Top PDF Does the Moderate Altitude Environment Impair the Words of our Memory?

Does the Moderate Altitude Environment Impair theWords of our Memory?

Does the Moderate Altitude Environment Impair the Words of our Memory?

Altitude is a natural model of hypoxia characterized by a lower oxygen concentration. This condition causes a reduction of oxygenation of the blood and relevant derangement on human physiology [1,2,3] with consequent impairment of the brain function [4]. Frequently, in hypoxic conditions, several climbers reported mood changes [5,6], hallucinatory experiences [7] and cognitive impairment [6,8]. Previous studies highlighted the effects of hypoxia on reaction times and vigilance [9,10] whereas, others showed that altitude-hypoxia affects the visuo-spatial working memory [11], the associative memory [12] as well as verbal fluency [13]. In most cases memory deficits are reversible after return to sea level, when the climber do not reached extreme altitude (8000 m). However, other studies carried out in an extreme environment, showed how memory impairment persists for several days [14,12]. West and Townes observed persistent memory deficit during the course of one year in the participants that took part in the expedition to Mount Everest [15,8]. However, inadequate studies investigated the sub-acute hypoxia effects on word memory, especially at a moderate altitude environment. However, the period of time needed to recover memory functions after a moderate altitude exposure is still unclear. For this reasons we decided to deepen the studies of memory performance at a moderate altitude.
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The Impact of Anesthetics Drugs on Memory and Memory Modulation under General

The Impact of Anesthetics Drugs on Memory and Memory Modulation under General

During GA the amnesia is mostly achieved with general anesthetic drugs, nevertheless different classes of drugs administered can impact the memory, such as benzodiazepines (BZDs). The exact mechanisms whereby intravenous and inhaled anesthetics cause amnesia are still unclear. Perhaps the mechanisms are different depending on the substance. Propofol is one of the most commonly used intravenous drugs employed to induce and maintain GA; it produces anterograde amnesia through a complex mechanism involving an obstacle in the hippocampal memory consolidation. One brain region important in verbal encoding is the left inferior pre-frontal cortex; moreover, according to Veselis et al. [8] low dose of propofol- induced amnesia is not linked to a failure of memory encoding in this cortical area. Yet, as demonstrated by Pryor et colleagues, this anesthetic does not interfere with the amygdalar activation [9]. Thus, a propofol regimen (i.e Target Control infusion) could strengthen the amnesia, nevertheless, it does not completely protect against the memorization of any emotional components perceived during an inadequate anesthesia plan. In other words, in case of a hypothetical event of intraoperative awakening during GA, propofol could interfere with its explicit recall, but not with the implicit consolidation of the emotional components related to the episode [10]. Thiopental and methohexital, are ultra-short-acting barbiturates used to induce and maintain anesthesia. These class of drugs have poor amnesic action. An old fascinating study
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Does Adherence Moderate the Effect of Physical or Mental Training on Episodic Memory in Older Women?

Does Adherence Moderate the Effect of Physical or Mental Training on Episodic Memory in Older Women?

Baseline assessments and outcome measurements. Baseline assessments, study outcome measures, general cognitive status and demographic data were collected in a face-to-face situation. There were no missing data. Study outcome measures were assessed after termination of the 6-month intervention (Klus- mann et al., 2010). The following analyses focus on test scores of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT; Busch- ke, 1984), a valid episodic memory test to maximize learning while controlling attention and cognitive processing. The task requires learning and recall of 16 words presented as pictures using semantic categories as cues for encoding. The dependent variable is the sum score of three recall trials in a short delay condition, that is, separated by brief distractors (range of scores = 0 to 48).
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The Legal and Ethical Environment of Business

The Legal and Ethical Environment of Business

Constitution is a “living document” and should be interpreted in light of society’s needs, rather than its historical meaning. Judicial activists believe that sometimes the political process is flawed and that majority rule can lead to the baser instincts of humanity becoming the rule of law. They believe their role is to safeguard the voice of the minority and the oppressed and to deliver the promise of liberty in the Constitution to all Americans. Judicial activists believe in a broad reading of the Constitution, preferring to look at the motivation, intent, and implications of the Constitution’s safeguards rather than merely its words. Judicial activism at the Supreme Court was at its peak in the 1960s, when Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court in breaking new ground on civil rights protections. Although a Republican, and nominated by Republican President Eisenhower, Earl Warren became a far more activist judge than anyone anticipated once on the Supreme Court. Chief Justice Warren led the Court in the desegregation cases in the 1950s, including the one affecting the Little Rock Nine. The “Miranda” [2] warnings—familiar to nearly every American who has ever seen a
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Tools for Assessment of Innovation Potential of the Business Environment Development in the Region

Tools for Assessment of Innovation Potential of the Business Environment Development in the Region

Since the real and imaginary parts of the complex number Z are measured in monetary terms, there is no need to adjust them to comparable form. The real and imaginary parts of a complex number G are measured in different terms – rubles and number of people, so they should be adjusted to the dimensionless indicators. To do so, we can use the chain or the basic indices. This assumption does not distort the economic logic of the simulation in defining the functional relationship between the complex numbers Z and G. Since the indices describe the dynamics, the functional dependence will show how the change in volume of resources G determines the result of an innovative economy Z.
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The Influence of Macro Thiourea Derivative on the Corrosion of Mild Steel In Marine Environment

The Influence of Macro Thiourea Derivative on the Corrosion of Mild Steel In Marine Environment

Table 1 gives the values of inhibition efficiency for different concentrations of 1-O-Tolyl- 3,3 diethyl thiourea (TDETU)for the corrosion of mild steel in 5% NaCl obtained from weight [r]

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Varangis_unc_0153M_15349.pdf

Varangis_unc_0153M_15349.pdf

accelerated patterns of: reduction in attentional resources as evidenced by no difference in performance on measures of memory and attention (F. I. M. Craik & Byrd, 1982), or failure of inhibitory control as evidenced by no differences in performance on tasks of executive control (Hasher & Zacks, 1988). While this may be contrary to the expected pattern of results, there may be several explanations for the lack of differences in patterns of cognitive aging observed in this sample. First, considering the results from RBANS and CNSVS analyses, it may be the case that everyone in the sample showed similarly lower performance on cognitive measures of memory, even if these lower scores were not significantly different from controls’, and thus the predictors included in the models did not account for any differences in impairment. Second, it may be the case that the RBANS measures of memory are more sensitive to within-subject impairment than CNSVS measures of memory, and thus any differences in memory performance that might truly exist are not being measured by the tasks used. Third, it may be the case that the RBANS tasks are just sensitive enough to observe some early deficits, but more specific cognitive tasks may not show any impairment yet. This relates to the pilot behavioral data within this sample showing equivalent levels of performance on an n-back task; maybe the CNSVS tasks utilized were similarly subject to this equivalence in task performance based on the predictors included. However, ultimately all three factors could be influencing the results observed in this study – it may just be the case that everyone in the sample shows relatively lower performance on
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The Issues of the Judicial System and the Jurisdiction of the Courts of the First Instance in the Republic of Austria

The Issues of the Judicial System and the Jurisdiction of the Courts of the First Instance in the Republic of Austria

Approximately since 1860, the legislator repeatedly tried to replace the outdated General judicial Charter 1781 of Joseph II[4, S.35]. For example, there were some attempts to present the projects, similar to the German code of civil procedure. However, they were not destined to be accepted. Privat-docent of the University of Vienna, Franz Klein had a great influence on the shaping of the draft of the civil procedure code. He has thoroughly reworked the German sample of the Law, he took into account identified in practice significant drawbacks. This hard work has led to the fact that the generated project proved to be more progressive than the German code of civil procedure[2, S.88-93]. This rather delicate moment allows you to think and to use correctly the experience in Russia. After all, we must remember instructive proverb - “learn from the mistakes of others”. In our opinion, this enlightening moment is not entirely used in our science, otherwise it would be mentioned in the legal literature and the conclusion would be drawn. Unfortunately, it is not. For about 100 years was acting an Austrian CCP 1895, with some amendments. One of the most important innovations was the sole consideration of the cases provided in process by the Act of June 1, 1914.
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SUN_Graphics_Rev_C_Feb82.pdf

SUN_Graphics_Rev_C_Feb82.pdf

If the bit-map memory is organized just as other memory into physical memory words, the task of mapping the pixel-addressing into physical words has to be done [r]

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Revealing the Thermodynamic Background of the Memory Effect in Phase Separating Cathode Materials

Revealing the Thermodynamic Background of the Memory Effect in Phase Separating Cathode Materials

concentration is a monotonous function). Inter particle phase separation of the system in such a regime is, therefore, not possible and all the particles occupy equal state of charge at the same value of the chemical potential leading to the absence of the shim shaped particle distribution. This can clearly be seen in Fig. 8b and from the active particle population curve in Fig. 7, which indicates zero active particle population at the end of second rest. These observations are in line with the model of Dreyer et al. [29], Farkhondeh et al. [9] and also with the model of Kondo et al. [10], however until now the entire causal chain of phenomena from the macroscopic voltage output of the battery to collective particle-by-particle intra- electrode phenomena was not elucidated to that extent. In short, the presented results provide a clear confirmation that the memory effect can only be observed if a battery cell is not fully discharged (discharged to low cut off voltages) in the memory writing cycle. Despite this important fact, addressing the influence of the memory effect in appliances equipped with Li-ion batteries composed of phase separating materials is still important, as control algorithms prevent the battery from being fully discharged.
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The educational environment of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Kuwait University

The educational environment of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Kuwait University

This cross-sectional study was conducted during April 2014, involving medical students at FOMKU. The Arabic version of the 50-item Dundee Ready Education Environ- ment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was used to assess the education environment in this study. This version was translated by the Centre for Medical Education of the Uni- versity of Dundee and English Language Centre of Umm Al-Qura University. 6,20,21 The DREEM inventory is composed

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The influence of the intrauterine environment on human placental development

The influence of the intrauterine environment on human placental development

We have recently identified increased levels of phosphoryla- tion of eIF2 α in non-laboured placentas from cases of intrauterine growth restriction with a uterine vascular aetiology compared to normal controls, and to an even greater degree in cases associ- ated with early-onset preeclampsia (Yung et al., 2008). We also observed activation of PERK and both morphological and mo- lecular evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting a causal link. In support of that linkage, we have demonstrated that the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophoblast-like cell lines by ischaemia-reperfusion or tunicamycin results in a major suppression of protein synthesis (Yung et al., 2007), including translation of kinases such as AKT that play a central role in cell proliferation. As a result the cells proliferate at a slower rate, which in vivo would lead to the growth restricted placental phenotype. In other cell systems it has been shown that levels of cyclin D1 are reduced through translation inhibition secondary to induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (Brewer et al., 1999). We observed a similar reduction in cyclin D1 in our growth restricted placentas (Yung et al., 2008).
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Government Regulation and the Legal Environment of Business

Government Regulation and the Legal Environment of Business

In England and in many other countries, the losing party must pay the legal expenses of the winning party, including attorneys’ fees. That is not the general rule in this country. Here, each party must pay most of its own costs, including (and especially) the fees of lawyers. (Certain relatively minor costs, such as filing fees for various documents required in court, are chargeable to the losing side, if the judge decides it.) This type of fee structure is known as the American rule (in contrast to the British rule). There are two types of exceptions to the American rule. By statute, Congress and the state legislatures have provided that the winning party in particular classes of cases may recover its full legal costs from the loser—for example, the federal antitrust laws so provide and so does the federal Equal Access to Justice Act. The other exception applies to litigants who either initiate lawsuits in bad faith, with no expectation of winning, or who defend them in bad faith, in order to cause the plaintiff great expense. Under these circumstances, a court has the discretion to award attorneys’ fees to the winner. But this rule is not infinitely flexible, and courts do not have complete freedom to award attorneys’ fees in any amount, but only "reasonable" attorney's fees.
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<p>Reported light in the sleep environment: enhancement of the sleep diary</p>

<p>Reported light in the sleep environment: enhancement of the sleep diary</p>

In terms of the waking environment, TST was shorter in duration when artificial light was reported, likely a reflection of the earlier WT for those reporting artificial light in the waking environment. While WASO, generally considered to be a measure of sleep disturbance, was ~ 30 minutes higher when natural rather than artificial light was reported in the waking environment, it is dependent upon TST and thus may reflect the higher ( ~+ 1.25-hour) TST in those reporting natu- ral light upon waking (ie, with a longer sleep interval, there is less homeostatic sleep pressure and more opportunity for wakefulness during sleep). While the pattern of sleep results we found may reflect the shift-working composition of our sample, particularly for the type of light questions (Q2 and Q6), results were robust and consistent across both subjec- tive and objective sleep measures, especially for questions regarding the sleeping environment (Tables 2 and 3). Further, while our data were collected before and after a lighting intervention, which could potentially affect sleep outcomes (but not our primary outcome, objective light measures), this was accounted for in our modeling.
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The anchor of the frameless intrauterine device does not migrate over time: an analysis in over 300 women

The anchor of the frameless intrauterine device does not migrate over time: an analysis in over 300 women

The authors recommend measuring the thickness of the fundus prior to inserting the frameless intrauterine device and to measure the distance between the serosa and the vis[r]

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Does the Internet promote the unregulated use of fecal microbiota transplantation: a potential public health issue?

Does the Internet promote the unregulated use of fecal microbiota transplantation: a potential public health issue?

This study has highlighted that some potentially unregulated practice regarding FMT is easily available through private clinics and Internet resources. Long-term follow-up beyond 5 years is lacking on the safety of FMT and therefore its use should be carefully regulated to avoid potential unknown complications. 24–26 This study is the first to our knowledge

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Health concerns of PVC materials in the built environment

Health concerns of PVC materials in the built environment

Polyvinyl chloride (IUPAC name: polychloroethanediyl, hereinafter PVC) is a thermoplastic polymer and one of the most widely used materials in our everyday life. PVC is present in a large variety of products, due to simple moulding, firmness and inexpensiveness [1]. For example floor furnishing, window frames, food wraps, hair gel, shampoo, paper clips, credit cards, automobile seats and toys are just some of the items that contain PVC. European PVC organisation [1] states that on the global level, demand for PVC exceeds 35 million tonnes per year and it is in constant growth (+5 % on global, average), with higher growth rates in the developing countries. In Europe (EU-27), the production of PVC products – including exports – totals about 8 million tons per year. Eu- ropean PVC resin consumption totals some 6.5 million tons per year, or 15 % of all plastics use in Europe, with an average growth of 2 %-3 % per year [1]. PVC is widely used in various industries, such as food, ag- ricultural, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, automotive, toy, and construction industry which consume the largest amount of PVC. As building materi- al it is mainly used for final furnishing or coating of ceilings, walls and floors, carpentry products (i.e. windows and doors), facade elements, roofing materials and installations (i.e. piping and cabling). Plastic pipes and construction uses account for 75 % of all PVC consumption in North America and 50 % in Western Europe. Construction is also the fastest growing PVC sector, with a projected annual average growth rate of 3.5 % between 2002 and 2007 [2].
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<p>Investigating the effect of physical games on the memory and attention of the elderly in adult day-care centers in Babol and Amol</p>

<p>Investigating the effect of physical games on the memory and attention of the elderly in adult day-care centers in Babol and Amol</p>

To determine the general status of the elderly people ’ s memory, the A form of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) test was used pre- and post-intervention. The WMS form A (WMS-I A) includes seven subtests: personal awareness of daily and personal affairs, navigation, mental control, logical memory, repetition of digits, visual memory, and a test of learning association. The raw scores from the subscales are added up and, following correction, are converted into the memory quotient. Then, based on the memory quotient score, the subject ’ s memory status is determined. The higher the score, the better their memory. 30 The primary data from the subjects ’ performance were statistically analyzed as follows. To obtain these scores and combined indices (verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, working memory, attention, and focus), the raw scores from the subtests were combined together and taken into consideration using the following method (with the score range of the subsets shown in parentheses): 31
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C13 877 Sperry V77 pdf

C13 877 Sperry V77 pdf

Disc Memory Drive; 30.6 million 16-bit words Disc Pack Disc Memory Drive; 58.1 million 16-bit words Disc Pack Disc Memory Drive; 116.3 million 16-bit words Disc Pack Disc Memory Controll[r]

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Geochemical Environment of Oil and Gas Occurrences in the South-Caspian Basin Based on the Results of the Study of Mud Volcano Ejecta.

Geochemical Environment of Oil and Gas Occurrences in the South-Caspian Basin Based on the Results of the Study of Mud Volcano Ejecta.

based on the chemical kinetics for the primary kerogen cracking and secondary oil cracking. Different katagenesis zone thicknesses are due to the hydrocarbon generation kinetics, which depends on the kerogen type, temperature gradient, pressure, lithologic composition and hydrogeological environment of the host sequences, deposition rate, etc. In regions with a thick sediment cover, and especially with substantial rat6e of deposition

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