An effective eGovernment programme requires successful seamless interaction of appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT), quality information, engaged public employees, good administrative process, and government leadership (Lee et. al, 2005). Government units at national, regional and local levels around the world are applying information technologies vigorously. The application of Information Technology (IT) to government service is often termed “eGovernment” and the larger concept of government that depends upon IT to achieve basic missions is termed “digital government”, this distinction is of course, lexically arbitrary, but serves to distinguish Relational Database (R&D) specifically aimed at creating techniques for applying IT to government operations. Such R&D efforts also consider the longterm impact of these applications on citizens and government itself (Marchionin et al, 2003). The e government refers to the use of ICTs to promote more efficient and effective government services, allow greater public access to information and make government more accountable to citizens and eGovernment initiatives are common in most developed countries including industrialised economics, emerging economics as well as developing economics (Punia and Saxena, 2004). Information technology is already an essential part of government operations and will continue to be vitally important to administration, decision making, and direct service delivery. It will also be critical in the evolving relationships between government and other kinds of organisations, and between government and citizens (Dawes et al., 1999). Government organisations from national legislatures to local social services
Although the need of security functions is realized by the practitioners of e-government, its complexity is the most influential obstacle in its implementation. In every country, with or without e-government, information security has been an important issue since the widespread use of the Web. Its nature of being in reach of everyone makes its security harder than that of the other mediums of information exchange. Despite numerous advancements in technological procedures for interment security, it is not possible to eliminate each and every potential threat. What can be done is to assure that the available security measures are implemented in Saudi Arabia to make the use of e-services foolproof. Authenticating the usage of e-services in the country can make the services password protected after assigning the users with ID’s and passwords. Another measure, which is the simplest so far, is to using digital signature. Through its use, the chances of someone’s false claims over exchanged information and the chances of alteration in the messages can be minimized. One of the Saudi officials in the interview panel explained the public key infrastructure as, “It is a structure that builds an environment of trust for transactions conducted over public networks to build up a framework for issuing certificates to be used for the creation of original documents, access control, digital signatures, authentication, integrity, and confidentiality among others.”
The majority of respondents classified their systems as strategic (46%). Other classifications were high potential (25%), key operational (25%) and support systems (33%). Respondents were able to select more than one category. In classifying their e-business goals, seven of the large-sized organisations reported their application portfolios as being strategic, one as a combination of strategic and high potential, three as high potential only, three as support systems and two as key operation systems. The medium-sized organisations classified their e-business goals as strategic and key operational (four each), five as support systems and two as high potential. Of these, two respondents used more than one category to describe their e-business goals; one combined strategic with key operational and the other used all four categories. Medium-sized organisations tended to classify their e-business goals as being either key operational or support systems more often than large-sized organisations that used strategic and high potential categories more often. The final question in the organisational section related to the objectives for the ICT infrastructure. These are shown in Table Two. A Likert-type scale was used for the rating; from 1 - not important to 5 - very important. The final column in the table provides a comparative ranking of the objectives, from least (1) to most (9) important. The most important aspects were reliability, integrity, security, availability and user friendliness, while instantaneous response and portability were ranked least important.
E-governments realized the concept and significance of security and weak points in their applications. Thus, the security and weak points issue in e-governments are controlling the trust of the users, who do their different transactions through Internet. This paper aims to assess the computer network system weak points at the Kuwaiti e-government computer network system. For this aim a questionnaire for IT- developers’ was designed. The results showed the IT-developers agree on the significant effect of Web Effectiveness (WE), Services Security (SS), Information Technology Use (ITU), Information Technology Security (ITS), and Vulnerability Reduction (VR) on e-government weak points to enhance computer network security. Their demographic information; age, qualification and experience have no significant effect on their responds for the five dimensions of the questionnaire, and this indicate the importance of these factors on assessing weak points regardless to their background. This concludes that these factors are important and influence the performance of e-government network.
Despite their uses, e-government maturity models acquired criticism from several researchers: Coursey & Norris , Debri & Bannister , and Zahran et al. . They observed several limitations in existing maturity models. Coursey & Norris  analyzed maturity models developed by the Gartner Group, by Layne and Lee, and by Wescott , and found that the models were speculative and lacked the statistical data to support the usability of the maturity models. Furthermore, they noticed that patterns of e-government development at the local level were not supported by these models. Karokola & Yngstrom  described the models as technology-centric and as including many buzzwords. According to them, the models focused on the naming of stages, with security requirements being disregarded at each of those stages. Similarly, Lee  studied a dozen e-government maturity models, including his own model developed in 2001, and found that the maturity models were somehow similar other than the metaphors used in each one. He further indicated the need to redesign maturity models to include modern technology available at the time of the e-government’s implementation. Debri & Bannister  found that e-government maturity models were descriptive and predictive, and lacked practical solutions to achieve maturity of stages. They said that maturity models presented a narrow definition of e-government, which saw e-governments as tools to provide web-based e-government services. Zaharan et al.  found that existing maturity models were too simplified and were developed based on assumptions. They said there were no facts available to assess how successfully the stages in the models addressed e-government assimilation. They found that the models were supply-oriented and ignored the side of adoption. Therefore, considering none of the models as universal, all the above authors developed their own versions of maturity models.
the individual intended. Providing this assurance is the key to demonstrating trustworthiness. This finding is important because it provides useful strategic implications for the implementation of e-government services in the future. To adopt e-Government processes, citizens must have the intention to “engage in e-Government”, which encompasses the intentions to receive information, to provide information, and to request e-Government services. Without confidence in the e-Government services, processes, procedures, and other aspects of government, the vision of fully electronic service delivery will remain a challenging target. The survey found that 70 percent of the Romanians is extremely concerned about hackers breaking into government computers. Given the potential of e-Government to help restore public confidence, it is all the more imperative that public concerns with respect to privacy and security are thoroughly examined and addressed in the move to e- Government. Ease of use and the reliability of technical infrastructure could be two keys for the public’s ability to use it. Another will be broad public confidence in government’s ability to keep personal information private and to make systems safe from inappropriate efforts to gain access.
(2) Improve the unified approval process. Improve the unified centralized management mechanism for e-government construction in the Province. The informatization department is responsible for the provincial e-government overall planning, top-level design and the audit management of the project construction demand efficiency, planning layout, technical standards, network and information security, information resource sharing and other related issues. In order to avoid redundant construction and investment, all provincial-level e-government projects that are newly built and expanded must be uniformly reviewed by the informatization authorities and provided in cloud computing. At the same time, set up an e-government expert database to provide technical support for the Province's e-government construction, conduct a rigorous review and demonstration of the proposed project, and scientifically verify the project investment amount.
Most important requirements against identity management are functional services and privacy [ 7 ] . Another important aspect which has to be emphasized is personal data and privacy protec- tion. For the e-government services, the identity management solution elaborated in the past that are in use within corporate environment must have been, in principle, a perfect technological solution. However, several pre-conditions for a full–fledged application should be satisfied. The foundation of basic technological architec- ture for the identity management is laid in Public Key Infrastructure. The basic principle is that the subject of identity management owns a key- pair: a public key and a private key. Even if the subject jealously guards his / her private key and publishes his / her public key, it is impossible to prove that the published key really belongs to the person who claimed it as his own. For this problem, a trusted business process was needed that “permanently” links the owner’s identity to the public key. Thereby, a trust hierarchy came into life. The point of trust would bind public key to an identity ( and maybe other personal information ) on behalf of the owner of the key- pair. Everybody could then accept the single point of trust as a reliable authority that links the end-entity ( person or legal entity ) identity to the key-pair and the certificate that contains information about the owner and the public key. The degree of validation at a reliable trust point, at Certification Authority ( CA ) , can be reflected using extra information embedded into certifi- cates: typically validation takes place at the level of e-mail address, in a corporate envi- ronment against the Human Resource directory, face-to-face meeting with additional checking of official credentials ( passport, personal identi- fication document, driving license, social secu- rity data, tax authority’s identification number etc. )
Nanotechnology holds the promise of exciting new solutions to critical scientifi c, industrial, and commercial challenges through the engineering of application-specifi c nanomaterials. With applications already on the market and others soon promised, there are questions about the potential risks as well as the potential benefi ts of nanotechnology to human health and to the environment. To foster greater scientifi c understanding to address these types of questions, the National Nanotechnology Initiative has made environmental, health, and safety research an essential component of its research and of U.S. eff orts to be the world leader in nanotechnology. Responsible development of nanotechnology, as with any emerging technology, depends upon a reliable scientifi c capacity to assess and manage potential risks. Th e realization of the benefi ts of nantoechnology can only come to fruition with responsible development and public acceptance of nanotechnology and nanotechnology-enabled products. Th us, consideration of any potential ethical, legal, and societal implications that may arise is essential. Developing the scientifi c capacity to make informed decisions about risk and risk management requires a national eff ort that brings together scientists from many disciplines both within the Federal Government and without, through the Government’s public-private partnerships with academia, industry, and public health and environmental advocates. To that end, the Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI) Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council’s Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee created an adaptive management process in its 2008 Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research, which called for holding public workshops on the state of the science.
The result of Welch, Hinnant, & Moon (2005) study on the relation between trust and government categories to three main factors: transactions, transparency and interactivity. Transactions are measured by convenience, quality, privacy, efﬁciency, and security. Transparency is a measure of how visible the organization and its processes are to the user, i.e. how well does the citizen understand what is going on? Interactivity is simply the speed and quality of response (Bannisterb,& College,2013). Figure 3 shows Welch et al.'s model The results of Welch et al.'s analysis show that citizens who are most satisﬁed with E- government also trust government more (which conﬂicts with the ﬁndings of Goldﬁnch et al. noted above), but also show that citizens that trust government more are more likely to be satisﬁed with E-government.
The ehealth IoT system architecture, consisting of three layers (Device Layer, Internet connected gateway and Cloud Layer), allows a connection between a patient and their medical personnel, such as a medical doctor. It provides e-health facilities for continuous monitoring of heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, electrocardiography, electromyography, skin problems and brain hemorrhage. In the ehealth IoT Architecture, data is collected from the human body via medical sensors.The output of the sensors is in electrical form and these signals are processed via Microprocessors or Microcontrollers and then this output is directly forwarded to the User Terminal. The User Terminal is connected to a layer which enables the end users’ client or near user device to carry an amount of stored data, called Fog Layer with the help of Communication Protocols. This Fog Layer is connected with the cloud layer. The Cloud Layer is used for Data Storage and Data Processing. The Cloud Layer also makes a backup for the patient data will be the significant territory of concern. IOT worldview will have pass on user's request for the data validation & protocols such that its request can be assess against the policies so that they can give or deny access. Some of the various ehealth IoT enabling technologies include remote Patient Monitoring, telehealth, wearable Devices for the ehealth IoT Solution, and software Platform for the Smartphones(Nandyala& Kim, 2016).
Extant literature reveals that organizations and individuals may hold certain perceptions about an e-government service. Chief amongst the issues of perception is related to trust. AlAwadhi & Morris  conducted a study on the perception of e-government services and revealed that many participants thought that if e-government services were not secure enough; their personal data would be under threat and could be altered or misused by hackers. Their findings highlight trust as a key issue of concern when creating an impression about an e- government service. These perceptions were gained from stories about hacker attacks, Internet crime and theft of credit card details . In consistent with the aforementioned findings,  aver that users’ trust of e-government services is associated with security and privacy assurances provided to users.
One main advantage of using public clouds in e-Government is that public authorities do not have to spend money for setting up their own cloud or IT infrastructure. Public clouds provide as many IT resources as required to its customers, which will be governments or public authorities in this case. Hence, for governments or public authorities there is no need for plan- ning required IT resources, as they can be easily consumed just on demand from a cloud service provider. This advantage can save the public sector a lot of costs. In addition, costs can be saved due to lower maintenance demands. For instance, operating system updates or security patches for application servers are installed by the public cloud service provider and do not require any manual interaction from the cloud customer. Finally, the public cloud offers high availability and high elasticity to governmental applications. High availability is guaranteed because public cloud providers usually operate several huge computational centers distributed. By relying on public cloud providers, public authorities do not need to specifically maintain extra replication services. In terms of elasticity, there is no need for public authorities to develop or design their applications for high load, if high load can only be expected at peak times. Peak times at online applications are easily absorbed by the infrastructure of the public cloud.
Nowadays, organizations need to work with their business partners or clients through communication networks. Where there is data exchange en route, there will be security problems. The security is considered one of the most important factors for achieving an advanced stage of e-government. As the number of e-government services increases, a higher level of e-governmentsecurity is required [1, 2].
Another important link resulted from the analysis is that the trust in agency is strongly related with the trust in government generally. This finding articulates two important aspects of trust in government. Firstly, as previous research has consistently suggested, the data indicate that feelings about the component parts of an entity should, in general, inform feelings about the entity itself (Hetherington, 1998). This resonates with Job's (2005) study that social trust does generalize from local service institutions to remote government and its organizations. For that reason, it can be assumed that people who trust the institution that perform well in fulfilling their needs will generalize this experience and develop social trust in government in larger scale. Secondly, compared to the satisfaction, trust in agency has slightly stronger impact on trust in government. It may imply that satisfaction in e-service does create effects on trust in government but in shorter time or weaker than the effects of trust in agency on that. That is because satisfaction results from experiencing e-services provided by the agencies, thus trust in the government in general is likely to be a side effect after trust in the agency.
Population ageing is not only an issue of developed countries now but it is a serious issue of developing countries too . Population aging has implications for health and other areas of social policy . Living longer does not always mean we will also have better or a good quality of life in later years . Nepal government has introduced social security for elderly in 1995/1996 [11,13] but very few studies were carried out focussing on this issue. In Nepal social security schemes cover disabled, widowed, endangered races and elderly people completing aged 75 years later revised to 70 years of age in general and 60 plus for DALIT and the people living in Karnali zone (remote area).In the U.S Social Security System, individuals are entitled to claim benefits as early as age 62 but they can also differ the age at which they claim to as late age 70. Eligibility participants of social security system have the ability to claim benefits being actuarially adjusted based on date of claiming . In Canada if a person is a low income senior, the person may be eligible for other benefits as early as age 60 but the person most apply to receive old age security benefits In Hongkong, monthly benefits amount to HK$ 675 for those aged 70 and HK$ 595 for those aged 65-69 . The result of earlier research and empirical evidence show that social cash transfer can be feasible even in Low Income Countries if well designed and adapted like in Senegal and Tanzania in Africa . Therefore, there can be good discussion about the age threshold such as on which basis the age for social security should be taken: either on the basis of longevity or depending on national budget and so on.
There are scopes for even greater efficiencies in the future through greater sharing of processes within and between departments. Of all the security methods and issue that are common in e-commerce is understood can also be used to e- government risk management subject, but e-government is different because it has direct network access to each other that is much better than business networks because most of them are linked for passing, transferring and sharing information. Moreover, business network accesses are competitors where they don’t allow their sensitive information to be shared publicity. The importance of e-government is to use electronic information technology to break boundary of government administrative organization to have virtual electronic governmentsecurity (Kaur, 2003).
Information security issues, legal issues, networking issues, and other various issues that arise from moving toward an E-government can be remedied by following the guidelines that have been established by ISO 27000 and other researchers in the field. The implementation of these ideas can be realized through practice, research, and academic means. It is necessary to implement a strong cross-silo approach in order for things to function in an appropriate and effective manner. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to solving many of the issues we are faced, and is necessary if we want to implement good E-government systems and promote open government successfully.
Open data in E-government plays an important part in improving the overall interactions between all stake holders in a society. The increased use of technologies to promote open data governments also brings along with it several factors that are concerning and need to be addressed. The security of our data and information, arguably the most important of those factors, is what we will address in this article. Understanding what e-govern- ments are, how open government data is necessary to implement good governance in them, and what potential risks are posed to the security of our information should help us to properly address these issues and provide a guideline to resolve them.
which states that financial statements are prepared to provide relevant information about financial position and all transactions carried out by a reporting entity during a reporting period. Information transparency, especially financial and fiscal information, must be carried out in a form that is relevant and easy to understand (Jones and Pendlebury, 2004). The management of regional governments with accountability cannot be separated from the regional government budget. This is in accordance with the opinion of Mardiasmo (2002), who said that the realization of the implementation of regional autonomy is the use of resources carried out economically, efficiently, effectively, fairly and evenly to achieve public accountability. The budget is needed in managing these resources well to achieve the performance expected by the community and to create accountability. Good governance requires that governance be carried out by following the principles of good management, namely transparency, accountability, and participation, so that state resources that are in the management of the government truly achieve the maximum goal for the prosperity and progress of the people and the state. One tool to facilitate the creation of public transparency and accountability is through the presentation of comprehensive Regional Government Financial Reports (Mohammadi et al., 2012). The contents of the report, the accuracy of the numbers listed in the financial statements and produced by an adequate accounting system with good control will greatly determine the accountability of the reporting itself. Numbers that do reflect transactions, every economic event that results in changes to an entity. Numbers that reflect actual performance, numbers.