Anahtar Kelimeler: Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışları; Örgütsel Bağlılık; Örgüt
Kültürü; Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi
ABSTRACT: One of the examples of behavioral patterns of employees is positiveextrarolebehaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect effects of contextual and attitudinal factors by focusing on organizational citizenship, which is one of those behaviors. The data which were collected from 384 employees of a private bank by using a survey form including Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Scale, OrganizationalCulture Scale and OrganizationalCommitment Scale were analyzed with structural equation modeling technique. The findings of this study indicate that the clan and development tendencies predict conscientiousness and courtesy, and the development tendency predicts sportsmanship and civic virtue behaviors of the employees’ extrarolebehaviors. Moreover organizationalcommitment has a partial mediatorrole in all these processes.
Another facet of today’s organizations is the development of commitment in the employees. The willingness to keep organizational membership and to identify with it is commitment (Porter et al., 1974). Commitment has three different types that are ,affective, continuance, and normative commitment (Allen and Meyer, 1996; Meyer et al., 2002;). Among the three, affective commitment has been given more importance lately, as mostly the estimates of organizationalcommitment emphasize on affective commitment (Colquitt et al., 2001) because it is an individual’s intrinsic drive that has more effect on his or her behavior according to the perception of justice (Price et al., 1976). Previous literature shows that, Organizational justice bears a positive link with the Organizationalcommitment (Cohen-Charash and Spector, 2001; Folger and Konovsky, 1989;). With organizational justice comes the affective commitment which affect the overall employee attitude, behavior and performance. (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990). As far as a positive link between organizational justice and affective commitment is concerned, many scholars have researched it, whereas the effect of affective commitment, as a mediator on work outcomes in various contexts can also be witnessed.
The subject of deviance behaviors is very important for organizations and it has relative effects on the variables of efficiency, quality, productivity, organizational success, job satisfaction, and loyalty. It has already been specified to what extent the impacts of workplace deviance behaviors has on employees’ organizational citizenship perception and that the levels of job satisfaction are very important research subjects, however there are some difficulties in context to empirical studies. Job satisfaction, defined as employees’ negative or positive emotional reactions to their job, their workplace, service and encountered behaviors, can increase organizational citizenship level and also the will of obeying the rules of employees. Organizational citizenship can be defined as the extra efforts of employees,except for given formal and obligatory duties at work. It will be best for this article to determine how organizational support factors have a role on the possible effects of workplace deviance behaviors. Employees have different expectancies from organizations than do organizations have from the employees. Fulfilling these expectancies mutually makes the organization more peaceful. It is possible to avoid negative behaviors in workplace with employees supported by the decisions and the implications of employers (Ozdevecioglu, 2004: 97).
The concept of POS has been accepted as a critical factor influencing individuals ’ work attitudes and behaviors. Prior studies have found that POS is positively associated with job satisfaction [Eisenberger et al., 1997], organizationalcommitment [Eisenberger et al., 1990], and in-role and extra-role performance [Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002]. In addition, several studies have shown that POS is negatively related to withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover [Cropanzano et al., 1997; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002]. In summary, high levels of POS are helpful for increasing positive work outcomes and decreasing negative ones. In the context of a call center, POS holds the position of a pioneer because it may influence customer service representatives to incorporate organizational membership and role status into their self-identity, thereby increasing pro-social behaviors that are carried out on behalf of the organization.
says that the concept of organizational citizenship behavior originally developed by Barnard in 1938 as "the desire to work together", then there is the concept of organizational citizenship behavior, the behavior shown by employees in formal organizations. Usually, it is indicated through the job description that it is responsible so that the good and bad staff can be determined thoroughly by the job description. This is called role- behavior. However, to support the success of tasks within the organization, employees are expected to work not in their respective tasks, but they are required to work extra roles over their formal job description (extra-rolebehaviors). This is called organizational citizenship behavior.
The relationship between research variables is built based on relevant theories and results of previous studies. Theoretical reviews and empirical findings are used as the basis for describing the conceptual framework of the research and are used as the basis for deriving the research hypothesis. Leader behavior or leadership is one of the important factors that can affect job satisfaction. Leadership style has a positive relationship to job satisfaction of employees (Russell & Gregory, 2002). Leadership is a pattern of consistent behavior that they implement in working with others through consisting of directive leadership, supportive leadership, participatory leadership and achievement-oriented leadership (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969). The creation of high performance is supported by competence, that competence is the basic foundation of people's characteristics and indicates how to behave or think, equate situations, and support for a long period of time (Spencer & Spencer, 1993). Competencies can be in the form of motives, traits, self-concepts, attitudes, or values of cognitive skills or behaviors of individual characteristics (Rivai, 2009: 426).
One way to address the issue of turnover is to understand the commitment that employees have to their organization, and to determine what affects the different levels of commitment. To do this, we must have a clear definition of organizationalcommitment and identify variables that might influence it (Vondrasek, 2000). Also, it has been argued that positiveorganizational behavior research became the catalyst for developing the construct of authentic leadership (Luthans & Avolio, 2009; Vondrasek, 2000). It is argued as a positive form of leadership that goes beyond traditional leadership styles in order to influence followers through genuine, ethical behavior (Tuttle, 2009; Luthans & Avolio, 2009). Prior research argued the influence of leadership on organizationalcommitment, which emphasizes one of the strategies followed by some organizations, including testing and implementing new types of leadership. This is the case of authentic leadership that positively influences individuals' commitment (Gatling, 2016). Other authors have studied the relationship between authentic leadership and positive psychological capital, and suggest in their studies that, among other things, authentic leadership promotes positive psychological capital and positive emotions (Rego, Sousa, Marques & Cunha, 2012a). Our attempt is to determine the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizationalcommitment. This study makes a vital contribution to the human behaviors and management science by adopting the case of a university as our research context. Universities, like other institutions, are concerned with the commitment of their employees, as weak commitment leads to low performance and loss of confidence and loyalty of employees. The research question derives from the proposed relationship as to what point is positive psychological capital a mediator of the relationship between authentic leadership and organizationalcommitment. Descriptive analytical research will be conducted on the case of Al-Azhar University, which has more than 600 employees, including academics and administrative staff. In order to answer the research question, we follow the research logic, first reviewing the literature on authentic leadership, organizationalcommitment, and positive psychological capital.
This study has is helpful for the management of telecom sector for enhancing the organizational effectiveness by focusing on organizational justice and satisfaction in job. As in current study it has been proved that organizational justice and jib satisfaction have significant positive impact for increasing the organizational effectiveness. As it is clear from the study results that score of organizational justice and job satisfaction is low so telecom sector should pay more emphasize on these factors to get good performance from the employees which ultimately increase the organizational effectiveness. These two factors not only result in the long term commitment from the employees but it also increase the satisfaction level of employees which eventually help the management of the company for improving the effectiveness of the organization . It is also evident from the study that commitment of employee is also very important factor when organizational effectiveness is considered. As when employees think that they are treated with justice in the organization and they are satisfied with the job they create a relationship with the company and they are willing to go the extra effort for the company. Both organizational justice and job satisfaction are very significant factors from the employee’s point of view. They are really affected by these factors. Research might deliver sufficient path for the human resource departments of the telecom sector to link their activities with organizational effectiveness.
Commitment-based HR practices, Organizational learning capability and Organizational performance: The positive relationship between commitment-based HR practices (CBHRP) and organizational learning capability (OLC) on the organization’s productivity and performance have been reported in numerous studies (e.g. Batt, 2002; Lopez-Cabrales et al. 2011; Camps & Luna-Arocas, 2010; Garavan et al., 2002; Jaw & Liu, 2003; Lopez et al., 2005; Raj &Srivastava, 2013; Theriou & Chatzoglou 2008). Basically when OLC exists in the organization, it enables the employees to learn when they have the knowledge and abilities that the organization requires (Gupta & Govindarajan, 2000; Rhodes et al., 2008) and CBHRP may influence the organizational learning capability by enhancing the organization competencies which may assist the organizations to achieve its best performance (Goh et al., 2012; Lopez et al., 2006). This is to say that the management needs to implement specific HR practices such as commitment-based HR practices to give support to the organizational learning capability process inside the organization. Collins and Smith (2006) cited that to ensure OLC well operating, the management must gather stronger commitment from their employees. They further added that CBHRP (selection, compensation and training and development) are able to support OLC either individual or organization levels. CBHRP focuses on long-term exchange and mutual relationship for all members in the organizations. Furthermore, CBHRP has its own capability to attract the employees’ due to its specific practices that aim to encourage the employees to display positivebehaviors and attitudes. Additionally, it also increases the motivation of the employees to work as one identity for benefit of altogether (Arthur, 1992; Collins & Smith, 2006).
Today's organizations, faced with employees who work in a dynamic environment, face challenges such as conflicts, difficult circumstances, setbacks, failures, and high organizational expectations on a regular basis. Positive events, career advancement, and increased responsibility can also test an employee on time (Luthans, 2002). In such situations, resilience is the capacity of resources psychological resources ensuring that employees can adapt to changes in the workplace and be emotionally stable when facing challenges (Tugade & Fredrickson, 2004). Rugged employees do not react strongly to adverse situations; they will instead respond calmly and with positive emotions. They have the ability to get meaning from their work, understand the intensity of the situation, and handle it firmly. As a result, they complete their tasks according to expectations and avoid creating problems for others while showing citizenship behaviors such as helping coworkers and actively participating in organizational politics. Ryff and Singer (2003) argue that resilience stimulates growth under difficulty. The ability of individuals to successfully deal with stress and develop under adversity drives positive results in terms of increased commitment and OCB.
t-crit. = 1.96). Since t-cal. > t-crit., the effect of leadership styles on organizationalcommitment is direct and significant. This finding is comparable to the result studies of Jackson , Meyer and Hua ; Busra, Usman and Naveed ; Acar ; Oztekin ; Luo, Marnburg and Law . Meyer and Hua stated that transformational leadership has positively related to affective commitment which coefficient of ρ= 0.451 and to normative commitment which coefficient of ρ= 0.337. Contingent reward and actively-management by exception are positively related to affective commitment which is ρ=0.369 and ρ = 0.083 respectively. Laizzes faire leadership is negatively related to affective commitment by ρ = -0.296. Jackson, Geneviciute and Endriulaitiene revealed that affective commitment was the most positive element of organizationalcommitment, while continuance commitment has negative aspects for organization. Bushra, Usman and Naveed also concluded that transformational leadership has positively affected organizationalcommitment of employees. Oztekin said that leadership has positively affected organizationalcommitment in the medium magnitude. Acar did supporting that leadership and organizationalculture have positively affected on organizationalcommitment in the area of logistic industries. Luo, Marnburg and Law showed that transformational leadership and procedural justice are good predictors for organizationalcommitment of employees.
Robbins (1996), states that organizationalculture is defined as a system and shared meaning that has been adopted by each individual in an organization that gives a difference between one organization and another. Culture is a social glue that helps unite the organization by providing the right standards "what employees must say and do". Robbins (1996) further states that culture has the role of creating distinctions between one organization and another, culture brings a sense of identity to members of the organization, and culture functions as a mechanism for making meaning and control that guides and shapes attitudes and behaviors in employees. Robbins (1996) suggests seven primary characteristics that are the essence of the culture of an organization are: Innovation and risk taking that show the extent to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and dare to take risks, attention to details that show the extent to which employees show accuracy and attention to details, results oriented that shows the extent to which management focuses on results rather than attention to the techniques and processes used to achieve these results, orientation to individuals that shows the extent to which management decisions take into account the effect of results on each member in the organization, orientation on team that shows the extent to which work activities are organized on the team not on individuals, aggressiveness that shows the extent to which members of the organization have aggressiveness and are always competitive in carrying out the work, and stability that shows how can organizations maintain a good organizationalculture.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is defined as behavior that exceeds the formal role determined and is not mentioned in the job description. They are optional behavior, they are not considered in appreciation or judgment. Organizational citizenship behavior towards organizations (OCB) is all behavior that is targeted to benefit the organization as a whole or certain departments such as volunteering to attend events that benefit the company, avoid complaining at work and preserve available resources (Aly et al., 2016). According to Ghashghaeinia & Hafezi (2015), the main research conducted in the field of organizational citizenship behavior is more to identify the responsibilities or behaviors that employees have in the organization, but are often overlooked. In line with what was conveyed by Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie (2005), the behavior of organizational citizenship (OCB) contributes to innovation, resource transformation, and adaptability in environments that require complex, team-oriented work, which ultimately increases efficiency and the effectiveness of the entire organization. OCB expresses the organization at its goals and values. This gives the organization's strength, motivation and resources and promotes the interests of the organization. OCB is an activity that is considered as a useful activity for the organization (Eisenberg, Davidova, & Kokina, 2018). It was reaffirmed by Jackson (2009), who described OCB as beneficial behavior for employees, which was not determined but occurred freely to help other people achieve existing tasks and organizational goals.
On the other side, positive but insignificant association is found between organizationalcommitment and perceived organizational support. Perceived organizational support is the perceptions of employees about the support of an organization for the well-being of employees. It is evident that organizations are giving the attention towards profitability and stability without considering the well-being of their employees. But self-monitoring mediates the association of perceived organizational support and organizationalcommitment. As it is mentioned that self-monitoring is the personality variable, which has direct or indirect connection with different work behaviors, personality traits and attitudes like commitment, its importance is threefold. It’s a fact that attitudes always influence the behaviors so work behaviors are necessary to consider. That’s why self-monitoring plays the mediating role in the association of perceived organizational support and organizationalcommitment.
positively correlated with a climate of trust, a positive attitude toward the organization, and equity of rewards (Zammuto & Krakower, 1991). Who works in a trusting context, characterized by participation and commitment (e.g., clan culture), or in an environment which contributes to responsibility, personal challenge, and individual growth (e.g., adhocracy culture) is likely to express low levels of WDB. Of the two dimensions that characterize the organizational cultures according to the CVF (see figure 2), it would seem therefore that the stability versus flexibility, and specifically only the pole of flexibility characterizes the lower expression of WDB. In fact, both cultures clan and adhocracy share values of flexibility, discretion, and dynamism. We may argue that organizations that are changing, adaptable, versatile, and organic are less prone to elicit WDB, whereas the dimension of internal versus external focus (e.g., emphasis toward integration and unity versus differentiation and rivalry) may be less important in discriminating these behaviors. Previous research has shown that flexibility-oriented organizations, such as those with clan or adhocracy cultures, are positively correlated with a climate of trust, a positive attitude toward the organization, and equity of rewards (Zammuto & Krakower, 1991).
It is expected that innovative organizationalculture could increase employees’ commitment. Organizationalculture can affect how employees decide goals such as a personal and/or professional ones. Researchers have suggested that organizationalculture influences the way individuals consciously think, create decisions and how they perceive their environment and react to it (Hansan and Wernerfelt, 1989; Schein, 1990). Other scholars have argued that innovative climate or culture is strongly related to organizations performance and commitment. For instance, innovative organizationalculture and a style of leadership could have a positiveeffect on, both employees’ job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment (Lok and Crawford, 2004). Specifically, it showed that the Australian managers recorded “more highly innovative and supportive culture” which had a positiveeffect on workers’ job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment. Innovative and supportive cultures are more likely to be employee oriented. Moreover, employees are more likely to be supported and encouraged under the innovative culture to bring new ideas and suggestions and often time participate in formal and informal decision making (Lok and Crawford, 2004). Furthermore, coordination or concerted effort among individuals is highly emphasized under innovative culture. Consequently, employees tend to be more motivated and committed to their organization.
Human Capital, which gives competitive edge due to its uniqueness, is one of the resources that work as a pillar for an organization (Holland, Sheehan and de Cieri, 2007). The focus has therefore shifted to “people”, the employees of the organizations (Cohen, 2005). Employees play an important role in organizations, they are the greatest resource an organization can have and it is through their involvement and commitment that the organization can become competitive (Sempane, Rieger & Roodt, 2002). Employees who are committed are liable to increase their performance and devote their time to the organization (Saal & Knight, 1987). Organizationalcommitment is often described as the key factor in the relationship between employees and organizations (Raju & Srivastava, 1994). It incorporates thoughts of being connected, attached and going beyond the basic requirements of the job which tend to improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Recruiting, managing, developing and retaining the employees, its human resource, is what an organization’s effectiveness depends on (Wallach, 1983). These four aspects influence stability and productiveness of the workforce. Finding ways to improve how employees feel about their job (achieving job satisfaction), so they would become more committed to their organization, is the basis to achieving a competitive organization. Satisfied employees are more willing to try new ideas and could participate more in the decisions that need to be made (Kivimaki & Kalimo, 1994).
Another important factor in achieving organizational performance is organizationalcommitment, as Luthans (2006) argues that organizationalcommitment is a strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization, a desire to strive according to organizational desires and certain beliefs as well as acceptance of organizational values and goals. The research that conducted by Dance et al. (2013), Khan. (2010), Memari (2013), Markonah and Sunarto (2014) found that organizationalcommitment have a positive and significant impact on Performance. However, the results of research conducted by Kurniawan (2011) and Pratama (2016) found that organizationalcommitment has no effect on the organizational performance.
the adaptation of new employees and also visiting colleagues who are sick. This behavior reflects individual OCB, namely altruism. It's just that there are still OCB behaviors that have not been maximized such as disputes due to workload, playing games during working hours and also resting during working hours which indicates the civic virtue and concientousness aspects that are not appropriate.Research on OCB and the influencing factors so far are still popping up and one of the influencing factors is job satisfaction . Job satisfaction not only has a positive relationship but is also able to be a mediator between OCB. Job satisfaction being able to be a mediator between organizational learning culture and perceived organizational support for OCB . Job satisfaction is the extent to which employees feel positively or negatively towards various factors or dimensions of the tasks in their work . Job satisfaction in employees is influenced by many factors and one of the external factors is leadership. Service-oriented leadership is commonly referred to as servant leadership. There is one research shows that servant leadership can predict job satisfaction . Similar research was also conducted of hospital nurses who showed that servant leadership can be a predictor and is connected with a significant positiveeffect on job satisfaction . This reinforces that job satisfaction is influenced by serving leadership style. Job satisfaction is built because the leadership style of serving is slowly building a collaborative atmosphere between members. Employees who work with colleagues who are positive and inspire so that employees become motivated are called the effects of the organizational climate. Organizational climate leads to perceptions
Organizationalculture refers to the “consistent, observable patterns of behavior in organizations.” Another definition by Perrins defines that “organizationalculture is the sum of values and rituals which serve as „glue‟ to integrate the members of the organization” (Watkins, 2013). There is a positive relationship between organizationalculture, organizationalcommitment, and affective commitment (Azizollah, Abolghasem, & Amin, 2016). Studies found that the dimension of organizationalculture, such as future orientation and performance orientation significant impacts organizationalcommitment (Mitic, Vukonjanski, Terek, Gligorovic, & Zoric, 2016). Another study examined the positive impacts of organizationalculture on organizationalcommitment in IT companies of Jordan (Aranki, Suifan, & Sweis, 2019). Literature shows that commitment by employees has a significant relationship with the relation and interaction with the organization, as well as the behavior of organizations‟ management with the employees. The practical strategies designed under the organizationalculture, predict the organizationalcommitment of employees (Dwivedi, Kaushik, & Luxmi, 2014). As the result of organizationalculture, it articulates several behaviors in employees, for instance increasing organizationalcommitment. A positive and significant relationship between organizationalculture and organizationalcommitment was found by Carville and Sudha (2016). Based on the strong relationship between HR practices, organizationalculture and organizationalcommitment, we propose that organizationalculture can play a decisive mediation role between the relationship of HR practices and organizationalcommitment. Thus, we constructed the following hypothesis in this study: