Top PDF Ecology, trade, and states in pre colonial Africa

Ecology, trade, and states in pre colonial Africa

Ecology, trade, and states in pre colonial Africa

could only be conclusively ruled out using panel data – data that do not exist. I use the cross section to make three arguments. First, the artificial country results above suggest that diversity does not result from the irregularly-shaped boundaries of ethnic groups that have conquered their surroundings. Second, if conquest requires that states expand, I have shown above that controlling for area does not eliminate the main result. Third, I give narrative evidence on some of the most statistically influential societies in the data. This is effectively a very small panel taken from the larger cross section. The eighteen most influential societies (by dfbeta) are listed in the web appendix. If the cen- tralized societies in this list developed states where they are or derived their wealth and power from their proximity to trade routes, rather than migrating to capture trade, this supports the Ricardian view. I choose six centralized states for case study evidence. 27 Because these are narrative examples, they cannot be subjected to systematic measure- ment and testing. The results of this exercise must be interpreted with caution; the evidence that can be provided by this approach is inherently suggestive, rather than dispositive.
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Ecology, trade and states in pre colonial Africa

Ecology, trade and states in pre colonial Africa

historic population density by measuring it in 1960. This is published by the United Na- tions Environment Programme. 23 This is reported in Table 5, and the effect of ecological diversity remains intact. This is also true if I include the log of (one plus) population density (not reported). There is indeed a positive correlation between ecological di- versity and population density, but once standard errors are clustered by ethnographic region, this effect is no longer significant (not reported). I do not interpret the effect as causal, since institutions may shape population. Rather, this exercise is only intended to show that population cannot explain away the effect of ecological diversity on states. 5.5. Ethnic diversity. Fifth, it is possible that ecology-specific human capital gives rise to a greater number of ethnic groups in regions of diverse ecology (Michalopoulos, 2011). Following Tilly (1992), competition between these groups may lead them to develop stronger states. Alternatively, more heterogeneous communities might form more so- phisticated institutions in order to reduce conflict (Aghion et al., 2004). To show that ethnic diversity is not driving my results, I return to my sample of artificial countries. For each square, I count the number of ethnic groups that intersect it in Murdock’s map, and include this as an additional control in Table 5. This does not do away with the direct effect of ecological diversity on states in column 2, suggesting that this and the gains-from-trade explanation of states are not mutually exclusive. The results are nearly identical if I control instead for modern day heterogeneity. I measure this by counting the languages reported within each artificial country in the World Language Mapping System (not reported). 24
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Ecology, trade and states in pre colonial Africa

Ecology, trade and states in pre colonial Africa

I show that this result is robust. I use spatial variation in rainfall as an instrumental variable, in order to control for possible reverse causation. The result survives addi- tional controls, checks for unobserved heterogeneity, alternative estimation strategies, removing influential observations, and alternative measures of trade and states. I show that the “Ricardian” view better explains the relationship between states and diverse ecology than six alternative interpretations. These are: first, larger territories are more diverse and require more levels of administration; second, societies that independently develop states conquer trading regions; third, dense population in diverse regions ex- plains statehood; fourth, defense of “islands” of land quality accounts for states; fifth, the diversity of available economic activities creates states, and; sixth, competition be- tween ethnic groups in more diverse areas leads to state formation. I rule out these alternative explanations by controlling for these mechanisms directly, by re-estimating the results using artificial countries of a uniform shape and size as the unit of observa- tion, and by presenting narrative evidence from the most influential observations in the data.
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Ecology, trade and states in pre colonial Africa

Ecology, trade and states in pre colonial Africa

Second, I restrict the sample to societies of similar areas. I compute area quintiles for all ethnic groups. In Table 11, I report the results if the smallest quintile (Q1), largest quintile (Q5) or both are dropped. Results are robust to this sample restriction, and the coefficients on ecological diversity are greatest when both the largest and smallest ethnic groups are removed from the sample. Third, I control for area directly in Table 13 and show that the main effect does not disappear. I discuss this in greater detail below. 5.2. States conquer trading regions. The second alternative explanation of the results is that states emerge for reasons unrelated to the gains from trade, and then move to occupy prime trading regions through migration or conquest. My first argument against this alternative story is to appeal to the artificial country results above. That similar results can be achieved using units with regular boundaries suggests that diversity does not result from the irregularly-shaped boundaries of ethnic groups that have conquered their surroundings in ways that overlap with ecology. My second strategy for dismissing this alternative story is to give narrative evidence on the most influential (in terms of dfbeta) societies in the data. The top fourteen of these are listed in Table 12. The central argument of this paper is that trade causes states. If the centralized societies in this list are known to have developed states where they are, rather than migrating to capture them, this supports the Ricardian view. Further, if these states derived their wealth and power from their location relative to geographically-shaped trade routes, it is evidence that profitable trade routes were necessary for states to exist in these locations. I choose six of the most influential centralized states for case study evidence.
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E commerce and trade openness in Africa: A panel data analysis

E commerce and trade openness in Africa: A panel data analysis

Technological revolutions have always affected different sectors in different ways. The economic Commission for Africa, through its African Information Society Initiative (AISI), has identified e-commerce as one of the four key areas for Africa to exploit ICTs that would best advance social and economic development on trade. Esselaar et al. (2000) find that Internet trade in Africa is booming at a royal speed. From their result done on three African countries their ratings suggest that Rwanda, Namibia and South Africa are at very different stages in preparedness for the networked world. They also find series of common obstacles for e-trade readiness such like policy regimes, legal frameworks, financial environment, information infrastructure, transportation and delivery systems and human capacity. According to Gökmen (2011), e- commerce applications have also been increasing in Turkey at a great pace to cover foreign trade deficit but not significantly when compared to the total trade volume. Result being that there are more transactions done by financial channels instead by cards. This could mean that the Turkish consumers do not have trust. Shams and Mirmiran (2014) results show that the impact of e -commerce on Iran could be even stronger than that on the United States as a developed country because the scope for reducing inefficiencies and increasing productivity is much larger in Iran. According to YStatsproduct Brochure (2015), Tunisia also ranks high in Africa by Internet penetration and around seven hundred e-commerce websites are already active in Tunisia. Also according to Makame et al. (2014), technology infrastructure is an important factor in e- commerce adoption, and national policy initiatives are important in building online trust and improving technology infrastructure
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A transient presence: black visitors and sojourners in Imperial Germany, 1884 1914

A transient presence: black visitors and sojourners in Imperial Germany, 1884 1914

24 many visitors, particularly those in touring ethnographic shows but also individuals who spent several years in Germany, moved around frequently. Yet, based on information pertaining to just over half of those in the database it is clear that Africans were to be found in almost all states of the empire during 1884-1914. Men, women and children spent time in over 90 German villages, towns or cities. Foremost of these was Berlin and its environs, including the independent city of Charlottenburg. Among many other reasons, as the seat of German colonial authority, the setting for the 1896 and 1897 Colonial and Transvaal Exhibitions and the home of the Oriental Seminar the city was at least a short-term home for several hundred Africans. Similarly, Hamburg (including Altona) on account of its international port, Colonial Institute and Hagenbeck's Tierpark drew, voluntarily or otherwise, significant numbers of Africans. Several Africans, largely servants, were found in larger towns such as Bremen, Dresden, Rostock and Kassel, while over two dozen mission-educated youngsters temporarily lived in Westheim in Bavaria and Limburg an der Lahn. Africans also came to a wide variety of smaller towns and villages such as Guben in Brandenburg, Spöck in Württemberg, or Marggrabowa (now Olecko) in East Prussia. This geographical distribution was a reflection of the fact that Germans involved in the colonial project - missionaries, civil servants, military officers and businessmen - lived throughout Germany. It was also a consequence of the colonial authorities' policy that educational visitors were sent to smaller towns, where it was hoped greater control could be exercised over their experiences.
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Regional Trade and Economic Growth of East Africa Community States

Regional Trade and Economic Growth of East Africa Community States

Secondly, competition increases in the local market due to higher trade openness thereby improving on productivity and which results to growth (Waziarg, 2004). Dollar and Kraay, (2003) argue that countries with more trade flows with a high degree of market liberalization tend to register high growth rates evidenced in their high GDP per capita. Counter arguments to that view have however been raised by some scholars who hold the view that market openness adversely affects economic growth through erosion of competitive advantage, abuse of comparative advantage and exposure to increased competition among other reasons. Some confusing results have also risen from previous research. For example, membership of the European Union was found to have no growth effects on constituent member states Landau, (1996). In some other research, Henrickson established that membership in the same union produced a long-term growth force ranging between 0.6 percent and 1.3 percent per annum. Such significant differences have however been attributed to the poor correlation between market liberalization process and the variables of concern.
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Free Trade Agreement and Prospects of Regional Integration in Southern Africa: An Evaluation of Impingements to Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Free Trade Area (FTA)

Free Trade Agreement and Prospects of Regional Integration in Southern Africa: An Evaluation of Impingements to Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Free Trade Area (FTA)

Domestic tensions may also undermine progress towards the formation of the FTA. For example, both the revival of hostilities in Angola and Zimbabwe’s economic decline has the potential to disrupt those countries’ compliance with any agreement, even if ratification proceeds. The optimism, which was evident in the region in 1996 and 1997, has given way to a fear that the process might be difficult to get underway, even though it is ratified by a majority of member states. South Africa’s unilateral implementation of its own offer might be viewed as an attempt to precipitate action. If credible sanctions for non- compliance can be established, trade integration will create a regional agency of restraint, limiting government discretion in making trade policy changes and providing more predictability and stability for importers, exporters and investors (Mutesa, 2004).
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The Political Economy of Land and Chieftaincy Disputes in Contemporary Africa: Examples from Central Nigeria

The Political Economy of Land and Chieftaincy Disputes in Contemporary Africa: Examples from Central Nigeria

often have far reaching implications on the community so affected and is also a significant threat to national security. Historically, before the advent of colonial rule, land in Africa hadn’t much economic value, however, with the integration of Africa into the world capitalists system during the colonial period, land which was in most cases under the custodian of traditional rulers became a valuable commodity. Similarly, this period also witnessed some level of stability in the chieftaincy institution in most parts of Africa. The reasons for this were not farfetched. First, apart from the prestige attached to the chieftaincy institution there were no serious economic benefits attached to them, and secondly, the selection process had not been politicised as it is the case nowadays. Unfortunately, in British West Africa in general and Nigeria in particular, the admixture of the British and native systemsproduced some contradictions in land and chieftaincy matters, a challenge that has continued to confront most African states. Land and chieftaincy disputes have become the cause of rural and urban resistance and insurrection resulting to family, communal, states and national disputes. Francisca Nlerum was more forthcoming on this issue:
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African polygamy : past and present

African polygamy : past and present

I also use Table A3 to test whether there is evidence that colonial teachers were stationed in districts whose pre-determined characteristics predict lower rates of polygamy today. More teachers per capita existed in districts that collected more trade taxes before colonial rule, in areas that were conquered earlier and resisted conquest longer, in areas that had a trading post before colonial rule and were more densely settled at the outset, and in drier areas with access to the sea. Few of these characteristics, however, predict polygamy. Access to the sea predicts less polygamy today and average rainfall predicts more polygamy, both of which are suggestive of positive selection. Their effects are small, however. A one standard deviation change in either variable predicts a less than one tenth of a standard deviation change in the mean polygamy rate for a given district. Results survive controlling for these characteristics, and the other correlates of teachers are uncorrelated with polygamy.
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African Origin Of Democracy And The Role Of Women In Its Development: A Case Study Of Two African Pre- Colonial Political Systems

African Origin Of Democracy And The Role Of Women In Its Development: A Case Study Of Two African Pre- Colonial Political Systems

The Wolof system of government has a democratic undertone. For instance, an important feature of Wolof government or political system was the strong position of nobility. Neither the Burba Jolof (a type of president) nor the rulers of other Wolof states (governors) held office by hereditary right alone. Ifeka and Stride state that "although each had to be descended from the founder of his state in the male line of succession, and be born of a noble woman, actual appointment was by elections conducted by the great nobility" (25). Once elected, the ruler is made to undergo an elaborate religious rituals to be furnished with the nature of his duties such as leading his people to victory and bringing them prosperity. If he failed in these key functions, he will face deposition by the people. Thus, the strength of this form of socio-political setup as in modern democracy is that it reposed authority in the hands of men equipped to maintain it. But whether they succeed in maintaining it or not remains a different issue. The remarkable role of Wolof women in this form of government was very significant and will be discussed later in the course of this discourse.
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Writing the land : representations of 'the land' and nationalism in Anglophone literature from South Africa and Zimbabwe 1969 2002

Writing the land : representations of 'the land' and nationalism in Anglophone literature from South Africa and Zimbabwe 1969 2002

From the migrations and tribal conquests that led to the pre-colonial states and chiefdoms, to the colonial expropriations in the 1890s Beach 1986, Ranger 1967, Samkange 1968: from the c[r]

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The transatlantic slave trade and the evolution of political authority in West Africa

The transatlantic slave trade and the evolution of political authority in West Africa

Patriarchy is another form of authority, and George Murdock (1949, 1967) claims to have theoretically proven that much of the patriliny in pre-colonial West Africa was of recent historical origin. His proof is based on the observation that many pre-colonial West African societies with patrilineal rules of descent retained legacy kinship terms more appropriate for other lineage systems. Not being a historian, and having never set foot in Africa, Murdock never claimed that the slave trade transformed lineage rules, but his list of possible causes could have easily included it. Basil Davidson (1992), the preeminent historian of Africa who chronicled Africa’s history from slavery to the present, does highlight slaving. He states, “As the slaving state became increasingly a predator, kinship systems were strengthened and elaborated as a means of providing protection against the dangers of the violence created by the slave trade (p. 266).” Predation not only shifted more power onto already-powerful men but it may have also, as Ekeh argues, increased the “entrenchment of kinship corporation (1990, p. 660).”
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Pre-colonial Criminal Justice in Africa

Pre-colonial Criminal Justice in Africa

In addition to the local ministers highlighted above, there were also local head-judges or Cadi (Qadi). The justice system was twofold: that of the king and that of the Cadi. The Cadi was appointed by the king and dealt with common-law misdemeanors or disputes either between citizens and foreigners or amongst citizens themselves. The disputes were settled in the form of a tribunal, administered by the Cadi. The Cadi also had the power to grant a pardon or to offer refuge. Given that the Cadi was a Muslim head-judge, the common-law in this context would appear to be that of Qu’ran, that is, Sharia Law. Diop also states that due to large-scale commercial immigration another judge besides the Cadi was appointed. This judge was able to settle disputes between the immigrant merchants. (Diop, 1987:124). Evidence of these Cadi’s, judges and their functions is provided by two writers of that time Kati and Sadi, these authors and their work are explored in more detail later in this passage (see Kati, 1913; Diop, 1987, Hunwick, 1999).
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ECOLOGY EDUCATION AS AN INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF PRIMARY NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION: SOME RELEVANT ISSUES

ECOLOGY EDUCATION AS AN INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF PRIMARY NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION: SOME RELEVANT ISSUES

different authors present various forms of ecology education, outline the tasks and ways of implementation. nevertheless, the objectives of general ecology education are differ- ently introduced in the proceedings of the majority of the authors. According to Rimkevičienė, ecology education /ee/ is the establishment of the correlation with the outward things, an environment, a spiritual relation with nature and people (Rimkevičienė, 1996). Šapokienė describes the main task of natural science education in a broad sense and states that the goal of ecology education is to form ecology conscience, worldview, to develop the responsibility for the environmental line, to promote an idea to act for the benefit of environment getting in touch with nature and a social environment (Šapokienė, 1995). Pupils’ ecology literacy promotion (Orr, 1992; Tarasova, 2000) and ecology culture formation (akvileva, Klepinina, 2001) are introduced as the fundamental propositions of ecology education. In her study about russian ecology education tarasova notices two objective disadvantages – teachers feel lack of a coherent ecology education curriculum and primary school teachers are short of methodological literature that discusses ecology education issues provided with the inter- disciplinary method.
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A Study of Foreign Trade and Review of Trade ...

A Study of Foreign Trade and Review of Trade ...

- Prior to reforms in 1991, several commodities were subject to export controls. In EXIM policy of 1992- 97, the number of goods subject to export control was reduced substantially from 439 in 1991 to 296 with prohibited items reduced to 16. The number of commodities subject to export restrictions was reduced further in later years. At present, only a small number of items on health, environmental or moral ground are subject to export prohibition whereas export controls apply to only a small number of commodities like fertilizers, cattle, pulses, cereals etc. The EXIM or Foreign Trade Policies announced in 1990s and 2000s had decisively followed an export led growth strategy and entailed several institutional, infrastructural and fiscal measures to promote exports. Several export promotion schemes such as Market Access Initiatives (MAI), Marketing Development Assistance (MDA), Status Holders Schemes, Assistance for States for Infrastructural Development for Export (ASIDE), Target Plus scheme, Served from India Scheme, Agricultural Export Zones (AEZs), Focus market Scheme (FMS), Focus Product Scheme (FPS), High-tech Products Export Promotion Scheme (HTPEPS) were introduced by the Government to boost exports. Extension of earlier duty exemption and remission schemes or introduction of new such schemes for example, Duty Free Import Authorization scheme (DFIA), Duty Entitlement Pass Book scheme (DEPB) were the important steps undertaken by the Government towards promotion of exports. The Government also encouraged establishment of Export Oriented Units (EOU), Electronics Hardware Technology Parks (EHTP), Software Technology Parks (STP), Bio-Technology Parks (BTP), Export Processing Zone (EPZ) or Special Economic Zone (SEZ) which provide internationally competitive and hassle-free environment for exports. Through allowing customs free trade, income tax reductions or waivers, streamlined administration and cheaper and better utilities SEZs are created to increase export oriented manufacturing or services activities, to promote transfer of technology as well as to boost foreign direct investment. - Since mid-1980s, FDI was allowed to enter in the industrial sectors but the Government was initially very
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Moderating Effect of Political Leadership in Electoral Processes and Political Stability in East Africa Community States

Moderating Effect of Political Leadership in Electoral Processes and Political Stability in East Africa Community States

by Mukandala and Killian (2014) who pointed out that citizens’ participation may result in the “consolidation of nation states” as well as an increase in territorial nationalist demagogy about the need for “non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; respect for each and sovereignty issues may be working against all the efforts made towards the integration process. This is because they may work towards ‘consolidating’ the status quo; thus, promoting a situation that may be the opposite of the ultimate goal of EAC regional political and economic cooperation, which are political federation and political union. Lwaitama (2012) concludes on the extent to which a lot is still required to encourage full participation of all the stakeholders in the EAC integration. One important observation in the harmonization process is the fact that the national constitutions of the different EAC countries do not make much reference to the EAC integration. Similarly, the election manifestoes of political parties hardly addressed the EAC integration in any great detail, if at all. This and other related areas of elections and electoral processes need to be relooked into if the harmonization process is to succeed.
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Gender and Sexual Abuses during the Italian Colonization of Ethiopia and Eritrea  —The “Insabbiatti”, Thirty Years after

Gender and Sexual Abuses during the Italian Colonization of Ethiopia and Eritrea —The “Insabbiatti”, Thirty Years after

One ex-colon named Oreste sollicited me to take his adopted daughter with me to France. He gave the nickname MICIA (a little cat name in Neapolitan Dialect) to this 14 years old teen ager during the mid-eighties. The girl appears briefly in the documentary “Hotel Abyssinia” in 1996. She was in a state of deep trouble and dire situa- tion because Oreste was very sick and she was anxious of his imminent death. Oreste had a father role but also a husband and a lover function. He was blurring and confusing all the lines. At the moment Oreste was about to pass away, Micia expressed the wish to suppress herself. She could not imagine a life without her persecutor. It is when I tried to find a foster family for her that she confessed that Oreste was imposing her insane and morbid games. What she acknowledged was uneasy to express in a scientific approach. First of all I was little older than Micia and was totally confused and unarmed to deal with such a delicate and taboo problematic. In consequence, I have skipped the pedophilia dimension when analyzing the gender relations during the colonial fascist time in Abyssinia. Escaping the subject was a strategy not to hurt the academic culture during the eighties in France.I did not know how to treat the oral material collected related to the insabbiatti pedophilia in Abyssinia.
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