Top PDF Dual-wavelength photometer and fiber optic sensor probe

Dual wavelength photometer and fiber optic sensor probe

Dual-wavelength photometer and fiber optic sensor probe

In this particular embodiment, 50 particular light source utilized, light intensity readings are produced at each of the respective wavelengths of reference 340 detector receives the wid[r]

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Examination of Adulteration of Edible Oils at the Wavelength of 660nm using a U–Shaped Sensing Element Based Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sensor

Examination of Adulteration of Edible Oils at the Wavelength of 660nm using a U–Shaped Sensing Element Based Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sensor

ABSTRACT: Edible oils such as groundnut oil and coconut oil etc, play a vital role in a consumer applications. These oils are used as compulsory ingredient in almost all culinary items large scale in the major part of the world. Therefore the study of purity of these oils becomes essential in order to maintain good health and hygiene of the consumers across the world. A novel approach has been adopted to develop an advanced fiber optic sensor to study the adulteration of coconut and groundnut oils more accurately by using U–shaped glass element based extrinsic fiber optic sensor in the present work. A U–shaped glass rod having specific geometrical parameters is used as an extrinsic sensing probe, which is connected in between a source operating at the wavelength of 660nm and an optical power detector by using two PCS fibers of 200/230µm. For the study of adulteration of edible oils two cheap oils i.e., paraffin oil and palm oil have been selected and mixed at different ratios and are introduced into the sensing region one after the other. A gradual decrease in the optical output power has been observed in the output detector, when the mixtures with increased cheap oil introduced around the sensing element. Thus, a relationship can be formed between the powers observed at output to the amount of cheap oil mixed in pure oils. Calibrated curve can be drawn between power reaching at the output end of the sensor and refractive index of the mixtures of pure oils adulterated with cheap oils, which can be used to measure the unknown amount of cheap oil in pure edible oil at room temperature accuracy of 10 –5 .
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Development of Fiber-Optic Humidity Sensor Probe with Gelatin Cladding

Development of Fiber-Optic Humidity Sensor Probe with Gelatin Cladding

Development of Fiber-Optic Humidity Sensor Probe with Gelatin Cladding. Humidity sensor based on optical fiber with gelatin cladding has been developed. In this humidity sensor probe, the origin cladding of optical fiber is replaced by gelatin coating as humidity sensitive cladding. Testing of the optical fiber sensor probe was conducted by measuring of light intensity transmitted on the optical fiber probe for each variation of different humidity treatments. Response of the optical fiber sensor probe measured from 42%RH to 99%RH, the results show an optical transmission curve varied with relative humidity (RH). Optical transmission in the optical fiber probe increase with RH value at a specific wavelength range, that is from green to red spectrum bands (500 nm – 700 nm), where a significant variation from 600 nm to 650 nm in yellow to red spectrum bands. Wavelength where is a maximum intensity of optical transmission occurs at 610 nm. Therefore, the optical fiber humidity sensor probe could response humidity form 42%RH to 99%RH with the best response in humidity range of 60%RH to 72%RH that is have a good linearity and sensitivity.
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Refractometric Fiber Optic Sensor for Detecting Salinity of Water

Refractometric Fiber Optic Sensor for Detecting Salinity of Water

The salinity of water is detected using developed sensor probe and electronic components as shown in the Figure 5. This is the block diagram experimental setup used for measuring refractive index of a liquid in a chemical cell. It consists of light source LED with its driving circuit, photo-detector with signal conditioning circuit, sensor probe and chemical cell. The experiments are carried out for fixed distance between probe and reflector. Red LED is used for experiment having 673 nm wavelength. Photo detector is a phototransistor L14G3 along with the sens- ing resistor. The output is buffered and applied to differ- ential amplifier. Differential amplifier is used to amplify difference between detector output and the reference vol- tage. This reference voltage is meant for zero adjust of instrument. Non-inverting amplifier is used to further amplify the difference with adjustable gain. Solutions of
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Measurement of Film Thickness on a Curved Surface by Fiber Optic Probe

Measurement of Film Thickness on a Curved Surface by Fiber Optic Probe

smallest used has a pure silica core of 300 μm, a doped- silica cladding of 30 μm, a polyimide buffer of 40 μm and a numerical aperture of 0.22. The largest fiber has a pure silica core of 600 μm, a doped-silica cladding of 30 μm, a polyimide buffer of 25 μm, and a numerical aper- ture of 0.22. The most delicate part of the fibers is its end. When fibers are cut they produce a rough surface which is not good if one wants to make measurements with the fibers. Therefore the ends must be carefully polished. The polishing procedure employs the use of very fine ab- rasive paper starting from grade 800, to grade 2000 and finishing with grade 5000. The fiber sensor is compo- sed of two fibers inserted with epoxy resin in a stainless steel tube (1.3 mm diameter for the small fibers and 2.6 mm diameter for the large fibers). Polishing the fiber sensor must achieve good flatness and especially small roughness. It is desirable that roughness should be less than the wavelength of the visible light. For this reason abrasive diamond paste is used with grade 3 μm, 1 μm, 0.25 μm, 0.1 μm.
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Detection of NPK nutrients of soil using Fiber Optic Sensor

Detection of NPK nutrients of soil using Fiber Optic Sensor

Figure 3 shows the block diagram of NPK detection NPK sensor probe, colored light sources with driver circuits, detectors and signal conditioning circuits and display. The high brightness 5mm LED’s of different colors are used as light sources and is coupled with each peripheral t relatively narrow wavelength bands. They are also amenable to direct intensity modulation, so that a mechanical chopper is not necessary. The desire to use these devices in design of fluorescent sensors has therefore often been The laser diodes also can be used in place of LED’s however, because of the requirements of large drive current, required additional heat sinks are considered to be difficult to ing circuit of LED consists of uffers and a subtractor. The colored light passes through the aqueous solution NPK values of soil and strength gets solution and remaining gets reflected s collected by receiving fiber of and then converted to electrical signal using The sensor output is calibrated in terms of deficient component values as per the he electrical output of the the color of the solution. Further he signal conditioning circuit consists of buffers, inverting amplifier with variable gain and a subtractor for zero setting designed with opamp. Comparing current values obtained with the es of NPK deficient CD displays the name of the deficient component and the amount required in the soil. Thus user can select the fertilizers accordingly for dispensing in the soil.
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Commissioning and Evaluation of a Fiber-Optic Sensor System for Bridge Monitoring

Commissioning and Evaluation of a Fiber-Optic Sensor System for Bridge Monitoring

The use of fiber optic strain sensors for structural health monitoring is not, of course, new and considerable work has been published by some of the authors and others for work done under a range of field applications [1]–[15] over a considerable period. This paper was different in that, in cooperation with the owner of the bridge, specific loading tests were planned and carried out during a closure of the structure. The principal aim was to give confidence to Indian Railways that, as a relatively recent technology and being dependent on a completely different system of measurement from electrical resistance strain gage sensors, high quality measurements could be taken that were within the ranges expected (and hence a comparison with the outputs of electrical resistance strain gages was used). In addition, considerable care must be taken in the use of the sensors and the design of the experi- ments employing them to allow that confidence to be devel- oped and this paper shows the processes by which this was built up.
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The detection of sugar in honey by transmission fiber optic displacement sensor

The detection of sugar in honey by transmission fiber optic displacement sensor

Since the invention of laser in 1960’s, a great enthusiasm in optical system has motivated researchers to study the potential of fiber optics for data communications, sensing, and other applications (Fidanboylu and Efendioğlu, 2009). Moreover, the advances toward low-loss optical fiber in the 1970s stimulated further scientific advances, both in telecommunications and in optical fiber sensors. The phenomena had been leading many researches to focus on suitable design of fibers. Therefore, it's become a new thoughts aimed at using optical fibers to design sensing systems, which led to the fiber based sensing devices and components (Gholamzadeh and Nabovati, 2008).
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Characterization of fiber optic sensor for liquid refractive index monitoring

Characterization of fiber optic sensor for liquid refractive index monitoring

Recently, the measurement of liquid refractive index has attracted much attention due to its wide applications in basic research, biochemical analysis, environment and contamination assessments and chemical industry. Due to the correlation between the wavelength, concentration and temperature and the refractive index of a liquid, the optical methods can be apply to measure the changes in the liquid refractive index. The fiber optic technique based on Fresnel reflection is a very appropriate method since it’s very close to refractive index of medium interface.
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Fiber Optic Humidity Sensor Using a Novel Polymer Complex

Fiber Optic Humidity Sensor Using a Novel Polymer Complex

A simple fiber optic humidity sensor is fabricated based on novel polyelectrolyte complex film of the polymers, Chitosan and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose. A small portion of the cladding of the optical fiber is removed and is coated with the hydrogel polymer film. Coating is done using layer by layer technique. This portion is inserted into the region where the humidity has to be monitored. The sensor makes use of the intensity variation of guided light through the plastic optical fiber due to scattering and the phenomenon refractive index variation of the coated hydrogel film. The output power variation is found to be linear, and without hysteresis.
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Simulation of Signal Processing Scheme for Fiber Optic Rotationary Sensor

Simulation of Signal Processing Scheme for Fiber Optic Rotationary Sensor

When considered both the types, closed loop fiber-optic rotation sensors are generally more stable than open loop fiber- optic rotation sensors. Even closed loop fiber optic sensors can be implemented in a simpler way compared to the open loop fiber optic rotation sensor. So in order to overcome these problems, a modification of the harmonic division algorithm is to be developed with which open loop fiber optic rotation sensor is made more stable and likewise less difficult for execution than the first one. At the point when the simple sign is appropriately examined and quantized, the presentation of the calculation achieves that of fiber optic revolving sensors and the usage of this calculation should be possible by utilizing off-the-rack part, and henceforth does not require a coordinated optics circuit.
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Application Of Fiber Optic Sensor For Sodium Hypochlorite Concentration Detection

Application Of Fiber Optic Sensor For Sodium Hypochlorite Concentration Detection

Designed for future applications needs. Fiber optics is reasonable today, as gadgets costs fall and optical link valuing stays low. As a rule, fiber arrangements are less excessive than copper. As data transfer capacity requests increment quickly with mechanical advances, fiber will keep on playing an indispensable part in the long haul accomplishment of telecom.

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Fiber Optic Sensor For Olive Oil Concentration Measurement And Optimization Of Sensor Performance

Fiber Optic Sensor For Olive Oil Concentration Measurement And Optimization Of Sensor Performance

Acoustic sensor can be widely used in different measurement field of city system engineering such as sound pollution monitoring, or structural noise detection which can be employed for the evaluation of structure health. Comparing with electronic acoustic sensor, many advantages such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, long term monitoring and long transmission distance, make optical fiber acoustic sensor more competitive in extreme application environment than conventional methods. So far many optical fiber related acoustic sensing schemes have been reported such as fiber Bragg grating microphone or DFB fiber laser based hydrophone, and so on.
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Hydrocarbon concentration measurement by using fiber optic displacement sensor

Hydrocarbon concentration measurement by using fiber optic displacement sensor

4 ability, large core radius, and high numerical aperture thus allowing probe to receive a significant amount of the reflected or transmitted light from a target (Yasin et al., 2008; Yasin et al., 2010). Intensity based fiber optic sensor is made by using an apparatus to convert measured parameters into a force that bends the fiber and trigger attenuation of the signal (Fidanboylu and Efendioglu, 2009). Absorption and scattering of the target also cause attenuation of signal, thus it can be deduced that intensity based fiber optic sensor depending on signal undergoing some loss. Intensity of light is also modulated by reflectance or changing the medium through which the light is transmitted. On the contrary to other sensing principles, the light intensity modulation shows a simple sensing preparation with reduced developing and operating costs. Although optical fiber bending and coupling misalignments can result in signal attenuation and light intensity instability, intensity-modulated sensors compete well with other sensing schemes and provide equally accurate results (Polygerinos, Seneviratne, and Althoefer, 2011).This result can be achieved with the use of additional optical fibers as reference fibers that compensate for transmission losses, fiber misalignments, and fiber bending.
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Lessons learned in the use of fiber optic sensor for civil. structural monitoring

Lessons learned in the use of fiber optic sensor for civil. structural monitoring

Mechanical requirements : The measurement fiber has to be in mechanical contact with the host structure. All axial displacements have to be transferred from the host structure to the fiber. Creep effects have to be avoided since the final aim of the system is long-term measurements. It was found that using polyimide coated fibers and epoxy glues it was possible to obtain an excellent mechanical coupling between the fiber and the anchorage. The long-term solidity of the fibers has to be guaranteed by avoiding any induced brittleness of the fibers due to superficial micro-cracks. The fiber coating has to be removed only when strictly necessary and only on fiber sections that are not under permanent tension in the sensor. Extensive data is available on the long-term durability of optical fibers installed in telecommunication cables under small tensions. If the strain of the fiber does not exceed 0.5%, the fiber should have a typical life of more than 40 years before a failure is likely to occur. Thermal and mechanical fatigue can also decrease the life span of the fibers. We have successfully fatigue tested SOFO sensors for more than 18 millions cycles (corresponding to 40 years in a highway bridge) and with amplitudes of a few mm typical for concrete structures.
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A Special Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

A Special Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

removal of the load, e.g. passage of a vehicle wheel, the springs return to their original position bringing the fiber in the straight horizontal position. Third, by choosing springs with a proper spring constant, they can be designed to carry excessive loads and thus prevent the fiber from breaking. The top of the device was designed curved keeping in mind the following major practical benefits: the curve surface allows vehicles to pass over the device smoothly. For durability purpose, it is desirable that the device be placed underground. This will prevent the device from being removed by snow plowing machine and damaged by other elements. The curve design of the top surface makes it possible to place the sensor device underground with just a very small portion of the top exposed at the road surface level to sense the wheel load. Figure 8 shows the photograph of the laboratory fabricated device for the experimental testing.
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Strain Wave Acquisition by a Fiber Optic Coherent Sensor for Impact Monitoring

Strain Wave Acquisition by a Fiber Optic Coherent Sensor for Impact Monitoring

The interferometric approach is adopted in this study to acquire dynamic signals for active and passive impact monitoring in metallic structures. In particular, it exploits a novel sensing solution based on standard optical fibers associated to an innovative phase-diversity coherent detection scheme, which retrieves in a completely passive way the high-frequency phase information of received optical signals. The sensing fiber can be configured in different ways in order to meet the requirements of the specific monitoring application, usually as a tradeoff between sensitivity and the need for a local measure. As an example, as suggested by several works related to ultrasonic wave detection with FBG [15-17], an accurate detection of high frequency signals reasonably requires a relatively short gauge length, which, in turn, can limit the sensitivity of the sensor itself. In this work, the sensing fiber is arranged into multiple loops glued only for a short length to the structure in order to increase the interferometric sensitivity while still guaranteeing a localized measurement, as required for the acquisition of very high frequency dynamics. A first experimental proof of this solution, which combines sensing fiber coils to an interferometric approach has been recently demonstrated in [18-19] for both passive monitoring of acoustic emission and active damage monitoring based on ultrasonic wave scattering. In this work, for the first time, we describe in detail how the sensor configuration, intended as the gauge length and the number of the optical fiber loops, can been selected to maximize the performances of the coherent fiber optic monitoring solution for two highly dynamic problems, namely the Lamb and the impact strain wave signals, for active and passive impact monitoring applications. Specifically, the focus of this work is the analysis of the quality of the acquired sensor signal in different configurations rather than the inference on either the impact or the impact damage features. The strain waves generated first by a piezoelectric transducer and then by an impulse dynamometric hammer on an aluminum skin panel are acquired by the fiber optic coherent (FOC) sensor and then signals are verified by comparison with a numerical Finite Element Model (FEM) and with traditional piezoelectric (PZT) sensors.
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Development A New Gear Oil Sensor Using Fiber Optic Sensor For Engine Functional Purpose

Development A New Gear Oil Sensor Using Fiber Optic Sensor For Engine Functional Purpose

Nowadays, fiber optic technology is use light to transmit data from one place to another. Since 1970s, the use of fiber optics has increased suddenly [Transition network, The Conversion Technology Experts]. Fiber optic has diameter that thicker than human hair is made by silica glass or plastic. Usually, fiber optic are used as a medium to transmit light between the two places and get wide use in fiber-optic communication, that it permitted to transmit over the long distance. Fiber optic signal is lesser amounts of loss rather than metal wires. Furthermore, problem from metal wires suffer excessively which is electromagnetic interference will be immune to fiber optic [John, 2009].
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Notable Liquid Sensor Development Using Fiber Optic Sensor Applications For Brake Oil Test

Notable Liquid Sensor Development Using Fiber Optic Sensor Applications For Brake Oil Test

concentration. Brake oil is sort of water driven liquid utilized as a part of pressure driven brake and pressure driven grasp applications in vehicles, cruisers, light trucks, and a few bikes. It is utilized to move power into weight, and to enhance braking power. It works since fluids are not apparently compressible in their characteristic express the part particles do not have inside voids and the atoms pack together well, so mass powers are straightforwardly exchanged to pack the liquid's synthetic bonds. Later on, this venture can work in vehicle that utilization Brake Oil and give change in mechanical industry. The innovation and utilizations of optical filaments have advanced quickly as of late. The upsides of fiber optic sensors are flexibility from Electromagnetic Interference, wide data transfer capacity, conservativeness, geometric adaptability and economy. By and large, FOS is described by high affectability sensor when contrasted with different sorts of sensors. There are the variety types of fiber optic sensors. These can be named force of tweak and demodulation amplitude process, physical sensor or substance sensor for estimation, extrinsic or intrinsic sensor, and in conclusion arranged because of their estimations focuses.
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A HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBER OPTIC SEISMIC SENSOR SYSTEM

A HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBER OPTIC SEISMIC SENSOR SYSTEM

One advantage fiber optic sensors have over conventional electronic based sensors is the ability to separate the electronics (preamplifiers, filters, ADC, multiplexing electronics, etc.) from the sensor without any degradation in performance. This removes the electronics from the hostile sensing environment (downhole, ocean bottom, buried, etc.), to a benign, controlled environment where they are accessible for repairs or upgrades. Thus, for permanently installed fiber optic seismic sensors, only the optical fiber, the mandrel and its associated packaging must be installed permanently. In the case of the new Fiber Optic Seismic Sensor this will significantly increase the robustness of the permanently installed sensors.
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