Top PDF Effect of Hybridization of Glass/kevlar Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Bast Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review

Effect of Hybridization of Glass/kevlar Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Bast Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review

Effect of Hybridization of Glass/kevlar Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Bast Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review

Bast fibers are defined as the outer cell layer of various plants and also have majority in plant fiber categories which has been utilized as reinforcement for making polymeric composies [1-2]. Various researchers have studied the mechanical properties of bast fibers reinforced polymer composites [3-8]. The polymer composites reinforced with bast fiber are characterized to be reasonable strong, economical, light in weight with less hazards and have potential to be used as structural materials. Bast fiber like hemp, jute, flax and kenaf are found increasingly important in composite production due to its better strength and stiffness as compared to other natural fibers. The mechanical properties of mostly used bast fiber that has been utilized are showed in Table 1. Despite of the above advantages they possess some limitations also, such as high water uptake capacity, and low strength as compared to inorganic fibers such as aramid, glass, carbon. These properties of bast fiber based composites can be improved by hybridization of such fiber with high strength synthetic fiber which emanates flexibility to the design engineer to tailor the properties of composites according to the requirements. Hybrid composites are termed as more advanced composites as compared to conventional FRP composites. Hybrids can accomodate more than one reinforcing phase and a single matrix phase or single reinforcing phase with multiple matrix phases or multiple reinforcing and multiple matrix phases [9-11]. Glass fiber is most commonly used synthetic fiber as reinforcing agents in both thermoplastics as well as thermoset polymers. They possess low cost, high dimensional stability, high tensile strength and chemical resistance and have excellent insulating properties; therefore various researchers have studied the behavior of combination of different bast fibers with glass and kevlar fibers in polymer composites.
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A Review On Mechanical Properties Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

A Review On Mechanical Properties Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Mohd Hafiz Zamri, Hazizan Md Akil, Azhar Abu Bakar, Zainal Arifin Mohd Ishak, Leong Wei Cheng [4] studied the mechanical properties of jute/glass reinforced polyester with water absorption condition. Composites are subjected to various water conditions and test were performed by immersing composite specimen in to three different water conditions, distilled water, sea water and acidic water and water was in room temperature for a period of three weeks and also effect of the various water environments on the flexural and compression characteristics were investigated in this study. It found out that the jute composite is not suitable for underwater applications.
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Mechanical Properties and Vibration Damping Characteristics of Carbon/Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Polymer Composites

Mechanical Properties and Vibration Damping Characteristics of Carbon/Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Polymer Composites

Polymeric composites made of reinforced Glass fiber usually have reduced wear resistance and high friction; this has provoked researchers to prepare the polymers with fibers/fillers. This helps in using the composites for varying range of practical applications thereby providing both economical and functional benefits to the manufacturing and the end users. Literature review shows various works have been conducted by varying its profiles, dimensions, natures and compositions of fibers.

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Mechanical Properties of Banana Fabric and Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Effect of Treatment and Hybridization

Mechanical Properties of Banana Fabric and Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Effect of Treatment and Hybridization

In the quest of sustainability, NFCs are found to be new emerging material. An increasing amount of interest has developed over the past few years in NFCs, especially due to weight saving, low cost, and attractive look [1]. As compared to synthetic fibers, NFC has high specific strength, low density, recyclability, and good sound abatement quality. NFCs have paved its way in applications such as space research, marine, automotive industry, sport, etc. [2, 3]. Especially, Natural fibers such as Bamboo, Banana, Kenaf, Hemp, jute, flax are showing good compatibility in automotive applications. [4,5]. One of the reasons for this growing interest in natural fibers, as it has higher specific strength than glass fiber and a similar specific modulus. The energy consumption to produce natural fiber is far less than
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Review A Comprehensive Review on Bast Fiber Retting Process for Optimal Performance in Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites

Review A Comprehensive Review on Bast Fiber Retting Process for Optimal Performance in Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites

micro-holes on the fiber surface, which can roughen the surface of hemp fibers [163]. FTIR spectra observed a reduction of the 1736 cm-1 peak for white rot fungi retted hemp fibers, which can be attributed to effective pectin and wax removal, resulted in high crystallinity index of retted hemp fibers (84-88%) although the over-retted process was being blamed to the fine holes that roughen fiber surface and caused structural degradation of cellulose to the fiber, thereby deteriorated tensile strength of fibers [162]. The fine holes that made roughen surface have improved the interfacial bonding at the same time, increasing mechanical interlocking and showing the importance of interfacial bonding than single fiber strength performances. The previous study found similar findings, enzyme-treated flax fibers pulled out from the matrix, were more intensely coated with the PLA matrix [164]. Improved adhesion between PLA and enzyme retted fiber was shown in figure 17 (a) due to the different surface morphology of untreated (figure 17(b)) and enzyme retted fibers (figure 17(c)). Figure 17(b) show waxy materials covering the fibers and hence hindering effective adhesion while figure 17(c) revealing a smooth flax fiber surface which promoting good interfacial bonding. On the contrary, Foulk, et al. [165] claimed that smoother fiber surface by long enzyme retting periods found reduced mechanical interlocking between flax fiber and thermoset vinyl ester resin but somehow 22 hours and 46 hours of enzyme exposure recorded significant higher tensile value than short period of enzyme retted fibers composite, without any specific explanations [165]. Apart from this, strong interfacial bonding having a positive effect on shrinkage- and fire-resistant properties of enzyme retted bast fibers reinforced polymer composites [166].
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Hybridization Effect on Mechanical Properties and Erosion Wear of Epoxy Glass Composites

Hybridization Effect on Mechanical Properties and Erosion Wear of Epoxy Glass Composites

Abstract: In this research work the mechanical and erosion wear behavior of E-Glass fiber reinforced epoxy based hybrid composites were determined. Fillers like coal fly ash (CFA), Coal powder (CP) and mixture of coal fly ash and coal powder (CFA-CP) at different weight proportions of 0wt%, 5wt% and 10wt% were mixed with Epoxy Resin and composites were fabricated by manual hand lay-up technique with 50wt% of Glass Fiber as reinforcement and the prepared composites were cut in to specimens as per ASTM standards for mechanical characterizations like tensile, flexural, ILSS, Impact and Hardness properties and erosion wear behavior. Experimental analysis shows that the tensile strength of unfilled Epoxy-Glass composites is maximum (252.189MPa) where as for 10wt% coal fly ash filled epoxy-glass composites tensile modulus is maximum (7.823 GPA). The flexural strength and ILSS are 750.54 MPa and 25.188 MPa respectively for 10 wt% CP filled hybrid composites. The impact strength and hardness are 2100 J/m and 62Hv for 10wt% CFA-CP filled epoxy composites. Coming to erosion wear behavior of composites filled with CFA-CP have exhibited maximum erosion wear resistance when compared with CFA filled epoxy composites. It is observed that with the increase in weight percentages of the filler material. The mechanical properties and erosion wear resistance of the composites were enhanced. Hence, for structural applications filler materials mixed Glass- Epoxy hybrid composites can be used in place of plain glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites due to the enhanced properties of composites.
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State-of-Art on Hybridization of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

State-of-Art on Hybridization of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Sathishkumar et al., [46] Studied on the tensile properties of the snake grass fiber and are compared with the traditionally available other natural fibers. The mixed chopped snake grass fiber reinforced composite is prepared by using the isophthallic polyester resin and result shows that the volume fraction increases the tensile, flexural strength and modulus of the snake grass fiber reinforce composite. Farias et al., [47] Investigated the effect of bi-dimensional orientation of leaf stalk fibers from peach palm in impact, tensile strength behavior and water absorption profile of polyester/fiber reinforced composites. Samples reinforced with peach palm powder and weave were processed by hand layup technique. Tensile properties analyzed and show better results than the composites with both weave and powder, indicating that oriented fibers give better mechanical properties than randomly oriented fibers. Braga et al., [48] Investigated and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. Results shows that addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption.
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Effect of Sea Water Environment Exposure on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Effect of Sea Water Environment Exposure on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Vinyl ester isophthalic polyesters are used for construction. This polymer is exposed to moisture, alkaline, UV radiation and saline environments and properties were evaluated.MOE MOE THWE [2],Used short bamboo fiber and short bamboo GFRP composites are used. Samples were exposed immersed in water for 1200 hour at 250C and tensile properties are tested. SHAN LI[3] used wet lay-up fiber reinforced polymers to investigate effects of environment and sustained load on the mechanical properties. Specimens were exposed to hygrothermal aging and freeze thaw cycles.A. AGARWAL [4] GFRP specimens are exposed to different environmental conditions such as acid, base, Kerosene oil, freezing conditions ganga water and brine for different times. Tensile test were conducted on GFRP under above mentioned conditions. ARASH AFSHAR [5], Surface coating of thin metallic films on fiber-reinforced polymer composites are prepared. For investigation metallic coatings like aluminium, copper and metallic thin films were coated on the surface. The mechanical properties are monitored under accelerated environmental conditions.
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A Review on Polymer/Fiber Properties of Reinforced Natural Composites

A Review on Polymer/Fiber Properties of Reinforced Natural Composites

In the fibre reinforced composite material matrix has an important role. It acts as a barrier from adverse environmental conditions. It protects the fibres from mechanical abrasion and transfer of load [3]. The most commonly used matrix for natural fibres are polymeric because they are light weight as well as they can be processed at low temperature. Thermoplastic and thermoset polymers were most commonly used as matrix for natural fibres. The natural fibres are used in many applications. It is used for preparation papers, felt, automobile exterior parts and fabric materials. The mostly used animal fibre are wool, camel hair, silk and angora whereas coming to plant fibres, flax, hemp, jute and cotton are most commonly used[7]. The value of natural fibres is better than glass fibres when considering certain modulus of it.
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Effect of Fiber Loading on the Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Effect of Fiber Loading on the Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites are versatile in applications with excellent physico-mechanical properties. They are widely used in various appli- cations such as furniture, building materials, automotive industry, civil and mil- itary, biomedical and many other applications. Among various natural and syn- thetic fibers, the demand of natural fibers like jute, hemp, sisal, flax, coir, pi- neapple etc. are increasing day by day due to their ecofriendly nature and availa- bility in the market [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Jute is a dominant natural bast fiber in the world market which is mostly produced in Bangladesh and India. The jute fiber has some promising properties like long staple length, excellent tensile proper- ties, low density, nonabrasive nature, low price and very easy to processing. It is a lignocellulosic fiber and main constituents are α -cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin [2] [4] [6] [7]. Jute is extensively used in the production of ropes, sacks, packaging, carpet backings, furnishing fabrics, geotextiles materials and compo- site materials etc. [8] [9] [10].
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Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Glass/Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite

Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Glass/Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite

3. 6. Effect of Independent Variables on Specific Wear rate Three-dimensional (3D) surface plot for the specific wear rate (SWR) model according to Equation (2) is plotted in Figure 6. Figure 6(a) shows the 3D surface plot against H and L for specific wear rate where for low values of composite hardness and high values of applied load, specific wear rate decreases. The results revealed that SWR of the composites decreases as the applied load increases. This may be due to accumulation of wear debris between the abrasive asperities that had broken off from the softer materials. Figure 6(b) shows the 3D surface plot of SWR against D and L. The results revealed that with high value of sliding distance and low value of applied load, there is drastic reduction in specific wear rate. Figure 6(c) shows the 3D surface plot of SWR against D and H, it is seen that specific wear rate decreases with the increase of sliding distance and decrease in hardness of the composites.
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Studies on Mechanical Properties of Jute/E Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Studies on Mechanical Properties of Jute/E Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) resulted in composites having a superior mechanical performance. A positive hybrid effect is observed in the elongation property. Thus, glass and OPEFB hybrid fiber reinforcement in Phenol- formaldehyde (PF) resin resulted in a cost effective and a lightweight composite having good performance qual- ities. These composites may find applications as structural materials where higher strength and cost considera- tions are important [1]. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) and sisal rein- forced polyester composites are improved by the incorporation of a small amount of glass fibers in these com- posites, showing positive hybrid effect [2]. The mechanical properties of the composites are improved due to the addition of glass fiber along with palmyra fiber in the matrix and decrease the moisture absorption of the com- posites [3]. Glass/sugar palm composites are found to have an increase in tensile, flexural, and impact properties with increasing fiber content and the weight ratio of glass/sugar palm fibers [4]. The tensile properties of the flax/glass fiber reinforced hybrid composites were improved with the increasing of glass fiber content. The in- terlaminar shear strength and the interlaminar fracture toughness of flax/glass fiber reinforced hybrid composites were higher than those of GFRP [5]. Experimental study on untreated woven jute fabric-strengthened polyester composites shows the capability of this renewable wellspring of normal fiber for utilization in various consuma- ble products [6]. The market scenario for composite applications is changing due to the introduction of newer biodegradable polymers. Composite materials reinforced with natural fibers, such as flax, hemp, kenaf and jute, are gaining increasing importance in automotive, aerospace, packaging and other industrial applications [7]. The purpose of this study is to make use of natural fiber like jute fiber, which is abundantly available in India and to incorporate with synthetic fiber like glass fiber to enhance the mechanical properties. In this paper, an effect of hybridization of jute/E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites is evaluated. The results of the tests help in de- termining the potential applications of the jute/E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites.
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A Review on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

A Review on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Malla Surya Teja, et al [1] made the Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal properties of sisal fiber reinforced composites and effect of Sic filler material. In this they exhibited that the tensile strength of composite with 10%SiC 2.53 times greater than that of composite without Sic. Thermal properties includes thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity. Braga R. A, et al [2] The author Compare the analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of polyester hybrid composites by jute and glass fiber. To improve mechanical properties jute was hybridized with glass fiber. The different tests are Flexural, thermal, impact, density and water absorption using hybrid composites samples. The thermal properties of the composites without glass fiber it lost more mass where temperature is a function, more percentage of glass fiber with composite lost less weight with increasing temperature. So that the composite with more percentage of glass fiber absorbs more water when composite with more jute fiber.
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The Effect of Hybridization on Mechanical Behavior of Natural / Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

The Effect of Hybridization on Mechanical Behavior of Natural / Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

The matrix provides lateral support against the possibility of fibre buckling under compression loading, thus influencing to some extent the compressive strength of the composite materials The interaction between fibers and matrix is also important in designing damage tolerant structures. Finally the properties and defects in composite materials depend strongly on the physical and thermal characteristics such as viscosity, melting point and Curie temperature of the matrix.

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A Review on Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composites

A Review on Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composites

D. dash et al. [13] concluded that the mechanical properties of composites such as tensile strength and com- pressive strength of natural fiber composite was reported and compare with the data for glass/epoxy composites. It has been seen form tensile test that bamboo composite laminates having higher tensile strength and stiffness than jute composite laminates, but not at par the glass fibre reinforced composite. Compressive test shows that compressive strength and modulus of jute composite is higher than bamboo composite, but less than glass com- posite the fibre orientation angle of 0/90, 15/−75, 30/−60, and 45/−45 as shown in Figure 2, on tensile beha- viour were analyzed and showed that the fiber orientation of 0 provides higher strength and modulus than 45 di- rection of fiber orientation. The mechanical property also depends upon individual material property. The glass fiber was manufactured artificially in an industrial plant with special tool while the bamboo and jute fiber was available from nature & manufactured by simple tool and/or manually that may result inconsistency during manufacturing of product. Due to this reason the strength of natural fibers does not come up to the level of tradi- tional e-glass fiber. But the natural fiber reinforced composite can be used in places where light load application is important and the economics of natural fiber composite materials is more beneficial as compared to e-glass fiber composites.
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Mechanical Properties of Liquid and Solid Repaired on Damaged Model of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

Mechanical Properties of Liquid and Solid Repaired on Damaged Model of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

This study has investigated the effect of repair method on mechanical properties of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (GFRP). Composite materials are primarily damaged by mechanical loads. In this study, a damaged composite was repaired by liquid filling and solid filling methods. The damaged composite was modeled by drilled composites specimen with 5 mm drill. The specimen than repaired in the form of the same fluid and solid mixture of epoxy resin composite. The tensile and impact properties of damaged and repaired composites were observed. The results show the increase of tensile and impact strength in each additional glass fiber in both liquid and solid repair. Also, solid repair data show the better and the increase of tensile and impact strength than the liquid repair. They are 23, 40 and 46 MPa for tensile strength of solid repair with 10%, 20% and 30% of additional glass-fiber respectively. Moreover, the impact strength data of solid repair show 0.86, 1.00 and 1.99 J/mm 2 with 10%, 20% and 30% of additional glass fiber respectively. Fractography study shows the fracture of Repaired Solid Hollow Glass-Fiber Reinforced Polymers (RSHGFRP) 30% composite located in the circle of repaired area. Solid repair shows higher mechanical properties than liquid repair.
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Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Coal Ash Reinforced Glass Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Coal Ash Reinforced Glass Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

one of the most widely used composite materials. The addition of Coal ash to polymer matrix dramatically increases the overall mechanical strength of the composite material as compared to the polymer composite. In view of this, a method is proposed for mixing coal ash powder (size 52-75 µm) into resin and Ash reinforced polymer composites are fabricated by using hand lay-up technique in different weight percentages of coal ash in polymer such as 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20%.The mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, compression and Impact properties are studied as per ASTM standards. From the Experimental analysis, it was observed 20% ash reinforced polymer composite is having better tensile strength in comparison with other ash percentages. Similarly 16% ash reinforced composite is having better flexural strength in comparison with other percentages of ash. Similarly 12% ash reinforced composite is having better compression strength in comparison with others. By conducting impact test it was observed that impact strength of polymer matrix composites without ash is having better impact strength than that of coal ash reinforced polymer matrix composites, it was also found that there is no significant effect on Impact strength with the addition of coal ash to glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites.
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Mechanical Properties of Carbon/Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Polymer Composites

Mechanical Properties of Carbon/Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Polymer Composites

studied. None of the mechanical properties, excluding the fracture energies show signs of a positive hybrid effect (Marom et al., 1978). Manders and Bader (1981) reported hybrid effect and failure strain enhancement of up to 50% for the glass fiber/carbon fiber/epoxy composite. The failure strain of the carbon phase increased as the relative proportion of carbon fiber was decreases and as the carbon fibers were more finely dispersed. Yerramalli and Waas (2003) have considered carbon/ glass hybrid composite with an overall fiber volume fraction of 30%. Splitting and kinking failures were noted while loading the hybrid laminates under static and dynamic loading rates. Zhang et al. (2012) studied the mechanical behavior of hybrid composites made of carbon/glass reinforcements and the processing method used is ‘wet lay-up’ which is not a best practice for obtaining high quality laminates. An addition of hard reinforcements such as silicon carbide, alumina and titanium carbide improves hardness, strength and wear resistance of the composites (Amar Patnaik et al., 2009; and Chauhan et al., 2009). The introduction of a glass fiber into a polymer matrix produces a composite material that results in an attractive combination of physical and mechanical properties which cannot be obtained with monolithic alloys (Schwartz, 1984). Among the various useful polymer matrices, vinyl ester is typically characterized by properties such as fluidity, corrosion resistance and high strength-weight ratio (Suresha et al., 2007). The advantages of Fiber-reinforced PMCs over traditional materials include greater mechanical strength, lighter weight, better dimensional stability, higher dielectric strength and corrosion resistance and flexibility to improve the
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Free vibration and dynamic mechanical properties of basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites

Free vibration and dynamic mechanical properties of basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites

Fiber reinforced polymer composites find wide use in engineering applications due to their superior mechanical properties compared to metals. The properties include light weight, high specific strength, ease in manufacture and cost. Synthetic fiber like glass fiber used as reinforcement in polymer finds increasing use due to its high strength compared to natural fiber. However, glass fiber has some limitations such as bio-degradability and damage to the surface of the fiber on alkali treatment. Basalt fiber is a material manufactured from volcanic igneous rock. It is similar to carbon fiber and fiberglass, and has better physicomechanical properties than fiberglass. But significantly cheaper than carbon fiber. In addition to the mechanical properties of the composites, it is essential to study the vibration characteristics and make a dynamic mechanical analysis for the application of composites to understand their appropriateness to suit different environments.
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EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ABACA-GLASS-BANANA FIBER REINFORCED HYBRID COMPOSITES

EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ABACA-GLASS-BANANA FIBER REINFORCED HYBRID COMPOSITES

Abstract: This work deals with fabrication and investigation of mechanical properties of natural fibres such as abaca and banana fibre and compares with the hybrid natural fibre composite. Tensile, flexural and impact strength of the composites are investigated in the process of mechanical characterisation. The Reinforcement material used is a by-product of epoxy resin namely Bisphenol-A . Hand lay-up technique is used to manufacture the composite and the fibre content is varied through volume fraction of upto 0.5. Glass fibre on top and bottom layers of the laminate improves it’s surface finish and adds up strength. The Natural fibre is sandwiched in intermediate layers with the glass fibre. It is found that Abaca-Glass composite is found to have better tensile strength than the other two combination and Abaca-Glass-Banana Hybrid Composite is found to have better Flexural strength and Impact value.
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