For a substantial proportion of youngpeople, leaving school, and finding a job which offered training and financial independence, had been a positive move. In the majority of cases, youngpeople had intended to move into work at the end of Year 11, although included within this group were some who had started college courses and dropped out. They were clustered within the retail, engineering and business administration sectors. Some youngpeople had applied for apprenticeships and had failed to secure a place. These respondents did not perceive themselves as being ‘disadvantaged’ or ‘insecure’ in comparison with their counterparts who had remained in full-time learning. They spoke positively about the benefits of working, in particular the changes in self-image they derived from being away from the classroom and in an environment where their skills and abilities were being utilised, valued and extended. In turn, their employers and parents did not regard them as ‘marginal workers’ or ‘failures’, but as young recruits who had the potential to build upon their skills and abilities within an applied training environment.
Over recent years, a central concern of policy has been to drive up post-16 participation rates in full-time education and address the needs of youngpeople not in education, employment or training (NEET). As a result, youngpeople who enter work which is classified as ‘withouttraining’ at 16/17 have largely been ignored. However, the decision to Raise the Participation Age (RPA) for continuing in learning for all 17-year olds from 2013 and for all 18-year olds from 2015 in England, together with a growing unease about the impact of the current recession on youth unemployment rates, have revived interest in the ‘jobswithouttraining’ (JWT) group. This paper draws on the findings from two studies: first, a qualitative study in two contrasting local labour markets, of youngpeople in JWT, together with their employers and parents; and second, an evaluation of the Learning Agreement Pilots (LAP), which was the first policy initiative in England targeted at the JWTgroup. Both studies reveal a dearth of understanding about early labour market entrants and a lack of policy intervention and infrastructure to support the needs of the JWTgroup throughout the UK. From this, it is concluded that questionable assumptions have been made about the composition and the aspirations of youngpeople in JWT, and their
4.10 FEDA’s pilot survey did not directly involve employers, and it is therefore difficult to be specific about the extent to which the requirements of the workplace are affecting students to an extent that could be claimed as unfair, unethical or illegal. Within our sample, almost all 18–19 year olds are being paid above the legal minimum hourly rates, and almost half of the 14–15 year olds are receiving more than £3.00 per hour. There are some claims that on occasion younger students are employed when older employees leave, in order to reduce wage bills, but it is not possible to say how widespread this practice is. Almost half of the students with jobs appear to be under at least occasional pressure from their employers to work for longer hours than they would prefer. In a minority of cases such pressure seems to be excessive, though we have no evidence that it is the policy of companies to exert such pressure, rather than the practice of managers and supervisors at local level. We also note with concern that in the UK it is quite legal for 14–15 year olds, who are below the minimum school leaving age, to be employed for numbers of hours per week well above the levels that have been shown to be correlated with poorer academic performance.
then revised again in accordance with the shortcomings encountered in the classroom test so that it becomes a feasible product to use in the second basic physics lecture. Based on the results of research analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that physics learning results using PBL model treated with assessment is higher than the results of learning physics using PBL model treated withoutassessment. The learning process must be improved through applying the assessment process as an integral part of the learning process in accordance with the characteristics of learners. Learning with PBL approach does not merely give attention to the acquisition of declarative knowledge, but also the acquisition of procedural knowledge, therefore the assessment is not just enough with the test. Assessment and evaluation in accordance with the PBL model is to assess the work produced by students as a result of their work and to discuss the results of the work together.
Job coaches help people to discover what work would suit their skills and interests, negotiate real jobs, and support individuals at work. But there is a shortage of skilled job coaches and quality varies. the Government will publish and consider how to accredit quality standards. there is also a funding gap, yet the taxpayer spends significant sums on people with learning disabilities through social care and education. the Government will encourage local authorities to refocus some of this on supported employment. the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) is also changing the Access to Work fund so that it better supports job coaching.
This paper has shown that there was a significant change in the wage structure both at age 18/19 and at age 16/17 between 1998 and 2000. These changes coincide with the introduction of the NMW in April 1999, which directly affected the earnings of workers aged 18 and over. The analysis shows that wage increases were greatest at the bottom of the earnings distribution in particular for jobs where hourly earnings in 1998 were below £3.00 per hour, the minimum rate that applied to workers aged 18- 21 from April 1999. The findings for workers aged 18/19 were expected given that the NMW directly affected workers of this age and large numbers of youngpeople earned below the minimum rate in 1998. However, changes of a similar magnitude for workers aged 16/17 was less expected as these workers are not covered by the NMW. It seems that the introduction of the NMW has affected the pay of youngpeople aged below 18.
At the local level in Romania, LABOUR OFFICES (LO) draw up annual plans for employment and training in accordance with the public policy strategy. These plans should, naturally, follow the plan of budgetary appropriations from which LOs benefit, but instead, the planning calendar, in practice, is not coupled directly with budget allocations, the latter being made later than LOs’ service schemes. The consequences are that the proposed indicators are either supplemented (without being related to budgetary supplements) or lowered (jettisoned developed centrally, without taking into account the capacity and the real needs of the territory).
of articulating their distress. For a few, feelings were expressed more through actions than words. For example, Gary found it hard to put his feelings into words but regularly paced up and down his sitting room during the researcher’s visits. In most cases, a conventional interview format - where researcher and respondent may spend an hour or so seated facing each other, the former posing questions but keeping relatively quiet, the latter answering questions, hopefully in some detail - would not have worked in this study. Therefore, to further facilitate communication with and self expression by the participants, verbal methods were augmented with both activity and visual techniques. For example, the researchers accompanied some youngpeople to cafes, pubs or bowling alleys or they went walking together. The use of photographs in research with people with learning disabilities dates back to at least the late 1980s (Simons, Booth and Booth 1989) when researchers took photographs of the long-stay hospitals people were leaving and the new community hostels into which they were moving, using these as cues to prompt discussion during interviews. In our study, some participants were given a disposable camera and invited to take photographs of people, places and events that were important to them. This again provided a focus for activity and discussion acting as a springboard for exploring other issues. The researcher often invited a participant to accompany him/ her to the shop to collect the developed film and then to a café where they could look at and discuss the photographs, with the participant invited to comment on each one.
Relationships with youngpeople outside hospital Main- taining relationships with outside friends is recognised as important in policy and guidance [32, 33]. Youngpeople in hospital were reported as valuing relationships with friends at home but could also find these difficult to sus- tain . Some described becoming distant from their friends before admission, ascribed both to the experience of illness and to peers not understanding . Admission was seen as contributing to the deterioration of friend- ships [19, 28, 29], with others expressing discomfort that friends visiting saw them in a mental health facility  or describing friendships breaking down . Others talked of deliberately disconnecting from friends outside of the unit as part of a process of recovery . Whilst benefits are recognised in maintaining relationships with friends at home obstacles to this are recognised , including rules on visiting and conflicting priorities for young peo- ple , and geographical distance [19, 22]. Time away from friends was also seen as helpful as a way of reliev- ing pressures . Youngpeople recognised risks around reconnecting with friends post-discharge [19–21, 28]. In one study, ‘connectedness’ with both friends and families was found to change after being on an inpatient unit, and affected levels of depression and suicide attempts .
Papastergiou (2009) noted that some researchers predict the learning environment will be more fun and effective with the application of video games as compared to traditional learning methods. Oblinger (2004) in Papastergiou (2009) explains that several factors change the environment for better learning through video games: a) games can be multi‐sensory, active, and extraordinary experience, using problem‐ based learning; b) provide and add experience while using existing knowledge; c) provide feedback quickly through hypothesis‐testing and enable students to learn by action; d) provide opportunities for students to do self‐assessment by scoring marks and at different levels of achievement as well; e) improving the environment and social relations between players or students.
Based on survey done and given the undeniable role of information technology in increasing people's awareness of the world it can be said that information technology can play a key role in the development of the tourism industry and raise the awareness of tourists to the region's tourist attractions and encourage them through the various options, and help them to select the desired area for tourism. On the other hand, IT has the ability to guide tourists, to manage their time and costs In addition to the possibility to benefit regional tourism. On the other hand this science has the ability to stimulate business for local residents and tourists investors. With the correct management of information technology in the field of education it can help to enhance the capabilities, managers and local people in the efficiency of the tourism industry. However this would require the cooperation and coordination of tourism experts and IT management experts to create new jobs and increase employment of youngpeople in activities related to the tourism industry according to the state Dehradun/Mussourie , especially during the summer holidays have significant tourists and can therefore provide jobs for many people. Dehradun/Mussourie with natural attraction and historical and cultural economic such as market of local and weekly that are offered local products such as food, agricultural products, and handicrafts can also be considered as an attraction for tourists in the economy of rural livelihoods. Due to these potential, this city has weakness of economic, social, cultural, ecological and also lacks planning. Planning and investment in facilities, development of residential, hospitality and tourism infrastructure, cheap and easy access to the Internet and social networks, can be effective to reduce the weaknesses and attract more tourists in the area, thus increasing the employment opportunities. By providing coordination framework among different institutions and related sectors for effective implementation of projects and providing facilities and services can help in the development of all aspects of tourism to the area and keep it in a certain way, by support and encourage the development of recreational facilities, leisure and sports complexes by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations in the study area for public use, also by creating Infrastructure and utilizing the main cultural heritage sites by promoting handicrafts can give tourism. Also legislation and special rules for optimum use of attractions and tourism products and prevention from
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge; Hudson, C. (2007). Working mathematics for the 21st century? A discussion paper on workplace numeracy and mathematics. England: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy; Kent, P., Bakker, A., Hoyles, C., & Noss, R. (2011). Measurement in the workplace: the case of process improvement in manufacturing industry. ZDM, 43(5), 747-758; Roth, W. (2003). Competent workplace mathematics: How signs become transparent in use. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 8(2), 161- 189; Triantafillou, C., & Potari, D. (2010). Mathematical practices in a technological workplace: the role of tools. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 74(3), 275-294; and van der Kooij, H. (2001). Mathematics and key skills for the workplace. In G. E. FitzSimons, J. O’Donoghue & D. Coben (Eds.), Adult and Lifelong Education in Mathematics: Papers from Working Group for Action (WGA) 6 : 9th International Congress on Mathematics Education, ICME 9 (pp. 231-242): Adults Learning Mathematics.
The research found that some professionals feel that concerns about differences in provision – both between and within local authority areas – can sometimes be based more on perception than reality, and this is partly because comparing cases is not straightforward. For example, two children may, on the surface, appear to have a very similar condition, but may in fact have very different family situations or indeed one may have additional disabilities. As a result, the needs of these children can be very different and consequently the package of care implemented is different. The subtleties of circumstance may not always be apparent to service users. It was also felt that sometimes people hear about what others are receiving without knowing the details of their case, and that this can raise public expectations.
used at the end of linear regression to determine the probability of an output to fall in each of the applicable classes. Deep belief nets with stacked RBMs' have been used for many applications such as speech and phone recognition. Later distributed techniques like Hadoop Map Reduce have been used for taking the advantages of deep learning over very large data sets 17 similar to the one done
It is a very difficult thing to say but, having mooted the point already, there is an argument that, in the aspirational „knowledge-based economy‟ that is the Europe of the future, the youngpeople who are „NEET‟ will struggle to find any place in private (and perhaps even public) sector arrangements. The „fit‟ referred to above may rarely be achievable. Should we now bite this awful bullet and think much harder about how we might give those who are ‘NEET’ (or at risk of it) some alternative hope for their futures through what might be called, drawing on the substance misuse field, a ‘harm reduction’ model (or public works, social activity and subsidised personal enterprise)? It may ultimately be better than trying to fob them off with poor and temporary work and training experience that may be more of a revolving door than a clear point of entry into permanent and sustainable employment. 120 [My emphasis].
Formative assessment aids learning by generating feedback information that is of benefit to students and to teachers. Feedback on performance, in class or on assignments, enables students to restructure their understanding/skills and build more powerful ideas and capabilities. However, the provision of feedback information is not the sole province of the teacher. Peers often provide feedback – for example in group-work contexts – and students generate their own feedback while engaging in and producing academic work formative assessment also provides information to teachers about where students are experiencing difficulties and where to focus their teaching efforts.
But every cloud has a silver lining. Modern technology came to my rescue and I now have a bionic ear. After waiting 13 years for a cochlear implant, I finally had the operation in October 2001. A whole new challenge then emerged: learning to listen and hear normally and to recognise speech. Although I’m English, I did this rehabilitation course in French. In a matter of months I had made tremendous progress. At the beginning I could only make out one of every three syllables and could manage to point to a drawing of a cat or squirrel, but before long I was able to recite, while looking at my feet, a full page of Le Petit Prince read by my teacher. The language barrier was still real for French accents and silent consonants, but in the end I managed to overcome it.’
Where requested certified interpreters, recommended by the organisations, were booked. On two occasions male interpreters aided the interview process, once through Dari and once through Pashto. I set aside time before each of to the interviews to meet with the interpreter to discuss the research aims and process with a view to facilitating the interpretation. Specific concerns of the interpreters, their reflections or feedback from previous experiences were encouraged to inform the research process as well as to address and respond to interpreters’ potential apprehensions (BPS, 2017). This briefing also included close examination of the Information Sheet and Consent Form to facilitate informed consent (Patel, 1999). The interpreters used the linguistic mode of interpreting (neutral stance, word-for-word translations) during the interviews, and a service user-centred approach during the phases of information giving and consent seeking (Baylav, 2003). Both interpreters stayed for a debrief after the interview finished to discuss matters around the interview process and research, ethical issues or give reflections and feedback. During one debrief session the interpreter reflected on his experiences of interpreting at age assessments. I have included reflective notes on this conversation in Appendix C. I checked in with both youngpeople if the interpreter was acceptable to them and whether they could understand the language and accent.