In order to examine types of wear occurring in the cutting inserts, photographs of the cutting inserts were taken via an Insize electronic microscope. As a result of turningInconelX750 alloy with PVD TiAlN-TiN coatedcarbideinserts, it can be seen that material adhesion and BUE occur for almost all test parameters when the cutting inserts are examined. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are important cutting parameters in terms of cutting tool wear and tool life 25 . Regarding wear at a constant depth of cut, the cutting speed is followed by the feed rate in order of importance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were taken to do a more detailed investigation of tool wear types and wear mechanisms. In the light of the experimental parameters and the information obtained from wear photograph, SEM images of cutter was taken used in the experiments where both cutting speed and feed rate are at their highest. It can be said that cutting conditions are challenging and the risk of abrasion is highest at these parameters. SEM images for the cutting insert used in the turning experiment for V c = 100 m/min and f = 0.2 mm/rev are shown in
Turning is a widely used material removal process. The use of CNC turning machine has a proven record of better surface quality, precise accuracy, less machining times and high production rate in comparison to the conventional lathe machines. But the major problem being faced by the workers as well as the researchers while performing turning operations on such machines which require high set up costs, is to operate them with their best parameter selection so as to obtain the desired outputs more efficiently. In this paper such attempt is made by using one factor at a time approach in which out of the three selected parameters viz. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut one factor was varied and the other two were kept constant and their effect on the change in MRR and Ra is evaluated. In first set of experiments speed was varied from 40 m/min to 110 m/min and feed (0.24 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.4 mm) were kept constant. The readings for MRR and Ra were tabulated in table 1.
The experiment has been conducted to analyze the effect of depth of cut, cutting speed and feed on the surface roughness (Ra). The experiments were carried out with three parameters at four levels each, as shown in Table 2. The selected experimental design is 4 3 (= 64) full factorial design with one replicate and the design matrix is shown in Table 3. The turning experimental runs were carried out in order to obtain experimental data in the dry condition on a CNC lathe machine (Jobber XL, AMS India) which have a maximum spindle speed of 3500 rpm and a maximum power of 16 kW. Prior to actual machining, the skin layers were removed by a new cutting edge of uncoated carbide insert of very small depth of cut. This was done in order to remove the rust layer or hardened top layer from the outside surface and to
The selection of good cutting tool is one of the most critical factors to be considered before machining operation. Appropriate cutting tool will contribute to longer tool life performance and better surface finish for the machined parts. However, good cutting tools that possess good mechanical properties are high cost. The need of good cutting tools is a must for machining hard materials. As an alternative, coatedcarbide insert can be used as it’s possess good mechanical properties and capable to do high speed machining. The cost of coatedcarbideinserts is lower than high end cutting tool materials. Coatedcarbide insert has been widely used due to its good mechanical properties and low cost.
Effect of cryogenic treatment on cutting performance is a not stable for all machining applications and cutting conditions. The results reported in open literature on this area are diverse and contradictory. The main objective of this research was to critically examine the performance of cryogenic treatment of coated and non-coatedcarbide tool inserts in turning gray cast iron by selecting parameters such as tool wear, tool tip temperature, surface roughness of the work piece and cutting forces Liquid nitrogen was selectively applied to the chip and the tool rake face in well- controlled jet. Finite element analysis showed that this cooling approach can bring the chip temperature down to the embrittlement temperature for the material, −55°C. Consequently, it expands the chip-breaking range of feed and cutting speed, with a reduced chip–tool interface temperature and increased tool life .
appropriate choice of cutting parameters it is possible to obtain a surface roughness with Ra < 0.8 μm that allows cylindrical grinding operation to be eliminated. Bartarya and Choudhury  studied the effect of cutting parameters on cutting force and surface roughness during finish hard turning AISI52100 grade steel. In this study, experiment was design by a full factorial design for developing the force and surface roughness regression models, within the range of parameters selected. More et al.  experimentally investigated the effects of cutting speed and feed rate on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces in turning of AISI 4340 hardened steel using CBN–TiN-coatedcarbideinserts. In addition, cost analysis based on total machining cost per part was also performed for the economic comparison of CBN–TiN-coated and PCBN inserts. Sharma et al.  studied machining variables such as cutting forces and surface roughness which are measured during turning at different cutting parameters such as approaching angle, speed, feed and depth of cut. The data obtained by experimentation is analyzed and used to construct model using neural networks. In an original work carried out by Çaydas , the effects of the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, workpiece hardness, and cutting tool type on surface roughness, tool flank wear, and maximum tool–chip interface temperature during an orthogonal hard turning of hardened/tempered AISI 4340 steels were investigated. Sahoo and Sahoo  investigated flank wear, surface roughness, chip morphology and cutting forces in hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (47 HRC); using uncoated and multilayer TiN and ZrCN coatedcarbideinserts. Experimental results showed that multilayer TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN coatedcarbideinserts performed better than the uncoated and TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN coatedcarbideinserts.
machinability characteristics of Incoloy 825 which was so far unknown, in the initial stage of experiment, tool wear and its mechanism, chip characteristics and surface integrity during dry machining were first studied using uncoated and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) multilayer TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN coated tool with different cutting speeds. The coated tool could not improve surface finish, but outperformed its uncoated counterpart in terms of other aspects. In the second stage of the study, the primary objective was to recommend suitable cutting tool for machining Incoloy 825. Detailed study was undertaken using commercially available uncoated, CVD and physical vapour deposition (PVD) coatedcarbide tools, the performance of which was comparatively evaluated in terms of surface roughness, cutting temperature, cutting force, coefficient of friction, tool wear and its mechanism during dry machining. Effect of cutting speed (Vc) and feed (f) was also studied. Although, CVD coated tool was not useful in decreasing surface roughness and temperature compared to uncoated one, significant decrease in cutting force and tool wear could be achieved with the same coated tool even under high cutting parameters. On the other hand, PVDcoated tool consisting of alternate layers of TiAlN/TiN outperformed the other tools in terms of all machinability characteristics that have been studied. This might be attributed to excellent anti-friction and anti-sticking property of TiN and good toughness which is a salient feature of PVD technique as well as multilayer configuration, in combination with thermally resistant TiAlN phase. .
Tran Minh-Duc (2013) In his study, an attempt has been conducted to investigate the effects of cutting parameters on tool wear and surface roughness during hard turning of Inconel 718 material. By taking into account the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in accordance to Central Composite Design (CCD); the mathematical model of the flank wear and surface roughness are developed with transformation of the natural logarithm. when machining at higher cutting speed, around 50-75m/min, the surface roughness is significantly improved due to the disappearance of built-up-edge. However, due to the hard particles of the Inconel 718 material against the cutting tool, the abrasive wear increases rapidly at high cutting speed, more than 90m/min. As evidenced from this paper, in order to achieve a high surface quality with low cutting tool wear, a cutting speed in the range of 50- 70 m/min is highly recommended for the hardened Inconel 718 usingPVDcoated cutting tool
Only performing the experimentation and to obtain the result is not only the objective of this study. The research work findings should also provide useful information and economic machining solution in case of dry, high speed turning of AISI 304 steel. It should also be beneficial for the manufacturing industry and the environment as well. It is done through developing the imperial relation and finding the values of the constant from the experimental results. Many researchers have contributed to the field of machining by developed various relation dedicated for the specific work material and cutting parameters. Some researchers have developed some relations, which are suitable for different material, and cutting conditions e.g. Taylor’s tool life equation and modified tool life equation. The power law based models have proven its significance in the machining. Hence, the power law was used to develop regression models and it is given below:
Ribeiro et al. applied optimization in machining titanium alloy. In order to achieve satisfactory tool life, the ranges of cutting speed and feed rates were limited. Tool life also depends on coating, geometry and chip flow of the material . Thepsonthi and Ozel investigated experimental and finite element simulation during micro milling Ti-6Al-4V in the evaluation of Cubic Boron Nitride (cBN) coating on tool wear. The study revealed that cBN performed better when compared to uncoated carbide insert . D’Mello et al. carried out the experimental analysis in correlating cutting tool vibrations with surface roughness parameters. The high speed turning experiments were carried out on Ti-6Al-4V using uncoated carbideinserts. They concluded that cutting tool vibration has a direct correlation with the surface roughness parameters . In a related work by Pai and DMello, during HSM of Ti-6Al- 4V, cutting tool vibrations were found to be sensitive to the variation of tool wear . Ezugwu et al. compared the conventional and high pressure coolant supply during HSM of Ti- 6Al-4V. Their study concluded that increase in coolant pressure can reduce the hardening effect on the machined surfaces . Su et al. performed high speed milling of grade 5 titanium alloy during an experimental investigation of the effect of coolant on tool wear. The results revealed that flood coolant is not suitable for high speed machining .
Rodriguez Kantharaj and Freitas  presented a method to determine the effect of the cutting parameters on cutting force in turning mild steel. Experiments were carried out using full factorial design and the ANOVA is the tool used for this study. From the ANOVA it was found that the feed rate was the most significant factor followed by cutting speed and depth of cut. Singh and Kumar  studied on optimization of cutting force through setting of optimal value of process parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut while machining EN-24 alloy steel (0.4%C) with TiC coatedcarbideinserts. The effects of the selected process parameters have been accomplished using Taguchi's parameter design approach and concluded that the effect of depth of cut and feed rate in variation of cutting force were affected more as compared to cutting speed.
Inconel 625 is a nickel based alloy which exhibits excellent thermo-mechanical properties. These properties enable it to withstand stringent working conditions which find numerous applications in aerospace, nuclear, chemical and petrochemical industries . However, processing of which poses certain bottlenecks and are referred to as difficult to cut material . Loss of surface integrity due to excessive work hardening, rapid tool wear due to uneven strong stress field by thermo-mechanical coupling influences the overall economy of the manufacturing sector . Numerous researchers have addressed the problem related to surface integrity so obtained after machining operation. It was noted from the work of A. Devillez et al.  that a cutting speed of 60 m/min in dry machining of Inconel gave acceptable surface finish using a coatedcarbide insert. Surface integrity of the machined part also depends on the type of cutting insert used. A comparative study on PVDcoated monolayer and multilayer inserts was done by Jindal et al  and it was concluded from their work that multilayer coatedcarbide insert TiAlN performed better than TiCN and TiN owing to its high hardness at elevated temperature (T ≥ 750ºC) which is supported by the fact that TiAlN forms a protective layer of Al 2 0 3 and also an intermediate layer comprising of Ti,
J. S. Senthil kumaar et al  heat-resistant super alloy material like Inconel 718 machining is challenging task even in modern manufacturing processes. Therefore the genetic algorithm coupled with artificial neural network (ANN) as an intelligent optimization technique for machiningparameters optimization of Inconel 718. The combined effects of cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut on the performance measures of surface roughness and flank wear were investigated by the analysis of variance. Waleed Bin Rashid et al  provided the experimental results of hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using a cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting tool. An orthogonal array was implemented using a set of judiciously chosen cutting parameters. Subsequently, the longitudinal turning trials were carried out in accordance with a well-designed full factorial based Taguchi matrix. The speculation indeed proved correct as a mirror finished optical quality machined surface was achieved by the conventional cutting method using a CBN cutting tool. The design of experiment using Taguchi’s approach can be used to evaluate the effect of control parameters for parameter optimization. Taguchi’s approach allows the study of the whole parameter space with a limited number of experiments, as long as they are carried out in a planned orthogonal array. This methodology helps reduce the variability of the response variable and is therefore an important tool for improving the productivity of the experiments. Radhakrishnan Ramanujam et al  had investigates turning on aluminium Silicon Carbide particulate metal matrix composite (Al-SiC–MMC) using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) 1600 grade insert. Analysis of variance is used to investigate the machining characteristics of metal matrix composite
J. Davim et al.  worked on surface roughness prediction models using artificial neural network (ANN) are developed to investigate the effects of cutting conditions during turning of free machining steel, 9SMnPb28k(DIN). I.A. Choudhury et al.  worked on the development of surface roughness prediction models for turning EN 24T steel (290 BHN) utilizing response surface methodology. W.H. Yang et al.  An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S:N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the cutting characteristics of S45C steel bars using tungsten carbide cutting tools. M. Nalbant et al.  The orthogonal array, the signal-to- noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of AISI 1030 steel bars using TiN coated tools. IlhanAsilturk et al.  focuses on optimizing turningparameters based on the Taguchi method to minimize surface roughness (Ra and Rz). H. Aouici et al.  the effects of cutting speed, feed rate, workpiece hardness and depth of cut on surface roughness and cutting force components in the hard turning were experimentally investigated. Ramesh et al.  studies the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness in turning of titanium alloy has been investigated using response surface methodology. Günay.M et al. , focused on optimizing the cutting conditions for the average surface roughness (Ra) obtained in machining of high-alloy white cast iron (Ni-Hard) at two different hardness levels (50 HRC and 62 HRC). N.R. Abburi et al.  develops a knowledge-based system for the prediction of surface roughness in turning process. JanezKopac et al. 
This results concluded that the carbide tool produces better Ra with admire to excessive velocity and low feedrate, but the depth of cut has minimum impact on surface roughness. The aggregate of low feed rate and immoderate cutting velocity is necessary for minimizing the surface roughness. If feed rate is altered, it'll have an essential impact on the surface roughness. From the response surface technique, it's been placed that the feed plays as a top parameter for decreasing surface roughness, whereas the intensity of reducing is having the least effective or does now not have widespread effect at the surface roughness. Microscopic assessment of the worn surfaces on the lowering speed showed no enormous put on of the reducing damage due to dry surroundings. Abrasion was the primary wear mechanism located at all the reducing conditions. The intensity of reducing has a big effect on the damage rate. The widespread decrease in device behavior foruncoated carbide tool at the better intensity of cut can be attributed to the temperature
Irradiation with high energy heavy ions, producing PKA with higher energy (~5 KeV), results in the production of dense atomic displacement cascades similar to that of neutron irradiation. A tremendous advantage of such a process is that it implants this crystallographic damage at a rate that is about four orders of magnitude higher than in- reactor neutron irradiation induced crystallographic damage. This allows one to create levels of irradiation damage in a test sample that is consistent with an “end of life” in- reactor component after only several hours of ion implantation . This high dpa rate introduces a fundamental difference between ion and neutron irradiation; namely, high energy ion irradiation provides much less time for irradiation-induced defects to migrate after their creation. This affects the type of net irradiation damage produced. To overcome this, it has been suggested that high energy ion irradiation must be performed at significantly higher temperature than neutron irradiation to enhance the interstitial atom migration rate in proportion to the increased dpa rate [11,17,20]. Another drawback in using ion irradiation is that the depth of penetration of the ions into the test material is only on the order of several micrometers [20-22]. Micro or Nano-mechanical testing techniques must therefore be used to assess the mechanical properties of this thin ion-irradiated region. Finally, while reactor neutron radiation is characterized by a spectrum of energies, ion implantations are of a constant energy, and can only be combined sequentially to simulate the effects of irradiation over a wide energy spectrum.
and improve the wear resistance. Effect of cold treatment on tungsten carbide makes it more suitable for the use. The grain size decreases and also there is a slight increase in the hardness of tungsten carbide. Cryogenic treatment can improve the wear resistance and cutting life of the machine tool. It also increases the corrosion resistance by changing the structural formula. Cryogenic hardening is a cryogenic treatment where liquid nitrogen is used to cool the material to low temperature. Research shows that this treatment is practiced on tool steels on large scale. This treatment increases the amount of martensite in the steel's crystal structure thereby increasing the surface roughness and hardness.
6 Nitride (CBN) and polycrystalline diamond to achieve high speed milling. However both CBN and polycrystalline diamond are very expensive and highly reactive to titanium. As a result Wang, Rahman et al. (2005) carried out an extensive study to investigate the wear patterns of BCBN (Bonded Cubic Boron Nitride) inserts used for high speed milling of Ti-6Al-4V. Their study consisted of comparing the CBN tools with BCBN tools under different cutting conditions. An average flank wear of 0.4 mm was considered as the tool failure criteria. In their study, López, Pérez et al. (2000) discuss the use of PVDcoated tools in the milling of titanium alloys. They provide guidance to the values of the parameters that can be used while working with PVDcoated tools and Ti-6Al-4V. The graph presented in Figure 2 shows the development of the flank wear vs. length of cut for two HSS mills, CrN and TiCN coated (V c = 51 m/min), and for an
Firefly algorithm (FA) was developed by Xin-She Yang. FA is based on the intensity of the light produced by the fireflies. The light was produced by the mechanism called ‘bioluminescence’. The light intensity is the key to selecting the prey for sexual contact; it also acts as a shield from enemies. The fireflies will keep moving until it identifies a better light from a firefly to meet its objective. This concept was used to develop in the proposed optimization techniques. Optimization of input parameters will be iterated until the best solution is attained. Programming for the algorithm was done using JAVA.