In this study, the experiments were performed on a six-cylinder, four-stroke, and CI dieselengine. The main characteristics of the test engine are indicated in Table 1. A dynamometer was used in the experiments. Fuel consumption rate was measured by using laminar type flow meter, Pierburg model. Air consumption was measured using an air flow meter. Emission parameters from an online and accurately calibrated exhaust gas analyzer DIGAS 4000 were recorded. Separate fuel tanks were fitted to the dieselengine and these contained diesel and the biodiesel-diesel blends. The effects on the performance and emission characteristics of dieselengineusing CNT as an additive with the biodiesel- diesel blended fuels were evaluated and compared to neat diesel and neat biodiesel fuels. The fuel blends were prepared just prior to the start of the experiment to ensure that the fuel mixture was homogenous and to avoid the reaction of biodiesel with water. A series of experiments were carried out usingdiesel and the various biodiesel blends. All the blends were tested under varying engine speed conditions. The engine was started usingdiesel fuel and it was operated until it reached the steady state condition. The engine speed, fuel consumption, and load were measured, while the brake power, specific fuel consumption (sfc) were computed. After the engine reached the stabilized working condition, emission parameters such as CO, CO 2 and HC, from an online and accurately
Dieselengine plays a vital role in power generation, transportation and industrial activities. The main advantages of the dieselengine over the gasoline spark ignition engine include its durability, reduced fuel consumption and lower emission of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon. Due to higher efficiency, diesel engines are of high interest in light duty vehicles. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended diesel fuel combustion, performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a dieselengine. Experiments were conducted to determine engineperformance, emissions and combustion characteristics in a single cylinder dieselengineusingdiesel fuel (DF) and diesel fuel blended aluminium oxide nanoparticles in mass fractions of 25ppm (DF+AONP25) and 50ppm (DF+AONP50), respectively with the help of a sonicator. After a series of experiments it was observed that 25ppm of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended fuel exhibits a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions at all operating loads compared to other cases. There is a considerable reduction in carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. Due to complete combustion NOx emissions increases. The results also showed a considerable enhancement in brake thermal efficiency due to the influence of aluminium oxide nanoparticles addition in dieselblend. As the dosage level of aluminium oxide nanoparticles increases to 50ppm the brake thermal efficiency, HC, CO and NOx emissions decreases considerably with respect to 25ppm of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blend. There is a noticeable increase in specific fuel consumption and smoke emissions of DF+ANOP50 with respect to DF+ANOP25.
In this study, the experiments were performed on a CI engine, 6 Cylinder. A 190 kW SCHENCK- WT190 eddy–current dynamometer was used in the experiments, specifications of dieselengine have been described in Table 1. Engine speeds varied in the range of 700-1000 rpm. Fuel consumption rate was measured in the range of 0.4–45 kg/h by using laminar type flow meter, Pierburg model. The emission parameters (CO, CO 2 , HC and NOx) from an online and accurately calibrated exhaust gas analyser AVL DIGAS 4000 were recorded (figure 1). Considering the accomplished researches about nano fuels and diesel fuel nano additives, two silver nano-particles (Ag) and carbon nano tubes (CNT) were applied as nano additives to these fuels. Furthermore based on researches conducted about the effect of concentrations of used nano-particles in reduction of exhaust emissions, in this study three concentrations (40, 80 and 120 ppm) were applied. In order to ensure the validity of nano-particles utilized in this research, SEM and TEM pictures were taken (figure 2). Stability of nano fuel was tested at standard conditions. Also the use of carbon nano tubes (CNT) and silver nanoparticles in neat dieselblend has the tendency to settle down at the fuel tank. An ultrasonic processor (UP400S, Hielscher, USA) was used to perform the reaction and even mixing nano-particles with diesel fuel before the engine tests. The processor operated at 400 W and 24 kHz frequency (figure 2).
The emission of CO with respect to power is shown in fig.5. The percentage composition of CO decreases with increase in BP for all fuel. This trend can be mainly due to higher temperature at full load case easy and quick boiling of fuel which leads to decrease of CO in the exhaust gases. The CO emission of all blend of HB, PME and KME are considerably lower compared to the conventional diesel. The reduced CO emissions were maintained, probably, thanks to the oxygen inherently present in the biodiesel and its blend, which makes it easier to be burnt at higher temperature in the cylinder. The emission of CO of KME is higher compared to PME, this is explained by the higher oxygen content in the shorter fatty acid molecules, which leads to a more complete and cleaner combustion. Also there are methyl’s esters with longer chain length have higher boiling and melting points, so they are less likely to be completely vaporised and burnt, thereby increasing CO emissions
Experiments were carried out with single cylinder, four strokes and water cooled, multi fuel research engine. Table 2. And fig. 2 shows the engine specification and engine setup respectively. The engine was run at constant speed 1500 rpm and the measure brake torque the engine is connected to eddy current type dynamometer for loading. Before starting experiments load cell is calibrated accurately.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a compartitive analysis of the dieselengine performanace and emission characteristics, when operating on diesel fuel and various diesel-biodiesel(B10,B20,B40,B60)blends,at various loads and engine speeds.the experimental tests were performed on four-stroke,four-cylinder,direct injection,naturally aspirated,60kw dieselengine D-243.the in-cylinder pressure data was analysed to determine the ignition delay,the heat Release rate(HRR),maximum in-cylinder pressure and maximum pressure gradients.The influenece of diesel-biodiesel blends on the Break Specific Fuel Consumption(bsfc) and exhaust emissions was also investigated.The bench test results showed that when the engine running on blends B60 at full engine load and rated speed,the autogination delay was 13.5%longer,in comparsion with mineral diesel.Maximum cylinder pressure decreased about 1-2%when the amount of Rapeseed Methyl Ester(RME) expanded in the diesel fuel when operating at full load and 1400 per min speed.At rated mode,the minimum bsfc increased,when operating on biofuel blends compared to mineral diesel.The maximum brake thermal effiency sustained at the levels from 0.3% to 6.5% lower in comparsion with mineral diesel operating at full(100%)load.When the engine was running at maximum torque mode usingdiesel-RME fuel blends B10,B20,B40,B60 the total emmission of nitrogen oxides decreased.At full and moderated load,the emission of carbon monoxide significantly raised as the amount of RME in fuel increased.
The variation of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) with brake power (BP) for diesel, WCOME and nano blends are shown in figure 4.1. The BSFC decreases with increase in BP for WCOME and nano blende fuels at all loads. The BSFC is higher for neat WCOME than other proportions of WCOME- GRAPHENE nano blends. This is due to lower calorific value of WCOME. The BSFC is lowest for WCOME+60ppm nanoblend. This might be probably attributed in the presence of GRAPHENE nanoparticles in the blends. It increases the calorific value and density. And also blends possess an improved surface to volume ratio to better catalytic effect and less fuel is consumed per unit volume of the fuel during combustion process.
Fig. 10 shows the effect of various fuel blends on CO2 emission at different loads. It is found that as load increases CO2 emissions increases as more and more fuel burns at high load and complete combustion is achieved at high loads due to high temperature. This trend is similar for all fuel blends. For blend DB10, CO2 emissions are higher at all modes and maximum increase is found out to be 31.85 % at mode number 4. CO2 emissions are higher due to more complete combustion and more fuel consumption due to lower calorific value of biodiesel. For blend DBE10, CO2 emissions are higher at all modes and maximum increase was 66.37% at mode number 5. This blend has more CO2 emissions amongst all blends. For blend DBE20, CO2 emissions are lower at all modes except at mode number 4 due to incomplete combustion caused by high percentage of ethanol.
Figure 2 shows the effect of engine speed variation on engine power. It is found that the engine power increases as the engine speed increases for all blends of biodiesel. The fuel D100 at zero loads at high speed (2000 rpm) gave high brake power of 0.57kW, when it compared to other fuel blends tested (B20D80, B25E5D70, B30E5D65 and B40E5D55) the engine power was shown to reduce by increasing the percentage of biodiesel in the blends. The main reason for power loss is due to the reduction in heating value and energy content of biodiesel compared to diesel  . Figure 2 showed that the D100 fuel at 2000 rpm at
PURUSHOTAMAN et al.  Have evaluated the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection dieselengineusing orange oil as an alternative fuel. The results are compared with the standard diesel fuel operation. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency was higher compared to diesel. CO and HC emissions were lower and oxides of nitrogen were higher compared to diesel operation. TAMILVENDHAN.D et al. carried out the experimental study on the performance, emission characteristics of a methyl ester sunflower oil, eucalyptus oil on a single cylinder air cooled and direct injection dieselengine as an alternative fuel and the results which were obtained in the test are compared with the results of standard diesel fuel. When eucalyptus oil having low cetane number is mixed with methyl ester sunflower oil having high cetane number up to 50% increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 2 to 3 percentage.
Numerous studies on the application of biodiesel on diesel engines have been carried out and the results have shown that the performance of engines is comparable to that of using petroleum diesel fuel ( Xue et al., 2011; Roy et al., 2014; Rizwanul Fattah et al. 2014; Wan Nor Maawa et al., 2015; Rakopoulos et al., 2015; Iqbal et al., 2015; Senthilkumar et al., 2015; Yasin et al., 2015; Ali et al., 2016; Monirul et al., 2016; Rashed et al., 2016;). These results are mostly obtained from laboratory experiments conducted on automotive or land-based diesel engines. The application of biodiesel on marine engines also has been explored by some researchers. A series of experiments was carried out by Murillo et al. (2007) on four-stroke, direct injection and naturally aspirated single cylinder outboard marine engines. They investigated the effect of different proportions of biodiesel that was derived from waste cooking oil to measure engineperformance and emissions. The test fuels involved were pure diesel (B0), 10% biodiesel, 90% diesel (B10), 30% biodiesel, 70% diesel (B30), 50% biodiesel, 50% diesel (B50) and pure diesel (B100). The authors reported the test biodiesel reduces the brake power, in the extreme case of pure biodiesel (B100) up to 7.14% of the rated power. They claimed that waste cooking oil biodiesel also improved the emission of CO which up to 12%. On the other hand, there were increases in specific fuel consumption (about 11.4%) and brake thermal efficiency. The author addressed that the reason may be related to the atomisation of the blend during injection or with the stability of the mixtures of fuels during storage, pumping and injection.
The main problems associated with fossil fuel like short supply, gradually increase in price, non-renewability, contamination of environment, unfavorable effect on bio systems which compiles researcher to search an alternative fuel, which promises a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, management, efficiency, and environmental preservation has become highly pronounced in the present context. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which import 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of his total foreign exchange on oil imports. In view of this, researcher found and analyses many energy sources like CNG, LNG, LPG,
cleaner, environment-friendly and it can be replaced as a diesel fuel replacement [1, 3]. The main advantage of usingbiodiesel is that it can be applied in any proportion with diesel as a biodiesel- dieselblend due to its favourable properties like petro-diesel . Many researchers had conducted experiments on combustion or performances using different types of biodiesel in CI engine . However, limited research was found conducted on engine combustion and performance under idling condition. Recently, idling conditions is a perilous problem for the transport sectors. Idling condition means a condition when the engine run at low-rated speed with low load. Researchers found that during the idling time, the vehicles consume higher fuel consumption and release emissions than running on the road by a factor of 1.5 . Further elaborated, during idling condition time, the engine did not work at peak operating temperature and for this reason, it leads to the incomplete combustion and emissions level increase with more fuel deposits in the exhaust detected. Moreover, due to some disadvantages of the biodiesel like high viscosity, lower volatility and sometimes high emissions, researchers are in search of some additives such as alcohols added to the biodiesel fuel to improve these fuel properties [7, 8]. Recently alcohols like butanol and ethanol with the blending of diesel and biodiesel play an important role as an alternative fuel. It was found that improvement of combustion efficiencies of diesel fuel can be achieved by the adding oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and vegetable oils, due to having a complete combustion. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate engineperformance and emissionusing palm biodiesel blends in a dieselengine at idling condition [5, 9] but very few have been conducted using a high portion of alcohol as an additive with palm biodiesel-dieselblend at idling condition.
investigators have used jatropha oil and pungamia oil methyl esters with various proportions as a CI engine fuel and the following conclusions have been made:Jatropha oil, diesel and their blends exhibited similar performance and emission characteristics under comparable operating conditions (Forson et.al, 2004).Pungamia oil methyl ester and their blends exhibited lower unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and soot emissions with a penalty of higher nitric oxide emission (Lakshminarayanan et.al, 2008)Jatropha methyl ester and its blends are a potential substitute for diesel. JTME produces lesser emissions than petroleum diesel, except NOx, and have satisfactory combustion and performance characteristics(Lakshminarayanan et.al, 2007)Improvement in performance characteristics and reduction in emissions were observed by preheating jatropha oil (Palaniswamy et al., 2006). A significant improvement in the performance and emissions was observed by optimizing the injector opening pressure, injection timing, injection rate and enhancing the swirl level when a dieselengine is to be operated with neat jatropha oil (Reddy and Ramesh, 2006).Performance and emission characteristics of JTME are superior when compared to other methyl esters produced from other feedstock. Peak pressure is higher for jatropha methyl ester compared to diesel (Sundarapandian and Devaradjane, 2005).Hsiang & Lin, 2007; Jo et al., 2006). The objective of the present study is to analyze the behavior of metal flow and to optimize the process parameters such as billet temperatures, bearing lengths (mandrel length), convex die angle and container temperature (tooling temperature) to yield good mechanical properties (Saidur et al. 2008).Most of the above research works are concentrated on performance and emission characteristics of PME and very limited work has been done to analyze the combustion characteristics. The present study investigates the combustion characteristics by highlighting their effect on performance and emission characteristics. This paper provides complete understanding and comprehensive analysis of the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of PME-diesel blends. 15 The objective of the project is to carryout experimental investigation on low heat rejection engine with raw jatropha oil, methyl ester of jatropha oil, methyl ester of jatropha oil–kerosene blend in the proportion of 70:30 and diesel. The results obtained indicate better performance and emission characteristics of the engine with methylester of jatropha oil.
ever increasing diesel vehicle population, use of renewable fuels like vegetable oils has become more pertinent. Crude oil and petroleum products are going to become very scarce and costly to search and production. Although fuel economy of engines is greatly improved, increase in the number of automobiles alone dictates that there will be a great demand for fuel in the near future. The need of the development of alternative fuels for the IC-engine is concerned over the emission problems of gasoline engines. Combined with other air polluting systems, the large number of automobiles is a major contributor to the air quality problem of the world. A third reason for alternative fuel development is the fact that a large percentage of crude oil must be imported from other countries which control the larger oil fields. Bio-diesel is the essential fuel which have completed the health effects testing requirements of the US Clear Air Act. Bio-diesel provides reduction of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter used in a conventional dieselengine. It eliminates the sulphate fraction (as there is no sulphur in the fuel). There is no requirement engine modifications up to 20 percent blend. Bio-diesel could be made from crude/natural vegetable oils, crude/refined fats, high acidity oil/fats, recovered fried oils, animal fats and waste oils. Bio-diesel is a renewable fuel, biodegradable and non-toxic. Bio-diesel is produced by a simple chemical reaction between vegetable oil and alcohol in the presence of an acid or base as catalyst. It contains around 10% built-in oxygen by weight and has no sulphur and has excellent lubricity properties. Due to built-in- oxygen It is more efficient fuel than petro-diesel hence It contains higher cetane number than that of petro-dieselIt is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Bio Diesel confirm to ASTM D6751 specifications for use in diesel engines. The combustion behaviour of traditional liquid fuels with the addition of Nano scale energetic materials as fuel additives to enhance the performance and emissions in a dieselengine is an interesting concept. The addition of aluminium nanoparticles to diesel provides a large contact surface area with water and high activity for the decomposition of hydrogen from water during the combustion process. During combustion, alumina serves as a catalyst and the aluminium nanoparticles are denuded and decomposed the water to yield the hydrogen.The combustion of the diesel fuel mixed with aqueous aluminium . Nano metal oxide additives are reported to be successful in reducing diesel emissions. The metal based additives reduce dieselengine pollution emissions and fuel consumption values.
Anitha A and Dawn S.S (2010) analysed the properties of raw vegetable oil and waste cooking oil. High viscosity and cloud point makes the vegetable oil is not compatible to be used raw in the engine and hence justifies the need for transesterification. The methyl esters are obtained from Waste cooking oil was originated to meet the ASTM standards for bio diesel. The methyl ester of waste cooking oil is produced by transesterification. The high catalytic activity, re-usability, lower emission rates, improved engineperformance and environmentally benign nature makes it a promising candidate when compared with conventional catalysts. Filliers et al, (1995) insisted the pre treatment is not required if the reaction is carried out under the high pressure and high temperature. Under these conditions simultaneous esterification and transesterification take place. The maximum yield of esters occurs at a temperature ranging from 60 to 800C at a molar ratio of alcohol to oil as 6:1. Further rising the temperature, the yield of esters has a negative effect on the convention. Ma, F et al., were revealed that catalysts used for transesterification of triglycerides is classified as alkali, acid, enzyme or heterogeneous catalysts, among which alkali catalysts like KOH, KOME, NaOMe and KOMe are more effective. If the oil has high free acid content and more water acid catalyst is appropriate. The acids could be H2SO4, H3PO4, HCL or organic sulphonic acids. Methanolysis of beef tallow was studied with catalyst KOH and KOME comparing the two catalysts, KOH was considerably better than KOME.  Siva Kumar T et al (2009)reviewed that biodiesel is known as the mono-alkyl-esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock, such as, vegetable oils or animal’s fats, for use in compression ignition engines. The different parameters for the optimization of biodiesel production were investigated and the performance test of a dieselengine with pure diesel fuel and biodiesel blends was carried out. Biodiesel was produced by the standard transesterification process. Cottonseed oil (CSO) was selected for biodiesel production and published that maximum of 76% biodiesel was produced with 20% methanol in presence of 0.5% sodium methaoxide.
Figure 4.13 shows the effect of load on N0X emission when dieselengine was made to run with B20, B40, B60, B80, B100 and diesel. And also show that NOx emission increases by increasing proportion of biodiesel. B20 has minimum NOx emission at no load condition. B100 has maximum NOx emission. With increase in jatropha methyl ester percentage in blend the oxygen content increase and hence higher blend shows higher NOx emission compared to diesel.
thickness. They reported that brake-specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were improved with biodiesel usage and thermal barrier coating application. G.Bharath Goud et al investigated the effects of yttrium stabilized zirconia coating on dieselengineperformance and emission characteristics usingdiesel and palm stearin methyl ester. They reported that the coated engine has better brake thermal efficiency and better BSFC compared to the baseline engine. Mechanical efficiency is also improved at all loads and speed in TBC coated engine.
produced by combustion of biodiesel. Therefore, biodiesel usage may reduce the greenhouse effect. The growing concern due to environmental pollution caused by the conventional fossil fuels and the realization that they are non-renewable have led to search for more environment friendly and renewable fuels. Among various options investigated for diesel fuel, biodiesel obtained from jatropha has been recognized. The performance and characteristics are tested by using compression ignition engine. Biodiesel was made by transesterification process. The effect of test sample and commercial diesel on the engine power, fuel consumption, efficiency and exhaust gas temperature were ascertained by performance tests. The influence of blends emission CO, HC and NO were investigated by gas analyzer.
The biodiesel based fuels have shown small improvement in thermal efficiency due to the increased combustion velocity because of higher intake change temperature with EGR. Hot EGR is found to have resulted in improved combustion due to higher inlet temperature. In addition it may also be possible that EGR being at slightly higher temperature than atmosphere might have reduced pumping losses also. The chemical effect of EGR associated with dissociation of carbon dioxide to form free radical can also be attributed to this improvement in efficiency. It is also observed that BTE at higher rate was less than with lower EGR rate at peak loads; the drop in efficiency at higher level is probably due to predominant dilution effect of EGR leaving more exhaust gases in combustion chamber. At 45% and 70% load the combination of E15B20 (EGR15%) gives higher BTE.