Hg used in dentistry and industry are two important examples of intentionally use of Hg, pollution caused by continued intentionally use of Hg is easy to stop because, not using Hg will terminate Hg emission and pollution. Historical, intentional use of Hg has resulted in large stockpiles of Hg in society, which will result in continued pollution even after a total stop of using Hg. One of the largest polluter of intentionally use of Hg is mercury electrodes. The Hg cells in Sweden are due to be replaced by Hg free technology and accompanied by a safe disposal of their Hg stock. Pollution from mercury in dental filling is another important intentionally uses of Hg, large amount of Hg are used in electrical equipments, chemistry laboratories especially in most industrialized countries. Technologies for reducing the amount of Hg and replacing it are so costly and difficult. Dentists are one of the largest identified sources for mercury emission; therefore an outreach program for dentists would involve the development of informational materials describing best management practices for dealing with amalgam, amalgam waste and spills from amalgam preparation. A paper should have a short, straightforward title directed at general readers in no more than 20 words. 3.1.1. Important Information for Dentists Includes
Nevertheless, previous studies (entirely from the US) have also tended to report that ethnic differences in asthma risk persist even after controlling for measures of air pollution (Akinbami et al., 2005; Pearlman et al., 2006; Rosenbaum, 2008), though not in all cases (Aligne et al., 2000). Unlike our study, most of these have relied upon proxies for air pollution rather than objective measures. For example, Rosenbaum (Rosenbaum, 2008) examined the local presence of transportation facilities and manufacturing activity, whereas Akinbami et al., 2005 investigated the association for inner-city neighbourhood of residence. Results have been equivocal among studies focussing on neighbourhood deprivation, which is associated with various measures of air pollution (Wheeler and Ben-Shlomo, 2005) and could therefore also be considered a proxy. One study reported persisting ethnic differences in asthma after controlling for neighbourhood deprivation (Pearlman et al., 2006), whereas another found that deprivation (among other characteristics) explained the ethnic differences (Aligne et al., 2000). Critically, all of these proxy measures are unlikely to perfectly correlate with air pollution and some (e.g. deprivation) may also be considered sources of psychosocial
Disturbing environmental noise affects man's psychological and nervous health leading to annoyance and restlessness. This is considered a violation to the human right to rest and quietness. High noise levels in major cities and governorate capitals are due to population growth and associated activities as well as the lack of sound urban planning. Surat is a historical city dating its existence long back from the Moghal period. Due to explosion of population and rapid industrialization the transportation in the city increased to unimaginary heights but due to the want of efficient Mass Transit system, individual vehicular growth also touched the heights. As on 31-12-2009 the vehicles registered at R.T.O. is around 19.00 lakhs. Thus the explosion of population, rapid industrialization and highest growth rate in vehicle population made the traffic problems complicated which cause the problem of noise pollution. Day by day the noise levels are increasingly causing noise pollution at public places due to industrial activities, various types of construction activities, generators, public meetings, vehicular traffic, various types of horns and other mechanical devices. It is necessary to control the noise level within the prescribed limit. Taking into consideration this fact the study of noise level of Surat city was done. This paper presents the results obtained in a study of environmental noise pollution in Surat city. These data are very useful to be used as reference and guideline for future regulations on noise limit to be implemented for areas in Surat.
Mercurypollution of the environment and its negative impacts on the health of humans had been recognized many years ago by the world community; and the contribution of dental amalgam, which contains about 50% of mercury by weight, to mercurypollution is well established. Ten percent (10%) of 300 - 400 metric tons of world’s consumption of mercury is by dental profession in the form of dental amalgam fillings. The Minamata Treaty or Convention, on control and reduction of mercurypollution, provides for amalgam phase-down over a given time-line as part of the process of total elimination of mercury use in restorative dentistry. The amalgam phase-down approach is based on the fact that outright ban on the use of dental amalgam by nations of the world may be impossible because of individual nation’s peculiarities. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review mercurypollution of the environment and discuss the challenges as well as developing a National Strategic Plan (NSP) in managing amalgam phase-down process.
watershed services such as erosion mitigation and regulation of baseflow; aesthetic and cultural services such as recreation; and climate or air quality services such as climate change mitigation through carbon capture and temperature regulation. Just over 30 years ago, President Ronald Reagan claimed that "trees cause more pollution than automobiles do", referring to the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that trees can give off in hot weather. Since then, the scientific evidence on how trees and forests affect air quality has grown, clearly showing that trees in fact improve the environment a great deal more than any combustion powered vehicle. In particular forests are capable of improving air quality by absorbing or trapping airborne pollutants which are harmful to humanhealth. In this paper, I review the scientific literature on the ecosystem service of air purification provided by urban and rural forests in the U.S. (and contrasting this with values shown in example studies from other countries), synthesizing findings on how forests (or tree cover) affect concentrations of pollutants and how they affect human respiratory health, as well as studies that estimate monetary values for this ecosystem service. Through this review, I identify the sources of information and estimates that are most often used to estimate the volume and value of air pollutants removed by trees, and use the information given to summarize where studies have been conducted in the United States.
Population growth has been enhanced in urban cities due to migration of rural population . Increase in industrial activities, population both endemic and floating with vehicular population has led to a rapid increase in environmental problems like air pollution, sound pollution, etc [2,3]. Pollution has become a major issue of debate and especially the air pollution because of the anthropogenic activities such as burning fossil fuels, natural gas, coal and oil to power industrial processes and motor vehicles emissions. Clean air is one of the basic requirements and essential of health and well-being of humans . Levels of air pollutants are rapidly increasing in urban and rural areas in many megacities (urban population greater than 10 million) of the developing world . Most of Asian cities cannot comply with the WHO air quality guidelines or the US Environmental Protection Agency standard, exempted cities in more developed countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Various Asian cities in China, India, and Vietnam have the highest levels of outdoor air pollution in the world .
In the final decade of the century, the European and North American air pollution agenda has come back full circle and the issue of urban air quality that had last been at the top of the European agenda in the late 1950s rose again to the fore world wide. Diesel engines rather rapidly ceased to be cited as the environmentally friendly option as epidemiologists (Pope et al. 1992; Dockery et al. 1992), laboratory-based scientists (Diaz-Sanchez, 1997) and expert groups (Quality of Urban Air Group, 1993) found evidence that the particles emitted might be responsible for measurable increases in the manifestations of cardiovascular and respiratory disease even at the comparatively low levels of air pollution in modern Western cities. These had not been seen before because older statistical methods were not powerful enough to detect the very low signal-to-noise ratio of the effect of air pollution against other causes of health inequality and variability, and because computers to handle the large amounts of data required were not widely available. A large number of epidemiological studies followed on the effect of various road traffic emissions on a range of health end-points. Public concern over air quality is enhanced by its effects on children (Brunekreef et al. 1997) and has focussed in lay minds on associations with asthma, the incidence and prevalence of which have increased dramatically during the second half of the 20 th century (Holgate et al. 1995), Jarvis and Burney (1998)) in many countries (Miyamoto, 1997), (Ninan and Russell, 1992)). Current evidence suggests that air pollution exacerbates or provokes symptoms in those with pre-existing asthma (Krishna and Chauhan, 1996) but there is no good evidence that asthma is caused by air pollution (Holgate et al. 1995). There are also fears of cancer, as specific
With regard to reducing the seismic vulnerability of buildings, the economic factor is of fundamental importance for implementing interventions, as shown by the study carried out by two researchers from the Department of Seismic Engineering of Bogazici University, Istanbul, estimating the possible damage to the building stock after a strong earthquake (Erdik, 2002). According to the above study, the cost of possible interventions of overall retrofit to reduce building vulnerability would amount to as much as 40% of the replacement value, also entailing disruption due to the evacuation of lodgings for several months. At the same time, it was ascertained that retrofit measures do not increase the market value or rental value of property. Therefore, for the owners it would be an investment without financial returns, and any incentive for private property owners to implement interventions is likely to have little effect. Nevertheless, the benefits in terms of safeguard of human lives and savings in social costs arising from a probable earthquake, would accrue to the whole community. A practicable route is to restrict the field of action, mapping particularly vulnerable buildings and infrastructures and intervening first and foremost on them (Polese et al., 2008). For this purpose, the "Preliminary Study of Instruments to Apply Seismic Regulations in Historic Centers", drawn up by the Higher Council for Public Works (CONSUP, 2012), proposes a multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability. In other words, on the one hand, the direct vulnerability of buildings and infrastructures is assessed, i.e. the likelihood of seismic damage resulting, for example, from the construction year, from building flaws, from the geo-morphological state of the subsoil able to amplify seismic effects. On the other, seismic behavior is assessed, considering the city as an urban system, thus taking account of the hierarchical and territorial role of the system's individual components, which bring about a different level of exposure not only of individual units but of the whole urban system or some of its subsystems. Consider, for example, the strategic role of a hospital or business district, or the concentration of people in a certain moment of the day in a historic centre, or at a given time of year in a holiday resort. Thus, according to the CONSUP, the levels of damage vulnerability of a city may be estimated through a combination of assessments of each functional subsystem, thereby restoring the overall level of vulnerability (Cremonini, 2015).
A disposable diaper was first made in 1946, . The special feature the diaper has is the outer layer which is waterproof, and the inner layer made of cloth. When development took place in Western countries, it spreads so quickly such that use of disposable diapers started in developed countries and eventually found its way to the less developed nations. The researcher remembers that when people started using diapers in Zimbabwe, they were considered as luxury items, used only when people embarked on long trips and at times used when there was special function because there can be removed fast without taking time of other activities or when embarking long trips and when there are special occasions. The usage of disposable diapers was also associated with the economic status of the user. Those from low economic status did not use them more frequently. One can point out that, the usage of disposable diapers is not part of the African culture; hence its genesis was in western countries such as Canada, . The disposable diaper used today was first produced in 1982 and from there it was on record that the USA used about 18.6 billion diapers in 2006, . Similar trend was observed by  where in their analysis they generated data which showed that the demand for disposable diapers was high in three Asian countries. With the rise of world population, the usage of diapers increased too, the littering also increased, however the environmental effect and the likely health risks associated with the disposal of the diapers was outweighed by the capital generated by the manufactures.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency vehicle emissions represent a serious environmental health problem, which is expected to increase in significance as vehicle ownership increases globally. The United Nations estimates that over 600 million people worldwide are exposed to hazardous levels of traffic-generated pollutants, some of the worst pollutants and those that are closely monitored in the United States, which are nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, lead, and par ticulate matter. The significant contributor to the poor air quality in urban areas 5 ,
jing. In addition to health problems, high aerosol loading can impact visibility and thus reduce photolysis rates over the city, leading to potential implications for photochem- istry. Photolysis rates are highly sensitive not only to the vertical distribution of aerosols but also to their composi- tion, as this can impact how the incoming solar radiation is scattered or absorbed. This study, for the first time, uses aerosol composition measurements and lidar optical depth to drive the Fast-JX photolysis scheme and quantify the pho- tochemical impacts of different aerosol species during the Air Pollution and HumanHealth (APHH) measurement cam- paigns in Beijing in November–December 2016 and May– June 2017. This work demonstrates that severe haze pol- lution events (PM 2.5 > 75 µg m −3 ) occur during both winter
2. The Harmfulness of PM 2.5 to an UrbanEnvironment and City HumanHealth The rapid urbanization and population growth in China is causing serious air pollution, which is becoming a major health problem for urban citizens. PM, or particulate matter, is frequently used to describe the size of the particles suspended in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. The Environmental Protec- tion Agency classifies particles based off of size with aerodynamic particle diameter (dpa) > 10 µm to be super coarse, 2.5 < dpa ≤ 10 µm to be coarse, 0.1 < dpa ≤ 2.5 µm to be fine, and dpa ≤ 0.1 µm to be ultrafine; the smaller the particle, the more dangerous it is considered since they will get deeper in the lungs and even the bloodstream (“Particulate Matter”, 2013). Figure 6 shows a graphic representation of PM particles in compari- son to a strand of human hair. Toxicity of the particle can be determined by its source and composition, but the size is especially relevant in determining toxicity in the lungs as it generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen spe- cies and interferes with macrophage clearance (Sierra-Vargas & Teran, 2012).
or cadmium, which upon contact with the earth and subsequently filtering and reaching the Groundwater contaminates the food chain (Zabaleta, 2005). In other parts of the world, such as Sweden, since 1986 batteries have been collected. Hazardous waste is considered hazardous waste in Switzerland and it is prohibited to bury or dispose of it in landfills. In that country, mercury, zinc and manganese are recovered for recycling, as well as encouraging the use of equipment with rechargeable batteries, appliances with a discount of 10% and a label with the ISO symbol that alerts the consumer about the danger of Batteries and remembers that once exhausted they must be returned to the point of sale. In Austria since 1991 it is prohibited to dispose of it with the common garbage; In Spain since 1993 no batteries with high mercury content have been manufactured and in Germany since 1993 they have forced the manufacturer and the merchant to recycle them.
huge waste generation. The magnitude of this generated poultry waste has given rise to improper disposal which include over application to land, improper timing of application thereby creating pollution problem to soil water and air environment(Adewumiet al., 2011).There are several ways of disposing poultry waste which include burial, rendering, incineration, compositing, feed for livestock, fertilizer or source of energy.(Moreki and Kealkitse, 2013). Other waste disposal methods include conversion of poultry waste to energy and use of poultry waste for treatment of heavy metal contaminated water(Moreki and Chiripasi, 2011). Modern management methods for poultry waste like re-feeding to animals, green disposal, gasification and biogas production have not gained prominence in Nigeria probably due to level of awareness, lack of strict regulation from government in respect of poultry waste disposal and care-free attitude of the farm owners(Adeoye, et al., 2004). It is still a common site in Nigeria to see huge deposit of poultry waste around the farm, flushing of the waste into water courses through open canals from farms are also common sites (Ojoloet al., 2007). These methods are not only unsightly, it also creates a lot of environmental nuisance and surface and groundwater pollution(Akinbile, 2012). This work was conducted to identify the waste management methods used in poultry farms in Makurdi metropolis, Benue State, the problems encountered during waste disposal and its associated effects on the environment and humanhealth.
habitable outdoor spaces so that they improve the outdoor activities. User experience of space is greatly affected by the thermal comfort level of that space. Metropolitan cities and city squares are facing challenges of increased heat at microclimatic scale. Cities are facing challenges to mitigate the environmental impact due increased surface area of buildings .Due to thermal discomfort people have declined the use of public open spaces. Lots of public spaces became dead spaces during the daytime. Merely because there are not habitable. Which creates cultural gap due to lack of interaction between people in outdoor areas which also affect the neighborhood livability, street life, outdoor activities etc. The professionals such as Architects, landscape architects, urban designers should intervene in these situations to make cities habitable to live. Innovative approaches to urban open spaces will become more important as the Indian population is becoming more urban. Research and solutions are focused mainly on the pollution, greenhouse gases, burning of fossil fuels for urban climate change, whereas the whole surface area of a building contributes to the heat emission in higher quantity. Design of vertical surfaces will show designers how to work to create climatically habitable spaces for human activities. With remarkable clarity, it covers both the scientific background and the design techniques needed for shaping spaces that increase comfort and reduce energy consumption.
Transport is responsible for around a quarter of EU greenhouse gas emissions, making it the second biggest greenhouse gas emitting sector after energy. Road transport alone contributes about one-fifth of the EU's total emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas (EEA, 2014). As part of the European strategies until 2030 and 2050, the European Commission points out the need to reduce GHG emissions from transport by at least 60 % until middle of the century (2050) with respect to 1990 levels (Papa et al., 2016). These decarbonisation targets required significant economical, social and technological changes (Coppola and Arsenio, 2015). In this contest, the concept of electromobility (e-Mobility) presents a significant contribution toward traffic decarbonisation and address a variety of mobility issues concerning the environmental and societal effects of transportation. Electromobility can be defined as the use of electric powertrain technologies, in-vehicle information, communication technologies and connected infrastructures to enable the electric propulsion of vehicles and fleets (Naranjo et al., 2014). It has been recognized as a major field of innovation throughout the coming decades and the dominant technology for future urban mobility (Geels et al., 2012). E-Mobility solutions provide a new opportunity for a sustainable transportation environment. Efforts made to reach the goal by many aspects like intelligent vehicle, smart road, V-2-X communications, are proved to have considerable effectiveness. It is believed that the green, sustainable, safe, intelligent transportation systems will be benefit to reduce air pollution and obtain eco-friendly transportation systems (Geels et al., 2012). Motivated by the need to address fuel efficiency and emission requirements, as well as market demands for lower operational costs, a large number of plans for e-Mobility have been conducted and great efforts have been made by many cities. The success of e-mobility initiatives requires a strong collaboration between private and public actors. The municipality’s role is to set regulations and standards, encourage interoperability and to provide incentives. The private sector’s role is to bring the new technology to the market and enforce mass production and thereby reduce costs. This contribution focuses on the role of public actors and presents two international case studies of cities that have developed plans, initiatives and regulation to support e-mobility:
Former industrial areas are good places to test out some of these designs, as these landscapes are currently under re-design and could benefit from some of the services (e.g. water purification) listed above. The FSPSs described above could also be incorporated into urban development in rapidly expanding low-economic income countries, where city re-design is underway and funding is readily available. Countries with the greatest area of urban land cover (5% as of 2000)—including Bahrain, Belgium, Netherlands, the UK, Italy and Germany 5 —could also stand to benefit from supporting research
Since Kodaikanal is a hills station no licence is sanctioned for establishing any big factories or industries. The major occupation at Kodaikanal and surrounding villagers is agriculture. The main vegetable grown at Kodaikanal are Carrot, Beans, Beatroot, butterbeans cabbage, coliflower, photos garlic, etc… fruits like plums, pears, butterfruit, oranges lime, jackfruit, papaya, custard apple, coffee, cardaman, pepper etc… are growing at the lower hills. The organic pattern of cultivation which was prevalent in the earlier times at Kodaikanal as last as significance. Today only chemical, and harmful fertilizers, pestizides are used for rising vegetation at Kodaikanal. Runoff water from agriculture fields carry with them dangerous toxic chemicals polluting the land, water and fruit orchards around this areas. This polluted water leads to health problems and spread of various diseases.
The skin serves as a natural protective barrier against invasion by most microorganisms because of the acidity of the skin, the presence of indigenous flora, the temperature of the skin sebum secreted by oil glands and creation of hypertonic environment by the salts in perspiration. However perspiration and sebum serve as a source of nutrition for certain micro organism and help in their establishment as normal flora of the skin most encountered bacteria on the skin are gram positive cocci including micrococcus and staphylococcus. Micrococcus is generally considered to be a saprophyte while staphylococci which include 40 species, most of them are harmless and reside normally on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Staphylococcus aureus which is a member of the normal flora of the skin is an important and frequently encountered human pathogen. Sebum secreted from oil glands helps the survival of propioniobacterium acnes, an anaerobic gram-positive rod in hair follicles. The so-called normal flora (or biota) of the skin vary according to the skin region and the environmental factors. Most pathogenic organisms do not penetrate the unbroken skin but as soon as epidermis is destroyed infection easily occurs. Staphylococci and certain fungi are able to penetrate the hair follicles and cause disease in the deeper tissues. Although human skin harbours many different genera, this exercise deals with the isolation and identification of catalase-positive, salt tolerant members of gram-positive cocci belonging to the family