In 2016 The Ministry of Education, University and Research, in collaboration with the Italian Department for Equal Opportunities, established the STEM Month — Women want to count. The initiative, which involved all Italian schools in various events and initiatives throughout the month of February, targets primary and secondary school students and aims at promoting STEM among girls, fighting gender stereotypes and discrimination, and guaranteeing women’s access to more highly-paid professions. A number of stakeholders, from research institutes to companies to foundations, organised with the support of the Department of Equal Opportunities summer camps for the study of mathematics, science, computer science and coding. Also, the Italian Government implemented the Transforming Institutions by Gendering contents and Gaining Equality in Research Project (TRIGGER). The project, which involves five universities from the Czech Republic, France, Italy, the UK and Spain, addresses gender inequalities in science and aims to achieve a comprehensive integrated model. Each university will implement different integrated actions so that the overall working environment for female workers is improved 229 .
Early school leaving in Luxembourg is significantly below the EU average but national surveys indicate a steady rise. Luxembourg’s early school leaving (ESL) rate, as measured by the Labour Force Survey in line with standard EU practice, decreased by 3.8 percentage points in 2016, to 5.5 %. However, this data should be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size in Luxembourg. National estimates based on the actual number of young people not completing upper secondary education indicate that dropouts have been on the rise since 2009 and stood at 13.5 % in 2015 (Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse (MENJE) 2017a). Dropout is more than one and half times higher among boys than girls and occurs most often at age 16-17, around the end of the compulsory school age. In addition, some 29 % of pupils leaving Luxembourg schools in 2014/2015 continued upper secondary education either abroad or in a private/European school (MENJE 2017a). This suggests that school failure could be reduced if public education was better adapted to pupils’ needs. The Local Action for Youth (ALJ - Action locale pour jeunes) offices of the Ministry of Education are responsible for identifying and contacting early school leavers to help them return to education or find a job. Between 2010/2011 and 2014/2015 the shares of such young people the ALJ managed to reach grew from 18 % to 88 %.
entrepreneurship education and training at various times in their lives, whether at school, university or beyond their formal education. In addition, the effects may be deferred rather than instantaneous. For example, in the short term, graduates of entrepreneurship education may recognize the need to amass specific knowledge (Fiet and Pankaj, 2008), yet decide to defer action until they understand their chosen industry better. The GEM data also accounts for differences in how individuals learn. This learning can range from traditional education to experiential immersion in the phenomenon—through a placement or internship in an actual company, for example. GEM surveyed individuals about the full range of possible training sources, from primary school onward, which enables inclusion of all combinations of training. In addition, by measuring demographic characteristics of each individual in each sample, GEM can control for age group, gender, education, working status and other effects that might mask the training effect. Finally, GEM can address limitations due to differences in context. In some countries, entrepreneurship is widespread, easily observable and culturally acceptable. In others, few individuals start businesses; any training that exists in these countries may provide a more significant source of learning. By surveying many countries, GEM can discern the differences in cause and effect that might be contextual.
Participant 1.1 interview While there was a general consensus that assessment of any qualification should take the form of a portfolio blending written assignments with practical activities such as joint observation or feedback sessions, there was little consensus over an appropriate academic level for its assessment. However, one clear pattern emerged which involved providing options for extension of any assessment to Masters level, while not making assessment at this level compulsory. It was felt by some participants that compulsory assessment at Masters level might deter those practitioners who do not generally operate at this level. This might be a particular issue for the FE sector compared with the schools sector, which has a more structured route into the profession. However, both sectors suffer from a lack of a clearly defined route into initial teacher education, as described by these participants.
However income contingent loans are only available to higher level VET students and only 271 individual providers received revenue through VET FEE-HELP in 2015 – a fraction of the around 5,000 training providers nationwide. Also, as indicated in the Commonwealth Government’s review of VET FEE-HELP, a substantial but not quantified proportion of VET FEE-HELP loans have been misused by providers and have not led to the delivery of real training (Commonwealth Department of Education and Training, 2016a). This led the Commonwealth to introduce a number of reforms to the VET FEE-HELP scheme in 2015 and 2016, and ultimately replace it with the more limited VET Student Loans in 2017 (Birmingham, 2016).
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
Current status of enrollment: The study collects enrollment data for master of education management of 4 universities each year from 2014 to 2017. Data show that there is a difference in determining the annual enrollment target of universities. Most univeristies annually enroll 50 to 250 students, of which the Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities has the lowest enrollment; the top one is the National Academy of Education Management. In fact, some of universities are flexible in terms of the total number of graduates that can be discharged from one discipline to another. Therefore, the education management major often exceeds the number of assigned quota. Regarding the enrollment of masters degree universities and institutes are strictly implementing the enrollment process from the admission notice to the recruitment examination according to the regulations of the Ministry of Education and Training. The survey shows that the opinions are well appreciated the enrollment of the master's degree in education management. Candidates of different subjects who participate in the recruitment examination if not properly trained majors are organized by the schools to supplement their knowledge as prescribed. In recent years, according to the statistics of the universities and institutes, the number of candidates taking part in the entrance examination has been decreasing.
In November 2016, the NCTL launched a second pilot scheme to recruit returning teachers. Under the pilot, a package of support, including a bursary of £600 and a 2-4 week training course, was provided to returning teachers in maths, physics, and languages. Schools Direct lead schools, multi-academy trusts, and higher education institutions, among others, in the north-west and south-east were invited to become lead schools for the pilot. Lead schools were to be provided with grant funding and were responsible for coordinating the programme of support. They will receive a further payment upon employment of the returning teacher. The application round for the second cohort of the pilot closed on 20 February 2017.
Source: Eurostat (UOE). Notes:  the age for starting ISCED 1 is different from country to country. See Section 3.1 of the Education and TrainingMonitor 2016 for more information (ec.europa.eu/education/monitor). The trend depicted refers to the 2011- 2014 change in percentage points.
At the same time, there is a recognition of the practical benefits such a system could offer young people, practitioners, organisations and policy makers. The potential benefits include the ability to identify vulnerable young people NEET or at risk of becoming NEET; being able to monitor the education, employment and training status of whole cohorts of young people for the first time in Northern Ireland; helping to provide data that could inform referrals to interventions more effectively; and being able to use the data to help evaluate the impact of policies and interventions.
teachers, reflecting back on my own experience at Dewsbury College and also through being an external examiner and quality reviewer with the Open College Network/CERTA (2007-2012), I began to believe that the issue of students not learning was more concerning than any of the public discussions in which I had previously been involved. This became the key focus of my practice. I was beginning to speak to teachers who said that their training had been irrelevant to their teaching job in terms of being able to control difficult or challenging classes and subsequently I began to offer responses or solutions (Lebor, 2017). I describe the conflicts between teachers and learners that seemed to be taking place in many contexts, discussing what was happening in classrooms rather than the theoretical version of what was supposed to happen. Five of these pieces were published in the Journal for Lifelong Learning with the University of Huddersfield and one with the JFHE. During this period, I became involved in several published dialogues about disruptive behaviour and wrote other brief collaborative articles, which are also placed within this period.
Comiskey, C., Matthews, A., Bruce, J., Klopper, H., & Mulaudzi, M. (2013). A Report on the Study of the SANTRUST PhD Proposal Development Programme for Nursing Sciences Given the Strategic Plan for Nursing Education, Training and Practice: 2012-2017 and the National Health Insurance Plan of South Africa. Durban: SANTRUST.
cially for educational leaders seeking to improve the evaluative process. Additionally, this study explored administrators’ self-efficacy in performing their job duties related to evaluating special education teachers, which was operationalized as confidence in performing the assigned tasks. Glowacki and Hackmann (2016) explored elementary principals’ reported skills and comfort level related to providing feedback to special education teachers. The current study was interested in examining how confident administrators of all lev- els felt in their ability to evaluate special education teachers, including observing teachers, determining a summary judgment, and providing feedback on class- room performance. Finally, research suggests that years of experience (Lawson & Knollman, 2017) and background in special education teaching (Glowacki & Hackmann, 2016) may be related to administrators’ feelings of confidence; therefore, this study examined whether variables such as years of experience and background in special education teaching were associ- ated with an increase in feelings of confidence in eval- uating special education teachers. Using a survey de- sign, this study addressed three broad research ques- tions: (a) What is the quantity and perceived quality of training school administrators receive, both at their school districts and through personnel preparation programs, to conduct evaluations of special education teachers? (b) What knowledge and supports do school administrators believe they need in order to provide an accurate, fair, and meaningful evaluation of a spe- cial education teacher on their school site? (c) How do background experience and years of experience relate to school administrators’ feelings of confidence in per- forming special education teacher evaluations?
MH services provided in schools are some of the most accessible for CYP. This is because most CYP attend school, access to schools-based services does not require a clinical diagnosis, and schools are often the first point of contact for CYP and their families when they begin to experience MH problems. A 2017 joint report by the Health and Education Select Committees emphasised the importance of a whole-school approach to MH, MH training for teachers, and co-ordinating schools and CYPMHS. 29
The early school leaving rate stands slightly below the EU average (9.5% compared to 11.1% in 2014). However, while the EU average has improved, school leaving rates in Finland have remained fairly stable over the last decade. With a rate of 7.2%, girls score significantly better than boys, representing a 4.7 percentage points’ advantage. Even though the data are not fully reliable, there is an indication that foreign-born pupils perform much worse than native-born ones (19.4% against 9.1% in 2014). Also this rate has remained stable over the last few years. Finland’s rate of early childhood education and care (ECEC) participation is lower than the EU average (84.0% compared to 93.1% in 2013). However, in the year prior to starting school at the age of 7, 97.7% of that age group attend preschool classes according to Eurostat data. The results of the 2012 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey measuring the skills of 15-year-olds were less positively than previous results for Finland, though the country maintained its position as one of the EU’s top performers and is still among the top five countries worldwide, e.g. in science. However, Finland’s overall performance worsened significantly in all three areas, as compared to 2009, and in particular in numeracy
assesses the skills of about 5,000 individuals per participating country, representing the countries' working age population (16-65 year olds). The skills tested are literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments (solving problems in a computer environment). The survey also asks about the use of ICT at work and in everyday life, generic skills required at work, whether the skills and qualification match the work requirements and questions about e.g. education, work and the socio-economic background. The first round was carried out in 2011/2012 in 24 countries, among them 17 EU Member States, representing about 83% of the EU28 population. The proficiency that respondents showed in the test is reported on a scale from 0 to 500 points, which is divided into "Skills levels" ("below 1" to "5" for literacy and numeracy; "below 1" to "3" for problem solving – see Table A.2 in the Annex). For more technical information see Volume II of the survey report: http://www.oecd.org/site/piaac.
Education holds key potential for long-term growth and tackling the root causes of the social crisis. Yet the latest available data (2013) shows an average decrease in education investment for the third consecutive year. Member States that have seen a spending cut for at least three years in a row are IT, ES, IE, NL, FI, PT and UK. Out of these seven Member States, IT, ES, IE and UK are the most problematic cases from a demographic perspective, with their school-age population increasing between 2010 and 2020. Some of these Member States face serious budgetary constraints and cannot readily fulfil the large investment needs. EU value-added manifests, firstly, in financial support, offered through the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the new Investment Plan for Europe. Other value-added is found through mutual learning and the strengthening of evidence-based policy making. The Education and TrainingMonitor 2015 identifies the main challenges and key policy levers that could help improve the inclusiveness, quality and relevance of Europe's education and training systems.
For individuals to thrive in a modern and evolving labour market, education needs to equip people with key transversal competences. Policy efforts regarding digital competences are to be strengthened, as even amongst the younger generation only half can solve more than very basic problems with the use of ICT. Efforts across Member States to support and promote entrepreneurship in education are fragmented and lack coherence, while 15-year-olds are performing worse in solving non-routine problems than one would expect from their reading, maths and science skills. Despite language competences becoming key for employability of young people, national curricula show significant differences in the number of foreign languages being taught. The percentage of students in lower secondary school learning two or more foreign languages is less than 10% in BE fr, HU, IE and AT.
Many types of training methods are used for leadership training, including lectures, discussions, role playing, behavioural role modelling, case analysis and simulations. In selecting a suitable method, it is important to consider the trainees’ current skills, motivation and capacity to understand complex knowledge. The instructors should give ample opportunity to trainees to practice the skill they are learning during training and afterward. Active practice should include accurate, constant and constructive feedback to help them monitor progress and evaluate what they know (Yukl, 2013). In the same vein, Allen and Middlebrooks (2013) analysed the challenges of leadership education. One of the challenges is that the development of expertise is facilitated by real-time coaching. The swimmer, chef and medical doctor are privy to a great deal of real–time coaching that is lacking in most of leadership development programmes although it may be said to be one of the significant elements of leadership training. Another challenge (especially in the maritime industry) is with time. Most of leadership training participants, in the maritime context, engage in leadership learning in shore sessions e.g. short courses limited to only a few days. Rarely is such a programme a sequential progression of development. Leadership skills take time to be developed.
Austria’s early school leaving rate continued to decline in 2015 to 7.3 %. This is well below the EU average of 11 % and the national Europe 2020 target, which is also 9.5 %. Rates between boys and girls differ by only 1 percentage point (pp.), one of the smallest gender gaps in the EU. Migrants are almost four times more likely to leave school early than native-born students (19 % compared to 5.5 %). This challenge actually concerns first generation migrants as well as the second generation, i.e. also people born in Austria whose parents were born outside the country. German language competence is considered a key issue. The 2012 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) showed the proportion of low achievers in reading was above the EU average (19.5 % compared to 17.8 %). It also showed the relatively high impact of socioeconomic background on education outcomes. National competence tests confirmed the results of the international testing. A German language competence test for all 10 year-olds published in March 2016 showed 4 out of 10 pupils were not able to read and/or fully comprehend a short text (13 % not at all and 25 % only partially) and thus not fully meeting national reading comprehension targets. 2 Overall results improved by 23 points on a scale of 500 compared to the