.3%), trees/shrubs (19%), woody climbers (6%) and lianas (3%). The forest has close similarity in species composition with a dry evergreen Afromontane forest of TaraGedam which had 143 woody species in 30 quadrats 114 genera and 57 families of which comprised of trees (30.8%), trees/shrubs (39.9%), shrubs (23.1%) and lianas (6.3%) (Haileab Zegeye et al., 2011). While the angiosperms obviously comprised the biggest proportion of the woody species, gymnosperms were represented by only two indigenous species namely, Juniperus procera and Podocarpus falcatus. Mature individuals of the former had no seedlings in their own shade. This is from the fact that it is light demanding for seedling germination and regeneration is largely dependant on fire disturbance (Wimbush, 1937 cited in Friis, 1992). On the other hand, the latter had abundant seedlings indicating good regeneration and distribution in the forest. Generally, the analysis of habit of the woody species showed that the forest is dominated by shrubs.
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Evaluation of structure and natural regeneration status of woody plant species in sudanian domain : Case of eastern part of National Park of Sena Oura, Chad

Evaluation of structure and natural regeneration status of woody plant species in sudanian domain : Case of eastern part of National Park of Sena Oura, Chad

Natural Regeneration is the establishment of trees from seeds that fall and germinate in situ (Harmer 2001). It is the basis for understanding the dynamics of woody vegetation. It involves recruitment, juvenile mortality and different stages of development, and survival (Traoré 1997). It can be vegetative or by natural seedling, but in easthern part of NPSO, natural regeneration was asses sed by the importance of sapling. The general regeneration important, stand regeneration rate were SRR = 52.29%.This value is not negligible because it is higher than average. It indicates a stability of the total stand assumed in the structural study. Stand regeneration rate of easthern part of NPSO was slightly lower than that of Ngom et al. (2013) in Ferlo Biosphere Reserve (northern Senegal). That was 72%.The importance of regeneration according different species was represented by Specific Index of Regeneration (SIR). Species with the greatest potential for regeneration wereHymenocardia acida (SIR = 17.95%) Combretum collinum (SIR = 14.12%), Annona senegalensis (SIR = 6.67%) and Isoberlinia dok a (SIR = 6.22%). These species alone accounted for up to 45% of regeneration. Species with low regeneration potential 0
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Sustainability, Population and Structure of Woody Species Composition of Taraba State Forests

Sustainability, Population and Structure of Woody Species Composition of Taraba State Forests

woody stands from 60, 34 and 32 species in Montane Forest, Southern and Northern Guinea Savanna respectively were recorded. Strombosia postulate, Pleiocarpa pycnantha, Pericopsis laxiflora, Hymenocardia acida and Ziziphus mauritiana were the dominance species while their corresponding rarest species were Goria sp, Afzelia africana, Elaesis guneensis, Combretum tomentosum and Ficus sur. Strombosia postulate and Pleiocarpa pycnantha were the dominant woody species with high important value indices in Montane forest zone as opposed to Pericopsis laxiflora and Ziziphus mauritiana which dominated the Southern and Northern guinea savanna respectively. The rarest species of Goria sp, Afzelia africana, Elaesis guneensis, Combretum tomentosum and Ficus sur in the study area could be connected to its usefulness as fodder species. The population structure of woody species was found to be very low in the middle diameter classes.The diameter class distribution resembles interrupted “U” shape indicating the removal of merchantable trees. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the protected areas and ecological zones due to the low dominance and important value indices. This needs appropriate management techniques to improve forest composition and structure in the study area for sustainability.
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Effect of Forest Coffee Management Practices on Woody Species Diversity and Composition in Bale Eco Region, Southeastern Ethiopia

Effect of Forest Coffee Management Practices on Woody Species Diversity and Composition in Bale Eco Region, Southeastern Ethiopia

DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2019.94015 270 Open Journal of Forestry and utilize for household consumption. As a result, dwellers mainly managed forest coffee areas to increase productivity of coffee plants through slashing of bushes and herbs, thinning of trees through cutting/debarking of stems and cul- tivation of the land. They also confirmed that lians, herbs, shrubs and trees were cleared from forest coffee areas to reduce the competition of these vegetation with wild coffee plants and to ease management and harvesting of coffee. Simi- larly, Gole and Senbeta (2008) reported that during opening up phase; small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation competing with coffee are totally cleared without preferential even for endemic or threatened species. KIs also de- clared that they slash herbs, tree/shrub seedlings to reduce their competition with understory coffee before the commencement of rainy season and coffee harvesting operation. Moreover, KIs indicated that the productivity of coffee in- creases as the density of shade trees decrease. This result agrees with Beer et al. (1998), and Faminow and Rodriguez (2001) who revealed that un-shaded sys- tems could produce greater coffee yields. Key informants also reported that they practiced thinning of large trees to allow exposure of coffee plants to solar radia- tion. However, the canopies of the remaining trees expand, and gradually close up after some years to the level that can highly reduce coffee production. Reduc- tion of shade through killing shade trees is common practice in the forest coffee areas even if it is not allowed legally. Key informants clearly depicted that they gradually cleared other woody plant species and retain only those tree species that they believe to increase coffee productivity. Cordia africana , Croton ma- crostachyus , Millettia ferruginea , Ekebergia capensis , Podocarpus falcatus , Pou- teria adolfi-friederici , Diospyros abyssinica , Olea capensis , and Olea welwitschii are trees species preferred by farmers for coffee shade (Gole & Senbeta, 2008).
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Woody Plant Species Diversity of Gechi In-situ Forest Conservation Site, Sekela District, North Western Ethiopia

Woody Plant Species Diversity of Gechi In-situ Forest Conservation Site, Sekela District, North Western Ethiopia

The Gechi In-situ conservation forest belongs to the moist evergreen afromontain forest type of ecosystem. The inventoried Gechi In-situ site forest (within the altitudinal gradient of 2545- 2830 m a. s. l.) consists of 46 woody plant species that belongs to 42 genera and 32 families. This implies that the vegetation is comprised of high species richness and diversity. However, similar to the other areas of the forest ecosystem of Ethiopia, this forest is also under population pressure largely because of the Highland farming system is dominated in the area. The main attributing factors towards the disturbance of the forest are browsing, grazing and selective exploitation of mature highland bamboo for house construction and fence construction. These factors have caused the absence of the floristic composition at the higher diameter and height classes. The regeneration status of most economically important woody plant species is low. This raises the question of ‘Could this vegetation continue in a perpetual way keeping its optimal productivity without losing its floristic richness?’ To answer this it needs further investigation on the vegetation ecosystem functioning (that includes soil and soil seed bank), the impacts of climate change and human impacts. For the time being, however; the result of the IVI analysis showed that Myrsine africana, Amedmado, Acacia abyssinica, Clausena anisata, Maytenus obscur, Vernonia auriculifera, Solanecio gigas, Hibiscus macaranthu, Buddleja polystachya, Erica arborea and Hypericum revolutum deserved the lowest IVI value and were categorized in IVI class 1. Therefore, setting high priority is needed to conserve these endangered woody plant species. The conservation strategy could follow either the ex-situ or field gene bank or both conservation systems. The other remaining species require mentoring and management efforts in a sustainable way.
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