of 5 x 10 -4 to 5 x 10 -2 per gene without substantial killing. EMS can replace any purine from DNA by any of the four bases A, T, G, and C. In most of the cases EMS induce C to T changes resulting in C/G to T/A substitution. Mutations produced by EMS can be studied in genetic screening or other assays. EMS induces a high rate of mutation at the regions near replicating forks because these regions are single stranded and EMS is more effective on single stranded DNA. EMS is also known as methane sulfonic acid, ethyl ether, ethyl methane sulfonic acid or ethyl metylate. Among the chemical mutagens, EMS mostly induces higher proportion of point mutations (Minocha and Arnason, 1962; Hajra, 1979).
Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS)is a powerful chemical mutagen that is capable of inducing mutations at a faster rate. Specific effects of this mutagen on the chromosomes of the plant CapsicumannuumL. cvJwalamukhi was the subject of this study. Different treatments (0.1-0.4% EMS) were done and seedlings from each treatment were grown under uniform environmental conditions. A set of control plants was also maintained. EMS was found to affect the floral structure and alter behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis. There are some flowers with more than the usual number of petals and stamens and also the normal size of gynoecium. At the same time, flowers with reduced petals and stamens were also noticed. Abnormally enlarged gynoecium was noticed in flowers treated with 0.4 % EMS. Cytological preparations showed various kinds of abnormalities such as chromosome stickiness, laggards, bridges, micronuclei, spindle disturbances etc. in meiosis. The study proved potent mutagenic effects of EMS on the plant C. annuum.
The purpose of this study was to assess Chemical composition, total flavonoid and carotenoid contents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in crude and concentrated extracts of pepper fruit (Capsicumannuum var an.). The concentrated extract was obtained by reverse osmosis process. Radical scavenging potential was also determined using in vitro assay: 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The GC-MS analysis of concentrated extracts of C. annuum revealed the presence of major constituents such as lactic acid, valeric acid, 5-methoxy, butanedioic acid, phenylalanine, hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, 6-methoxy-hexane-2-ol, butane, 2,3diol, pentanoicacid,4-oxo-, 3-methyl-2-hydroxyl butanoic acid, benzeneacetic acid, 4-hydroxyl, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid ester, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, 7- hydroxyl7-methyloctanoïc acid. Furthermore, the results indicated that the total flavonoid (3.7± 0.1g/L Eq Quercetin) and total carotenoid (54.33± 1.1 mg/100 mL of fresh extract) contents and the antioxidant activities ((83.44 ± 0.98%) in concentrated extract of C. annuum fruit were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than those recorded in crude extract. They also showed that the MIC values ranged from 10 to 20 μg/mL. This confirmed the existence of significant activity against the bacterial strains tested. Our results revealed that Gram positive and negative microorganisms were affected by the tested concentrated extract. Moreover, this study indicated that the concentrate of the Capsicumannuum fruit effectively shows the best ability to scavenge the free radicals. This concentrated extract also presents some antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms.
CapsicumannuumL. is an economically important crop plant belonging to the family Solanaceae. Two main consumption types of pepper, spice and vegetable,that are prevalent throughout the world . Capsicum species are well-known because of many medicinal properties. Chilies contain numerous chemicals including steam- volatile oil, fatty oils, carotenoids, vitamins, protein, fiber, and mineral elements [2, 3]. Aditionally, Capsicum contains capsaicinoid alkaloids specific to the genus Capsicum, which show many pharmacological properties . As medicine, it is used as a counter irritant or pain
In chilli leaf tissues, no significant difference were observed in peroxydase, PAL and PPO activity among treatments and control. All the treatments (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) prduced defence enzymes because of the activation of defense system in chilli plants by exogenous chemical elecitors. Due to the viral infection plants treated with distilled water and control also produced four defense enzymes. An important finding from our study revealed that all tested chemical inducers had positive effects on plant disease control in chilli plants. Tomato plants did not show symptoms it could be the tomato seeds are resistant to disease or the environmental conditions are not suitable for development of disease in tomato plants. Elicitors can be used to activate plant defensive systems at desired times; however, generally they should be applied prior to having a pest-problem so that the plant will have the best opportunity for resisting pests . Elicitors will probably not be effective in all plants since defensive systems vary with plant variety.
Abstract: Viability has been defined as having the capacity to live, grow, germinate or develop. Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male macro gametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gamete. The effect of each factor affects pollen viability in a species-specific way, depending on the physiology of the pollen grains and the presence or absence of specific structural modifications. Pollen viability was found to be decreased in several dosages in both recommended and double recommended dosages. Pollen Morphology of these species varies. Shape of the grain found to be useful in spore or pollen identification. The function of the pollen grain in the life cycle of a plant, one way to test pollen viability would be to use the pollen for pollination. The study aims to find the viability by the treatment of insecticide in Capsicumannuum, L.; it is large, shrubby perennial herb. Chemical that used as plant protectants and atmospheric pollutants affect pollen viability of a large number of crop plants. Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyreniod used as an insecticide in large scale commercial agriculture application.
Aktar et al., (2009) gave detailed account of effect of contamination of air, soil and non- target organism by different pesticides. Most of the fungi are sensitive to fungicides and are readily killed. Their tolerance depends upon the initial chemical concentration and nature of fungicide used.
To study the effect of different non chemical weed control methods on weeds and yield of chillies, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Extension Department Dargai Malakand in the summer season of 2011. The experiment encompassed six treatments which were, black plastic as an inorganic mulch treatment, and sorghum straw, wheat straw, and news papers as organic mulches, in addition to hand weeding and a weedy check (control) treatments. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design having three replications.
However, studies on the effect of C. murale on C. annuum are limited. The lack of information about the negative effect caused by C. murale on C. annuum development and losses caused to yield; three separate experiments were conducted: 1) to examine the effect of C. murale density on C. annuum growth during the seedling stage, which is the most sensitive growth stage; 2) to obtain the appropriate plant density of both plants to maximize reduced weed growth, and thus ensure control; 3) to test the competitive ability of C. annuum towards the weed C. murale using a replacement method. the objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of Chenopodium murale on Capsicumannuum seedling growth and to evaluate the competitive abilities of these species. The hope was that a suitable C. annuum: C. murale ratio could be found to ensure maximum weed control at no cost, since costs are traditionally associated with chemical control or weeding. To test these objectives, several competition indices have been used in this study to explore the net balance of plant interactions (Weigelt and Jolliffe, 2003). These include the competitiveness (C), the competitive intensity (CI), the competitive ratio (CR), the relative competition index (RCI) used for measuring competition.
In general, the damage of S. verticillata is moderately detrimental to crops. However, we must fear the early emergence of this weed that is able to reduce yields. As well as competing with a very wide range of tropical and temperate crops, it can cause difficulties during harvesting when the inflorescences become entangled with themselves and with the crop. It has inflicted considerable environmental and economic costs, and displacement of native grasses (Holm et al., 1977; Dekker, 2003; Abdullahi, 2004; Gözcü and Uludag, 2005; Kostov and Pacaoski, 2006). Yield losses caused by Setaria spp. are poorly documented. Yield reductions vary according to the date of emergence of Setaria spp relative to that of the crop. Yield reductions of 40% in beets and 75% in peas and beans have been measured in some trials (Douglas et al., 1985; Weill, 2007). One foxtail plant m −2 reduced Panicum virgatum L.
significantly (P<0.05) stimulated root length of Capsicum spears and Aframomum melequeta seeds in this study. A similar trend has been noted in response to priming (15- 20 ⁰ C) (Jones and Gosling, 1994, Doody and O’Reilling, 2005) treatments (Chaisurisri et al., 1993,Leinonen, 1998, Wang and Berjak, 2000) in the seeds of several other tree species. H 2 S0 4 treatment may provide a chilling-like effect,
Plant tissue culture and Genetic transfor mation are powerful tools that can complement traditional breeding methods and can be used in the improved production of Capsicum. The popularity and demand for chilli are providing a boost to the chilli industry, but production is constrained to attack of pest restricting their potential yield. The most important aspect of chilli breeding is to incorporate pest, disease resistance varieties, while retaining high yield capacity. By involving the above contemporary methods pest, disease resistant variety of Capsicum can be produced, which will boost the economic status of our country in chilli production in the world market.
results in table 2showed that only the dry chili extract using fresh coconut milk extraction can inhibit L. monocytogenes 10403S. The dry chili extract gave high antibacterial activity in three extractions against S. enterica Enteritidis (human). The use of mixed diet with C. annuum at percent 1% and 2%, were effective against S. typhimurium infection 25 . The plain and heated extracts were
In this study, six commonly used spices were selected to analyze their antifungal activity based on previous lite- rature and their popularity in the Nigerian markets. The fresh bulbs of A. cepa and A. sativum, fresh rhizomes of Z. officinale, fresh fruits of C. annuum, dried fruits of C. chinense and pods and seeds of A. melegueta were purchased from Eke Awka and Ose market in Onitsha, Anambra State in the month of April. They were identi- fied and authenticated by Mrs Oduche Anthonia in the Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka.
Although ABA has been used successfully to suppress transplant growth, research has shown that excessive application rates or concentrations of ABA can cause toxic effects in some plants. Sharma et al. (2005) reported that foliar applied ABA analogs could cause phytotoxicity in tomato seedlings. Leskovar and Cantliffe (1992) reported that the critical foliar-applied concentration that limits growth without visible phytotoxic effects on pepper seedlings was at 264 mg·L -1 ABA. Schopfer and Plachy (1984) found that foliar ABA applied at 2643 mg·L -1 concentration completely repressed the germination and seedling growth of rape (Brassica napus L.), and Wightman et al. (1980) reported root elongation of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings was completely suppressed when drench applied with 2643 mg·L -1 ABA. van Iersel et al. (2009) indicated that drench application of a high concentration of ABA (500 and 1000mg·L -1 ) on older leaves of hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) resulted in a mild chlorosis.
There are two types of male sterility in pepper (CapsicumannuumL.). These are genetic male sterility and CMS (Martin and Crawford, 1951; Peterson, 1958). When pepper male sterility was first reported, multiple alleles of the restoring gene (Rf) were found (Peterson, 1958). Male sterile plants are common in nature where the interaction between genotype and environment determines plant fertility (Peterson, 1958; Huang et al., 2015). CMS causes mitochondrial-nuclear interactions with restorer genes in the nucleus, which can restore normal pollen production in CMS plants. CMS plants can be used to produce F 1 -hybrid seeds commercially (Dhaliwal and Jindal, 2014).
Ahmed N U, Park J, Jung H, Kang K, Hur Y, Lim Y and Nou I. (2012). Molecular characterization of stress resistance-related chitinase genes of Brassica rapa. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 58: 106–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.06.015 Ali M. (2006). Chili (Capsicum spp.) food chain analysis: Setting research priorities in Asia.
electrolyte balance in the body 24, 28 . In all three samples the different trace elements were found with different concentration due to the difference in soil composition in which the spices were grow, or due to the fertilizer, irrigation of water and climate condition 26 . In present study the trace elements found in minimal quantities and heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead were not detected in samples in conclusion it can be say that the use of capsicumannuum fruit as a medicine is safe.
www.wjpr.net Vol 4, Issue 1, 2015. 647 D or NAA as source of auxins. NAA proved to be less effective for callus induction at any of the concentration tested when compared to 2, 4-D. Since 2, 4-D at 2mg/l supported better growth of callus, further studies were carried out to investigate the interaction between 2, 4-D and kinetin at concentrations varying between 0.5 to 1.5 mg/l. From the data presented in Table-3, it can be noticed that increasing the concentration of kinetin from 0.5 to 1mg/l a gradual increase in the growth of callus was noticed (Plate-I c &d)) however Kn., at 1.5mg/l inhibited the growth of callus. Maximum callus was noticed on MS medium supplemented with 2mg/l 2, 4-D+1mg/l Kn (745.6± 0.54 mg).
Salinization promotes an imbalance in the absorption of essential nutrients, causing metabolic disorders, which inhibit growth (Maia, et al, 2012)there are an extensive number of plant nutrition studies from all over the world, but the studies were mostly conducted to determine best management practices under non-saline conditions. Some studies have been conducted to determine if certain nutrients have alleviative effects on salinity tolerance (El-Sidding and Ludders, 1994). Some studies indicated a positive effect of fertility on salt tolerance while some reported that there was no alleviative effect on salt tolerance, some Studies showed that application of fertilizers in saline soils might result in increased, decreased or unchanged plant salt tolerance. In other words, plant response to fertilizers depends on severity of salt stress in the root zone(Faiza and Amin,2009) However, in another similar study to (Gomez, et al,1996), found a positive yield response for pepper at all three salinity levels by increasing nutrient N from 2 to 15 mM in a solution culture. However the effect of N on relative yield was not clear. The first salinity level above the control (25 mMNaCl) had a lower relative yield at lower N and with subsequent increases in salinity it had a higher relative yield.