However, there were few methodological problems in this study which are worth mentioning. One of these is that we determined repetition trials on the basis of the targets only. Our results could be confounded by stimulus-response (S-R) repetitions as Mayrs, Awh and Laurey (2003) criticized earlier regarding the conflict monitoring theory. The underlying problem lies in the fact that 50% of the C-C and I-I consisted of S-R repetitions trials whereas the I-C and C-I trials were totally free of S-R repetitions. Similarly, 50% of the I-C and C-I trials persisted of response repetition trials in the absence of a stimulus repetition. According to the feature integration theory (Hommel, 2004) the co-occurrence of a stimulus and response in time were accompanied by the storage of this association. This means particularly that the activation of one stimulus feature reactivates automatically the associated response. This confounding might have been responsible for the ERP data that appeared independent of sequential effects in our study. Several studies pointed out, though for RT and accuracy, that significant interaction effects between previous and current trial types were only found for (S-R) repetition trials when controlling for the last factor (Nieuwenhuis, Stins, Posthuma, Polderman, Boomsma, & Geus, 2006). As a consequence, we advise future research to investigate the S-R repetitions in their analysis to see whether this factor may have confounded our results.
Do we simply let technological advances dictate what it will mean to be human in the age of ubiquitous computing or can HCI as an interdisciplinary community of researchers, practitioners and designers become more proactive in helping to shape society‟s new relationships with computer technologies? A quite different mindset is needed for thinking about how to design for, how to control and how to interact with emerging Ecosystems of technologies. While many researchers in HCI have begun to broaden their horizons, there is much work to be done. To begin, HCI needs to understand and analyze the wider set of issues that are now at play, most notably Human values, including the moral and ethical aspects of designing technologies for new domains. The kinds of Interactions we are designing for are beginning to have far reaching consequences for people beyond the immediate Actions they are engaged in. For example, designing a Mobile communication device that makes visible to others in the vicinity a person‟s interests and dislikes may also enable anyone else in the street and beyond to permanently track, record and „see‟ what that person is doing on their Device. What we make visible and what we keep hidden at an interface, how that is accessed and how it is represented to others, will be affected by and affect, in turn, the social behaviors, norms, and practices that are considered ethical and acceptable.
Within the ES algorithm, any variable incorporated into the system state matrix X f can be corrected by assimilating measurement data if a spatial correlation exists between these variables and the data (van Leeuwen, 2001). In Eq. (1), since the geomechanical parameters P dictate the behavior of the model response 8, all uncertain parameters used in the fore- cast step can be included into the system state matrix X f , and conditioned by land surface movements in Eq. (3). This conditioning may provide updates for the geomechanical pa- rameters P that should approach those of the rock formation. Compared to other techniques for characterizing subsurface systems, the ES algorithm is quite attractive because of its low computational burden and the ability to run entirely inde- pendent of the simulation model (Bailey and Baù, 2010a, b).
Currently in the United Kingdom (UK), the highest in- cidence of TB is amongst 15–44 year olds, representing nearly 60 % of all cases and those over the age of 65 years only accounted for 14 % . Interestingly, the majority of the younger cases are in non-UK born individuals, most likely due to high immigration rates in younger people from TB endemic areas, confounding our percep- tion of TB risk in the elderly population. Even in the UK, there is a comparatively high incidence of TB in UK born individuals, greater than 75 years old . Birth co- hort effects, such as higher childhood or early adulthood TB transmission rates amongst the current elderly may partly explain these observations  as it is has long been presumed that active TB in the elderly arises from reacti- vation of LTBI as protective immunity wanes [33–35].
7. See, e.g., Bartlett v. Strickland, 556 U.S. 1, 25 (2009) (plurality opinion) (“Still, racial discrimination and racially polarized voting are not ancient history. Much remains to be done to ensure that citizens of all races have equal opportunity to share and participate in our democratic processes and traditions; and §2 must be interpreted to ensure that continued progress.”); cf. Tex. Dep’t of Hous. & Cmty. Affairs v. Inclusive Cmtys. Project, Inc., 135 S. Ct. 2507, 2515, 2521-22, 2525 (2015) (recognizing the persistence of both “vestiges” of residential segregation and current discriminatory practices, and recognizing a role for appropriately nuanced race-conscious decision-making in the housing context); Parents Involved in Cmty. Schs. v. Seattle Sch. Dist. No. 1, 551 U.S. 701, 787-89 (2007) (Kennedy, J., concurring in part and concurring in the judgment) (recognizing a role for appropriately nuanced race-conscious decision-making in the educational context); Marcia Coyle, Justice Ginsburg Laments ‘Real Racial Problem’ in U.S., N AT ’ L L.J. (Aug. 22, 2014), http://www.nationallawjournal.com/id=1202667692557/ Justice-Ginsburg-Laments-Real-Racial-Problem-in-US (recognizing persistence of racial discrimination and government power to take appropriate countermeasures).
politiques, no. 69, 2013. The research was conducted in partnership with L’R des centres de femmes du Québec (L’R) and the Groupe interdisciplinaire de recherche sur l’antiféminisme (GIRAF), and was supported by a grant from the Service aux collectivités (SAC) de l’Université du Québec à Montréal. The author acknowledges the insightful comments of Mélissa Blais, Ruth Mann, Geneviève Pagé and anonymous reviewers, as well as Odile Boisclair (from L’R) and Lyne Kurtzman (from the SAC). I also thank Mélissa Blais and Stéphanie Mayer for their work on the interview guide and for conducting many interviews; Émilie Beauchesne and Marie‐Ève Campbell‐Finet for their work on the data in their capacity as research assistants; Valérie Lootvoet, from the Université des femmes in Bruxelles, and Pierrette Pape, from the European Women’s Lobby, who facilitated the field research in Belgium; and Lazer Lederhendler, for the English translation (with thanks to the Réseau québécois d'études féministes [RéQEF] for its financial support).
Dusk seeps into the back yard, collecting in the twinned canopy of the sugar maple and the cherry, pooling in the grass beneath the trees, staining the side of the two-story garage we’d dubbed the Fort, slowly, gradually, almost imperceptibly bedding the wild rhubarb below in its inky darkness. The sky is still too bright for the stars to emerge. Easton and I, both ten, stand at opposite ends of the mowed expanse and thread a Frisbee through the space between us. It sails out, solid and vivid as the moon, from his right hand to my left. Beneath it my dog Spot bounds happily, her eager bark and hoarse breath the only sounds apart from our occasional laughter or, beyond, the slam of a door or distant passing of a car. And then—this is how I remember it, though it’s been more than twenty years—darkness storms the yard in earnest and it grows too dim to see and I am the one who finally fumbles the catch, and when Spot retrieves it, grips it in her teeth, I slip to the grass to wrestle it from her. I lie back. Fireflies are brightening. In time the dark deepens enough for the first stars to show, and I shift to an elbow and push myself up.
particular the train-by-appending ones which have a lower terminology use rate. When examin- ing the errors of the methods we observe cases in which constrained decoding alters the transla- tion to accommodate a term even if a variation of that term is already in the translation as in the festzunehmen/Festnahme example of Table 3 (and sometimes even if the identical term is already used). A closer look at previous constrained de- coding literature shows that most of the evalua- tions are performed differently than in this paper: The data sets contain only sentences for which the reference contains the term and also the baseline fails to produce it. This is an ideal setting which we believe to mimic few, if any, real world appli- cations.
We consider a stylized dynamic pricing model in which a monopolist prices a product to a Sequence of customers, who independently make purchasing decisions based on the price off erred according to a log it choice model. The parameters of the log it model are unknown to the seller, whose objective is to determine a pricing policy that minimizes the regret, which is the expected difference between the seller's revenue and the revenue of a clairvoyant seller who knows the values of the parameters in advance. When there is a single unknown parameter, we show that the T-period regret is (log T), by establishing an (log T) lower bound on the regret under an arbitrary policy, and presenting a pricing policy based on maximum likelihood estimates that achieves a matching upper bound. For the case of two unknown parameters, we prove that the optimal regret is (p T). Numerical experiments show that our policies perform well against several competing strategies.
2 Different aspects of the definition and ONS wellbeing measurement framework will be relevant to different policy areas and services and to different evidence programmes. Across the centre as a whole, this definition and measurement framework will be an important starting point. For all evidence programmes, the definition and measures of personal wellbeing (also commonly referred to as subjective wellbeing) will form the basis of our approach to comparing evidence across different areas. All of our evidence reviews will look for evidence of how interventions and actions affect subjective wellbeing, no matter how it is measured. We will also look for evidence of wellbeing in other ways, including objective measures and measures that are relevant to specific topics (e.g. job satisfaction at work).
Global refugee problem is not a new phenomenon. Both the Nazi Holocaust and World War II resulted in serious refugee situations in the western world that led to need to come up with framework to address the problem. The UN Refugee Convention of 1951 became the main instrument that provided international refugee law that provides for among other things, the legal definition of a refugee, the protection of refugees as well as the durable solutions. Protection of refugees essentially became the responsibility of the international community. In Africa's context, the 1951 Convention and its 1967 protocol, as well as the Organization of Africa's Unity (OAU) Refugee Convention of 1967 are instrumental in providing the legal framework under which the refugee situations are handled. Kenya started hosting refugees in the 1960s primarily from Sudan. In early 1970s many refugees from Uganda arrived in Kenya following the Idi Amin's misrule there. However, the major influxes of refugees into Kenya occurred in the early 1990s following violent conflicts in a number of countries within the Horn of Africa and Africa’s Great Lakes Region. These included Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Zaire (DRC) and Rwanda. This paper examines the extent to which Kenya implements international refugee law in the light of security concerns that are linked to refugeeism. The main questions the paper attempts to answer are, to what extent does Kenya implement international refugee law? To what extent are the durable solutions applied? The paper argues that states implement international refugee law only to the extent to which the refugee question does not raise serious security concerns.
should be especially vigilant when the rights and interests of vulner- able groups are at stake. This does not mean, however, that extraor- dinary judicial intervention is inappropriate in all other circum- stances. Factors other than the identities of the litigants may cry out for special judicial action, and certainly if there were such a case, Bush v. Gore would clearly have to be at the top of anyone’s list. Consider just some of the amazing confluence of events that sur- rounded the case. The presidential election depended on the twenty- five electoral votes of the state of Florida. In the initial vote count in Florida, Bush led Gore by 1,784 votes out of a total of over six mil- lion. 55 Outside of Florida, Gore led in electoral votes and had won the
Ameloblastic carcinoma, a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behaviour, dictate a more radical surgical approach than does a simple ameloblastoma. Clinically, it is more aggressive than most typical ameloblastomas with extensive local destruction, perforation of the cortical plate, extending into surrounding soft tissues, numerous recurrent lesions, and metastasis usually to cervical lymph nodes. Alternatively Ameloblastic carcinoma represents a malignant tumour that bears a histologic resemblance to an ameloblastoma. Here we present a case report of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 69year old male patient where a longstanding ameloblastoma of the mandible has turned into carcinoma.
Teachers were provided with a link to an online, anonymous survey via Qualtrics (an online survey software program). The survey contained 16 forced- choice questions, and also 5 open-choice questions where their thoughts could be included and/or elaborated on (see Appendix A). The survey came in two parts. The first few questions collected demographic data and information on experience with APD and confidence to teach students with APD. The second part contained questions to be answered after reading the educator guidebook on APD. This resource guidebook entitled “A Research-Based Educator’s Guide to Auditory Processing Disorder” was developed by the study’s author for the purposes of this research study. It contained evidence-based strategies for working with students with APD in the regular classroom (see Appendix B).
Carbohydrates dictate an enormous range of processes in biology but are intrinsically complex to study; (i) they are not templated, so genome data does not enable prediction of glycosylation; (ii) glycans on cell surfaces are always changing due to the action of enzymes; they are highly dynamic complicating their study; (iii) current multivalent systems are static and do not reproduce this dynamic presentation This communication presents a new concept to enable dynamic presentation of glycans on a nanoparticle surface as a mimic of the cell surface, using polymers to ‘gate’ access. This is one of the first examples of an (accessible) tool to probe dynamic function of carbohydrates and will be translatable to a range of more complex sugars to probe their function or into advanced biosensors.