The traditional planar metallic antenna has several problems such as loss, low bandwidth, and poor radiation performance, moreover, it requires more power to operate at high frequency band (Balans, 2012). Actually, the limitations caused by a metal antenna are minimized by the use of graphene (Castro Neto, Guinea, Peres, Novoselov, & Geim, 2009; Geim & Novoselov, 2009). Grapheme presents an innovative activity since it has a unique structure where the electrons are capable of moving with minimal resistance. This allows electron motion much faster speed than metal, which proposes to implement graphene for satelliteapplications.
A microstrip line fed dual frequency microstrip patchantenna has been designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio software. This antenna resonate for WLAN/WiMax band, the frequency band of 5.15 GHz – 5.82 GHz covering 5.2 GHz and 5.8 GHz WLAN communication standard and 5.5 GHz WiMax standard and the frequency band 6 GHz to 7 GHz covering satellite standard. The simulated impedance bandwidth at the 5.5GHz band is 1.24 GHz with the corresponding value of return loss as -27.26 dB which is enough for matching and frequency is closed enough to the specified frequency band feasible for WiMax/WLAN application. The simulated impedance bandwidth at the 6.4 GHz band is 1.04 GHz with the corresponding value of return loss as -20.77 dB which is enough for matching and frequency is closed enough to the specified frequency band feasible for Satellite application. This return loss value i.e. -27.26 dB and -20.77dB suggests that there is good impedance matching at the frequency point below the -10 dB region. An omni-directional radiation pattern result has been obtained which seems to be adequate for the envisaged applications. This antenna has directivity of 5.586 dBi at 5.5 GHz and 5.983dBi at 6.4 GHz of the wireless communication (WiMax/WLAN and Satellite respectively). But this antenna has a low gain of 4.262 dB at 5.5 GHz frequency band and 4.668 dB at 6.4 GHz of the wireless communication (WiMax/WLAN and Satellite respectively) with a good impedance matching of 49.68 ohm.
It is well known that one of the important electrical devices, which receives and/or transmits information through space is antenna. Recently, there has been increasing interest for multiband, omnidirectional antennas characterized by miniaturized size and simple realization to meet the requirements needed by modern standard wireless communication systems. These communication standards are accessed daily by people over the world, such as Radio Frequency Identiﬁcations (RFID), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Bluetooth-enabled devices, satellite communications, the ﬁfth-generation (5G) cellular networks, and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). . Thus, multiband antenna should cover the desired bands allocated for these standards, 915 MHz (860–960 MHz), 2.45 GHz (2.4–2.5 GHz), 5.8 GHz (5.725–5.875 GHz) for RFID and WLAN bands, 3.5 GHz (3.4–3.6 GHz) for 5G and WiMAX band, etc.
The software used for simulation is ADS (Advanced Design System 2008) software. It affords an integrated design environment to designers of RF electronic products such as mobile phones, optical communication, wireless networks such as wireless radios, satellite systems, RADAR and high-speed data links. Advanced design software supports compact design process along with frequency domain and time domain analysis. It’s widely used in design of wireless, RADAR and satelliteapplications. It is highly upgradable and flexible for designing an antenna.
Several papers have been published on nature inspired antenna that has Fibonacci spiral or Fibonacci sequence. A nature inspired antenna based on oak tree shape is designed and the aim of the antenna is to improve the gain. The simulated and measured array of antenna is designed for 2.4GHz band which is called medical band . With probe feeding a square shape spiral microstrip patchantenna is designed and used for satellite communication, different dielectric constant values and thicknesses are used for variations in gain and return loss results . An RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Technology) antenna based on Fibonacci sequence is designed by differential algorithm (DE). The concept of designing is developed in C++ and CST software. The RFID antenna center frequency is 60GHz and obtained gain is 8dB . A paper based on three design concepts; basic CDRA, half CDRA and Fibonacci CDRA (where CDRA means cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna) is presented. In this paper Fibonacci series is used for designing upto 13 number and the antenna used in C, X, Ku band for weather monitoring, satellite communication and amateur radio applications . For investigation the design of Fibonacci sequence by Taguchi method on spiral micro-channel is presented . Snail shell structure based two designs are presented with variation in width. In which EWFS design has equal width and IWFS design has increasing width and used for energy harvesting application .
structure, shunt inductance has been produced by a meandered line inductor which connects the partial ground plane and virtual ground plane. In this structure, a radial stub acts as virtual ground plane as it oﬀers high capacitance and is shorted at high frequency. The gap between partial ground plane and virtual ground plane is associated with right handed capacitance C R . This capacitance also consists of voltage gradient between patch and partial ground plane which can be characterized by C C and is shown in Figure 1(d).
Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Michielssen, “ Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms,” New York, NY: Wiley, 1999. R. E. Hodges, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “An iterative current-based hybrid method for complex structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 45, pp. 265–276, 1997. S. Rawat, and K..K. Sharma, “ A compact broadband microstrip patchantenna with defected ground structure for C-bandapplications,” Central European Journal of Engineering, Springer, 2014, 287-292.  I. Surjati, Y. KN, Increasing Bandwidth Dual Frequency Triangular Micro-strip antenna for Wi-Max application. Internal Journal of Electrical & Computer Science, vol. 10(06)  I. Papapolymerous, R. F. Drayton, and L. P. B. Katehi, Microma chined patch antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 46, 1998, pp. 275–283.
Patch antennas are popular for their well-known attractive features, such as a low profile, light weight, and compatibility with monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Their main disadvantage is an intrinsic limitation in bandwidth, which is due to the resonant nature of the patch structure. On the other hand, modem communication systems, such as those for satellite links (GPS, vehicular, etc.), as well as emerging applications, such as wireless local networks (WLAN), often require antennas with compactness and low-cost, thus rendering planar technology useful, and sometimes unavoidable. Furthermore, thanks to their lightness, patch antennas are well suitable for systems to be mounted on airborne platforms, like synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and scatterometers. From these applications, a new motivation is given for research on innovative solutions that overcome the bandwidth limitations of patch antennas. In applications in which the increased bandwidth is needed for operating at two separate sub-bands, a valid alternative to the broadening of total bandwidth is represented by dual-frequency patch antennas. Indeed, the optimal antenna for a specific application is one that ensures the matching of the bandwidth of the transmitted and/or the received signal. Dual-frequency antennas exhibit a dual-resonant behaviour in a single radiating structure. Despite the convenience that they may provide in terms of space and cost, little attention has been given to dual-frequency patch antennas. This is probably due to the relative complexity of the feeding network which is required, in particular for array applications.
A compact microstrip antenna such as VSAT systems is one of the most suitable applications to support high mobility satellite communication devices. Ku-band (12-18 GHz) is one of the most preferred choices in VSAT systems.VSAT can be adopted for satellite television broadcast and satellite television.Moreover,VSAT is a one of the best emergency communication backup system during disasters.- The antenna devices with single radiator that can transmit and receive multiple frequency bands become more efficient and desirable for commercial activities. In this paper, four U shaped slots have ccut in four sides of the patchantenna in order to make the patch aantenna ddual with good return losss.Length of the patch is varied in order to make to make antenna resonate desired frequencies.The ku (12-18GHz) band is used in VSAT which covers all applications of direct and broadcast communication .The proposed antenna gives dual frequency operation which covers the range of Ku band without interference of any other band.
However, the THz regime is one of the ongoing challenges facing electronic and photonic materials and device engineering . The solution to these developments is the exploration of the characteristics of new materials and devices at high frequencies. In search of eﬃcient solutions to these problems, graphene appears as an excellent candidate for the implementation of new devices. Due to its unique properties at terahertz (THz) frequencies , graphene has attracted huge interests since it was successfully exfoliated in 2004 . One of the most interesting properties of this material is its ability to support transverse magnetic surface plasmonic modes with unique properties. Speciﬁcally, graphene plasmons possess more conﬁnement, low loss and good tunability via chemical or electrostatic gating at THz frequencies [11, 12]. It should be noted that, after the groundbreaking impact of graphene, the scientiﬁc community is actively exploring other two-dimensional semiconductors “beyond graphene”, such as phosphorene and Bi 2 Se 3 [13, 14], for their promising applications capabilities, ranging from
Abstract—This article presents the design, simulation and machining of a dual Orthomode Transducer for feeding antenna using waveguide technology. Linear orthogonal polarizations in common port are separated to single linear polarizations in other ports. This device is developed to work in K and Ka bands and could be exploited in satellite communications applications. Also, it is designed to provide good scattering parameters results experienced with simulation tools and real load laboratory measurement. The designed circuit exhibits important results with return losses less than 25 dB, insertion losses in theory of about 0.05 dB as well as a good isolation of 40 dB in both frequency bands of interest (19.4 GHz–21.8 GHz) and (27 GHz–32 GHz).
In this paper, antenna with two rectangular patches and a T- shaped folded patch is designed, optimized, and simulated. The antenna exhibits two bands resonate at 28.24 GHz and 64.76 GHz with bandwidths of 1.44 GHz (5.1%), and 39.24 GHz (60.6%) respectively. The lower band (Ka-band) is suitable for LMDS while the upper band (V-band) with wideband is suitable for WiGig. The omnidirectional radiation pattern is obtained using partial ground plane with maximum directivities of 2.28 dBi and 3.414 dBi at the two bands respectively. The total efficiency along the entire lower and upper bands exceeds 85% which can be used in the fifth generation applications.
Micro Strip Antenna Array has been proposed with high efficiency for wireless communication. Micro strip antenna arrays are widely used in various applications like wireless communication system, satellite communication, Radar systems, Global positioning systems, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMax), Medicinal applications of patch . Communication plays an important role in the worldwide society now days and the communication systems are rapidly switching from “wired to wireless”.Wireless technology provides less expensive alternative and a flexible way for communication. Antenna is one of the important elements of the wireless communications systems. Thus, antenna design has become one of the most active fields in the communication studies. Antenna is a radiating element which radiate electromagnetic energy uniformly in Omni direction or finally in some systems for point to point communication purpose in which increased gain and reduced wave interference is required. Antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. One of the type of antenna is the Micro strip patchantenna. Microstrip antennas have several advantages over conventional microwave antenna and therefore are widely used in many practical applications .Microstrip patches are one of the most versatile, conformal and easy to fabricate antennas.The recent growth in the ambit of modern wireless communication has the increased demand of multiband antennas that can satisfy the requirements pertaining to Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN).The development of dualbandantenna that can cover the 5.25 GHZ (5.15-5.85GHZ) band and 9.25 GHZ (9-9.5 GHZ) band for IEEE802.11a and IEEE802.11g standards respectively, are thus highly desirable .
The length of the upper and lower cross shaped S-band patches are tuned to slightly offset frequencies. This gives a multi resonant return-loss frequency response, which results in a wider impedance bandwidth. For the X-bandpatchantenna elements, a good impedance match is achieved by cutting a capacitive rectangular slot on the patch around the feeding point.
Which is showing promising characteristics for WLAN, Wi-Max, and Satellite application at resonant frequencies of 5.5 GHz for WiMax, 5.2 GHz and 5.8 GHz for WLAN and 6-7 GHz for satellite application respectively. Garima et.al proposed that by increasing the size of diamond shaped slot effective radius of circle get decreases and patch current increases. So that, impedance bandwidth and gain of antenna get increases. Improved bandwidth is of 13.58% for C-band application . A.K.Arya et.al proposed different defected ground structures in detail. It has been observed that from single Skew-F shaped defect in ground plane,the frequency ratio is decreases by increasing the length of middle arm of F. It has been observed that good impedance matching is achieved by increasing the number of slots . The substrate material plays significant role determining the size and bandwidth of an antenna. By increasing the dielectric constant the size of antenna is decreases but lowers the bandwidth and efficiency of the antenna while decreasing the dielectric constant bandwidth increases but size of antenna is increase. Compact antenna is designed for WLAN operating in band of 2.4 and 5GHz. Various results are obtained by varying different dimensions of patch of microstrip antenna. Antenna is feed using microstrip- feeding technique. Different defected ground structures (DGS) have been developed analysed .
Abstract—In this paper a novel configuration of broadband multi slot antenna for C/X bands is presented and analyzed. By cutting two diamond slots in the middle of the rectangu- lar patch and three triangular slots in the right side of the patch, resonances can be created. Microstrip feed line is used in the down side region of the patch. Antenna character- istics were simulated using a finite element method (HFSS). According to simulations, the proposed multiple slot anten- nas can provide two separated impedance bandwidths of 970 MHz (about 11.96% centred at 8.11 GHz band) and 890 MHz (about 9.76% centred at 9.42 GHz band) and stable radiation patterns, promising for satellite systems.
Future telecommunication systems would be accomplished of accommodating higher data rates than the recent systems because of the various user demands from different segments. There is several of antenna design that had been investigating and fabricated earlier. The categories of antenna basically depend on the frequency range or band, the location and the application that the user desires to apply. One of the favorite types is the microstrip patch. Microstrip patchantenna is used in many applications such as handphone, Wi-Fi connection, and satellite communication due to their light weight & low profile.
A Microstrip patchantenna is proposed 4.65 and 5.14 GHz (C-Band Frequencies). The C-band (4 to 8 GHz) is C- bandapplications such as Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) devices, Weather radar systems, Satellite communication and cordless telephones. This antenna will radiate both 4.65 GHz and 5.14 GHz simultaneously. Hereby, the proposed antenna design is capable of providing Return loss less than -25dB; Bandwidth around 150 MHz; Gain more than 2 dB and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is nearer to 1.This antenna will radiate both 4.65 GHz and 5.14 GHz simultaneously and it has the potential merits in less reflection co- efficient, wider bandwidth, acceptable Gain, Directivity and VSWR.
DualBand Miccrostrip Patchantenna at X and Ku band has been successfully designed. The optimized results shown in this paper depict that designed antenna verifies all the necessary parameters for for faithful operation.The dimesions of substarte affects the frequency response of antenna after doing finite no. of simulation antenna gives approximate -28 dB return loss at 9.1 Ghz frequency band and -24 dB return loss at 14 GHz band.Shape and dimesions of the slots improve the return loss and radiation pattern of the designed antenna.The designed dualbandantenna has ommodirectional radiation pattern at X and Ku bands with 4.6 dB and 4.9 gain.From Smith chart and VSWR graphs it is clear that patchantenna is perfectly matched with characteristic impedance.The proposed microstrip patchantenna has 1.2 Ghz and 833 Mhz bandwidth at X and Ku bands respectively.As ku band has lower bandwidth than X band,in future work bandwidth of ku band can be improved further by applying defected ground structure.The designed dualbandantenna can be used for satellite and radar applications.
In this paper, a dual-band microstrip patch array antenna for both the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) systems is developed. Design simulation and optimization processes are carried out with the aid of the Advanced Design System (ADS) electromagnetic simula- tor that using the full-wave Method of Moment (MoM) numerical technique . Rectangular microstrip patchantenna constructed from Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) ink with electrical conductivity of 2.2 × 10 4 S/m and relative permittivity of 5-j1 is used as the conductor patch . The patch is deposited on Rogers substrate RT-Durid 5880 single substrate with (ε r = 2.2) and thickness of 62 mil. U-shape slot is used to provide the dual-band. The pro-