This means that 5.6 N of the 6.9 N of average standing VCF REST is the inferiorly directed force of intra-abdominal pressure on the anterior blade. The remaining 1.3 N is due to the passive forces of tissue stretch and the presence of the pubic symphysis. The superiorly directly force from the pelvic ﬂoor muscles is now 6.9 N. The weak correlation between the diﬀerence in supine and standing VCF REST and bladder pressure can be explained by interindividual variability in the recruitment and tone of the abdominal and pelvic ﬂoor muscles. However, the fact that VCF AUG was 3 to 4 N in the supine and standingpositions suggests that the maximal volitional increase in the pelvic muscle force elevating the speculum is independent of body orienta- tion and that the instrumented speculum captures the increase of VCF in the sagittal plane.
Arthritis affects millions of people all throughout the world every year. All patients suffer from knee flexion and extension problems during arthritis. For the first time, in this paper, it is reported that both flexion and extension on supine, prone and standingpositions in arthritis patients, of all ages and sexes, can be made normal with topical applications of phytoformulations by scientific device and in a methodical way.
Thisstudyaimtocompare Blood Pressure (BP) values obtained sitting, talking, supine, and standing positions.The study was planned in a comparative and descriptive design and conducted on 357 hypertensive patients in the cardiology department at a private health center in Istanbul in 2016.The data were collected with a patient identification form and BP Measurements form. BP measurement was done with aneroid sphygmomanometer. Measurements were done on the the patients left and right arms, respectively, sitting, talking, supine and standing position.The blood pressure measurement process lasted about 30 minutes in each patient. The obtained data were analyzed with percentages, repeated measures (in order to determine from which measurement the difference originated) ANOVA and Bonferroni tests.The mean of the sitting position BP, talking and standing SBP was significantly lower than average (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between talking and standing SBP averages (p>0.05). Standing DBP, mean, talking, sitting and supine measured diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher than average (p<0.05). Talking and sitting diastolic BP measured was no significant difference between the averages (p> 0.05).At the end of the study, we concluded that sitting is the most reliable position for the measurement of BP.
Comparing the responses from the slow and fast stim- uli, we found that the fast rising speed of the pressure plate increased the EMG values but with the possibility of inducing ankle perturbation. Among the stimulation parameters, the stimulation location was not found to affect the activated muscle. Depending on the subject, the foot stimulation activated one or both of the lower leg muscles studied, regardless of whether the heel or the forefoot was stimulated. The muscle activity had a small increase in response to an increase in the force amplitude, but had a significant increase in response to an increased force application rate. Fast stimuli pro- duced double-burst reflexes with additional ankle pertur- bations (Figure 8(b)), which agrees with a previous description of withdrawal reflexes . As our study was not designed to investigate the reflex patterns in re- sponse to foot sole stimulation, our experiment was not arranged to use the platform to target specific types of receptors. The shoe platform might stimulate the cuta- neous mechanoreceptors by dynamic forces, resulting in cutaneous reflexes. The movement of the pressure plate changed the ankle angle, which might bring a stretch re- flex. Fast stimuli might also produce withdrawal reflexes. The origin of the reflexes obtained here was not the focus of this study and requires further investigation. From this study we obtained the parameters which avoid the strong reflexes, which meets the aim of our study.
The force rising time was found to be an important issue to consider during simulation of the ground reaction force. The rising time of the ground pressure ranges from 0.08 s to 0.16 s during overground walking at normal cadence . When the walking speed slowed to 75% of normal cadence, the rising time prolonged to about 0.25 s . In our study, we found that stimulation force with a rising time of 0.05 s produced strong reflexes. To prevent this, we prolonged the rising time to 0.2 s, because i) the pneumatic insole  took about 0.2 s for simulation of ground force, which serves as a reference parameter for our study; ii) we aimed to simulate normal and slow walking, therefore we adopted a rising time in the middle of the range (0.08- 0.25 s) of the actual rising time during walking at various speed. To ensure test accuracy, the control valve was adjusted to the target position of 0.2 s and kept at this level during the whole test. A digital valve to accurately control the force rising time is required so that stimulation with other rising times, such as 0.1 s, can be investigated.
position. By plotting this increase in PCA on the y axis in a coordinate system vs. increase in pulse rate, PCA was divided into two components: one of these depended on the rise in pulse rate on standing (called CAH) and the other corresponded to the intercept on the y axis where rise in pulse rate equals zero (CAP).
In our robotic system, the ability to perform the tasks was limited by the degree of freedom (DOF). DOF referred to the number of possible movements that could be made at a joint. The movements could either be translational or rotational. For complete freedom of movement, 6 DOFs are required. If we apply this principle to the human upper limb, the elbow has 1 rotational DOF, the elbow and wrist have 3 rotational DOFs, and the palm is considered to have 7 DOFs as a result of the sum of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. With 7 DOFs, therefore, better precision can be obtained. Four DOFs would limit the surgeon’s ability (10). One study was done comparing 4-DOF and 6-DOF robots performing some endoscopic procedures. The study revealed that the time taken and error rate to perform the procedures by 6-DOF robot were significantly less as compared with the 4-DOF robot (11). Our robot has 4 DOFs. Because of this fact, the robot could only perform some limited movements. The robotic could only make rotational motions (joints 1, 2, and 4) and vertical translational movements (joint 3). To make a burr hole using a perforator, the perforator has to be perpendicular to the surface. Therefore, with our present system, the robotic arm can only perform bone drilling if the arm is perpendicular to the skull surface (supine, prone, and some sitting positions). The wide angulation of the skull in the lateral position did not allow for the proper drilling of the bone. Similarly, with the endoscopic manoeuvre, the
Pulmonary rehabilitation is one of the cornerstones in modern care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmo- nary disease (COPD) and emphysema, although it has no direct effect on airflow limitation . However, pul- monary rehabilitation diminishes the systemic effects and co-morbidities of the disease and does so highly ef- fectively as well as cost-effectively . One of the consequences of COPD and emphysema is hyperinflation of the lungs, which means that the resting volume or forced vital capacity, FRC is increased and can exceed tidal volume . Dynamic hyperinflation is the phenomenon when expiration is slowed and interrupted by the next inspiratory effort, i.e. the situation where tidal inspiration begins before expiration is completed  . The in- creased lung volume at rest means that the thorax is expanded from normal resting position and consequently less expansion is available for inspiration. During physical exertion, respiratory frequency increases and the time for emptying the lungs diminishes leading to even more hyperinflation and increased FRC. Dynamic hyperinfla- tion can be diminished by reduction of respiratory rate resulting from exercise training and other treatments such as oxygen, pharmacotherapy, and breathing retraining. This, in turn, unloads the respiration and reduces the sensation of dyspnea .
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area near our medical college hospital. A primary and middle school in that area was selected for our study. A total of 500 children in the age group of 4 -14 years were included in our study. Demographic profile was recorded for all children. Height, weight and BMI were measured. Blood pressure measurement was done by using the auscultation method and with appropriate sized blood pressure cuff. Results: The blood pressure shows a gradual increase as the age of the study subjects increases and there was no statistically significant difference in the blood pressure between males and females (p>0.05). Supine posture shows a comparatively higher systolic pressure and a lower diastolic pressure reading than the sitting and standing posture. The mean difference in systolic blood pressure between sitting and supine posture was less than the mean difference between sitting and standing and the mean difference between supine and standing, which was found to be very high and a similar type of result was also shown in the diastolic blood pressure and this mean difference between the postures was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05).
Out of 28 prospectively selected patients 7 were ex- cluded because of insufficient quality of radiographic images of which 4 due to covering of radiographic landmarks caused by the gonadal protection shield, 2 due to absent AP radiographs and 1 due to excessive movement whilst making the radiograph. Twenty-one patients, of which 10 were female (47.6%) were included with a mean age of 9.25 years. Eleven patients presented with a hemiplegia, 5 with diplegia and 5 with triplegia. Patients were classified according to the GMFCS as level I in five patients, level II in 13 patients and level III in three patients (Table 1). Mean MP was 14.4% (SD ±10%) in 42 hips assessed on EOS® standing full-leg radio- graphs compared to an identical 14.4% (SD ±9%) in 42 hips on supine pelvic radiographs. The absolute differ- ences between measurements of the same hip ranged between − 8 and 6% with an absolute mean of 0% (SD ±3.5%). This was not statistically significant ac- cording to a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p = 0.99). Post-hoc power analysis was impossible given the ab- solute mean difference and therefore effect size of 0%. To measure the agreement between both measure- ments we plotted all data into a Bland and Altman plot to visualize measurements of each hip according to the difference and mean between an upper and lower limit of agreement (overall mean difference ± 1.96 x SD) . No measured differences were situ- ated outside the limits of agreement without propor- tional bias (p = 0.098) between points above and underneath the mean difference line (Fig. 4).
patients, headache in 13 patients and palpitation was found in 9 patients. In both fresh and treated cases, three consecutive blood pressure readings were taken in supine, sitting and standing posture to define initial BP. There was difference between Blood pressure readings taken in different positions such as supine, sitting and standing posture. The systolic Blood pressure was high in supine and sitting position, when compared to standing, while the diastolic pressure was high in standing position, when compared to supine, although in few patients the vice-versa was also observed. The difference in pressure between supine and standing was within 5mm Hg in fresh cases, where as in treated and chronic cases the difference was more than 10mm Hg. Overall, fresh cases were observed with frequent measurement of blood pressure and then intervention was started. In treated cases the earlier medication was withdrawn gradually and completely, after complete withdrawal of earlier treatment flush out period of 7 days was given and then intervention was started.
olar-septal membrane and consolidation. In addition, many areas appeared uninjured or minimally affected (Figure 1b). The differences between the supine and prone positions were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the overall histological findings for each animal were consistent in all lung areas – upper, middle and lower, ventral and dorsal (Table 3). When alveolar hemorrhage was considered alone, however, there was a significant difference between ventral and dorsal samples in animals placed in the supine position. In these ani- mals the mean score for alveolar hemorrhage was 4.8 ± 0.84 in the ventral areas and was 2.6 ± 0.55 in the dorsal areas of both lungs (P < 0.01). This difference was not evident in ani- mals placed in the prone position.
Despite of a lot of research work in the last few decades, adequate and valid information still lack in our knowledge about migration. One of this information in the idea on the moves a person might be expected to make during his life time. Initially, Jaffe (1960) has explained the expectancy table to find out the expectancy of various demographic events. Many studies have been explained about expectancy table such as expectancy of a person being marrying or remaining single (Grabill, 1945), the expectancy of a person being admitted to a mental hospital (Ogburn and Winston, 1928-29), the expectancy table for school going population with dropout rate (Stockwell and Nam, 1963). Long (1970) had measured the volume of geographical mobility within countries in a way that would permit comparisons between countries using the data of Census of United States. Wolfbein (1949) explained the average number of years a person can expect to be part of the work force with the help of working force tables. One important example of an expectancy table is net reproduction rates, which shows the probability of a birth occurring to a *Corresponding author: Raj Narayan,
Targeting accuracy of hindlegs and middle legs is different By comparing the targeting accuracy of the hindlegs towards the middle legs with the targeting accuracy of the middle legs towards the front legs, we showed that the precision has a segment-specific quality, and that targeting of the hindleg was distinctly more accurate than targeting of the middle leg. In fact, when the front leg is standing and the middle leg performs its first step of the walking sequence, this step forwards can hardly be called targeted at all (see Results). This is a novel result because none of the previous studies investigating the targeting behavior of stick insects (e.g. Cruse, 1979; Cruse et al., 1984; Dean, 1984; Dean and Wendler, 1983) measured the accuracy of the middle leg foot placement towards its ipsilateral front leg to compare it with the targeting accuracy of the hindleg, although middle leg targeting was reported by Cruse et al. as unpublished observations (Cruse et al., 1995). In earlier studies, it was assumed from comparing distances between average touchdown and lift-off positions of neighboring legs (Cruse, 1976) that the hindlegs showed better targeting than the middle legs (Cruse, 1979). With our results we can now confirm this to be the case. It is, however, interesting that targeting perpendicular to the body axis in both legs was virtually non-existent in our study, unlike in earlier studies. However, in these previous studies, the targeting hindleg was either standing (Cruse, 1979; Cruse et al., 1984) or moving (Dean and Wendler, 1983; Dean, 1984) along a treadwheel. The possibility cannot be excluded that under these conditions the treadwheel may have a predefining influence on leg movement perpendicular to the body axis. In addition, the position analyses were performed between the touchdown position of the hindleg and the position of the middle leg at the same time, which, as will be discussed below, may not be the best choice for the moving animal
variability were found for vestibular heading perception (Figure 3B, C). This suggests that the subjects were relatively uncertain when giving their estimates (i.e., variable error was large relative to constant error). As a consequence, small variations in the experimental design might affect the biases measured. Our study used a HMD for presenting the response dial. This adds inertia to the head that must be stabilized by neck muscle commands, which have been recently shown to impact perception of linear translation (Crane, 2014b). This stabilization behavior could lead to a reversal in the direction of the observed biases relative to prior research. Additionally, the amount of stabilization will obviously differ between upright and supinepositions, contributing to differences in the observed biases depending on body orientation. Indeed, the pattern of biases observed in the supine orientation, in which HMD inertia would play less of a role, are more similar to biases reported previously for the transverse plane in upright subjects (i.e., overesti- mation of oblique heading angles). Our response dial did not include tick marks for various angles as in Cuturi and MacNeilage (2013), and the written heading estimates show slight biases toward straight ahead (Figure 4A). Control data (not shown) suggest that the absence of tick marks may have also contributed slightly to observing biases toward rather than away from straight ahead in the upright, transverse condition.
neurosurgical patients requiring SCV catheterization. Seventeen patients in stage I will be placed in supine, 20° ipsilateral tilt, and 20° contralateral tilt positions in random order. The right csSCV will be measured using ultrasonography at each position. In stage II, 220 patients will be randomly assigned to the ipsilateral tilt group ( n = 110) and supine group ( n = 110) according to the position for right SCV catheterization. Data on catheterization-related characteristics and complications will be collected during and after catheterization. The primary outcome measures are the right csSCV for stage I and primary venipuncture success rate for stage II. The secondary outcome measures for stage II are time to venipuncture, total catheterization time, first-pass success rate, and complications, such as arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax, air embolism, and catheter misplacement.
There is a significant effect of different body positions on peak expiratory flow rate in ly. According to the study, Standing is the best position in terms of PEFR following by Sitting, Semi fowler’s and then Supine which has least PEFR value. It can also be concluded that forced expiratory maneuvers can be best performed in standing position in young old elderly individuals. It was also found that the more the upright position, better is the PEFR value.
Our prospective database of 1952 consecutive women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer and treated surgically by our group between August 1994 and December 2018 was analyzed with respect to inclusion criteria identical to those in LACC. A total of 389 patients were identified and all underwent combined laparo- scopic-vaginal radical hysterectomy with sentinel mapping and lymphadenectomy or complete pelvic lymphadenectomy (within Uterus III study, Aptima study, laparoscopic assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) study or ongoing SENTIX trial) at the University of Jena (1994–2004), Charité University Berlin Campus Mitte and Campus Benjamin Franklin (2004–2013), University of Cologne, and Asklepios Clinic Hamburg (2014–2018). Selection bias is excluded since not a single patient with early stage disease underwent open surgery.
Amplification of endogenous cholinergic activity—produced by the intravenous injection of edrophonium, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which does not enter the central nervous system, into normal subjects—resulted in significant and briefly sustained increments in the plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (153±15−234±29 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and