and Singh, 1995). Bond, (1996) reports that 16% of people in Europe are exposed to 40 dB or more of traffic noises in their bedrooms at night compare it with W.H.O.'s average estimates of 30 to 35 dB for undisrupted sleep. Several initiatives have been taken by various countries to check the noise level. Noisepollution is one of the consequences of our modern life. It doubles every year along with progress in society and industry and it has become the part of our daily life. Transportation and light industries are found to be the two major sources of noisepollution in India (Bose and Bhattacharya, 1973). Noisepollution and its effects in industrial environment have been studied by many people. Kameswaran (1982) carried out a detailed audiometric testing of workers working in textile industry, refinery, chemi- cal factories, valve industry, foundry, electrical industry, oil mill and fertilizer manufacturing units. He found that foundry workers had the highest percentage of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) while workers of electrical industry had lowest percentage of NIHL. The spectral analysis of noise produced in a power station. Rotating machinery was found to be the source for two constant frequency components of noise. Surenedran et al. (1999) reported on aerodynamic noise generated by control valves. They found that noise level increased with the increase in the pressure ratio. Naik (1999) reported noise levels in a pumping house were in the hazardous range of 92.4 and 97.3 dB (A). Major noise sources in industries are air compressor and pumps, diesel engine, electrical equipment, gas farbing, etc. The present study was undertaken to assess the extent of noisepollution in and around SIPCOT industrial complex near Perundurai, along the National Highway-47 (between Salem and Coimbatore). Noise levels were measured at selected industries and in residential areas near SIPCOT industrial complex.
Recently, Burdwan town faces a lot of transportation problems and noisepollution is one of them. “Trafficnoise is considered as one of the most intrusive types of noisepollution and has become an issue of immediate concern for public administrations and authorities” 46 . During the study, it was found that trafficnoise is the major source of environmental noisepollution. It is found that the noise levels are exceeded to the permissible limit of 55 dB for all the stations. Maschke, et. All wrote that “the sound level category of 66–70 dB (A) is to be regarded as the threshold of health impairments” 11 . Most of the stations have the noise level ranging between 80-100 dB which is far greater than the critical limits. So, it is very essential to check the noise at its source area. “Noise abatement is less of a scientific problem but primarily a policy problem” 10 . “ The establishment of a noise policy is very complicated” 47 . That’s why “it cannot be tackled by institutions alone” 48 and “needs the participation of the general public” 49 . Therefore, it is suggested that the government should take necessary measures to check the noise levels in these areas. The government should be implemented the abatement policies properly in order to improve the present status of human health and environment of the Burdwan town.
The recognition of noise as an environmental problem and its impact both on community and occupational environment is rapidly growing. Every day several thousands of vehicles are moving in and around Kolkata city and it creates immense heavy traffic congestion and severe noisepollution in s in North, South and Central Kolkata are experienced huge vehicular congestion during peak and lean hours and it crosses the permissible limit of standard decibel of noise level as maintained by Central as well as West Bengal Pollution Control 50 decibel in silent zone, 55-60 decibel in Therefore some busiest traffic intersection points of north, south and central Kolkata have been selected to make the research paper evident. While it has been compared among all the megacities in India, Kolkata placed its first position and it is because of immense vehicular traffic, bad condition of road, speed of the vehicles, narrow space of raffic congestion, more prone to accident followed by unscientific diversion of traffic which create positively noisepollution throughout the city. However high level of noisepollutioneffect on human health and it creates auditory disorder, problem of blood circulation, unconditional effect on brain and hormones followed by some psychological and personological effect Therefore in this research paper an attempt has been made to point and around Kolkata city and its immense effect on body and mind among the civilian of Kolkata followed by some remedial suggestions and mitigation strategies through which this noise level should reduce in coming future and Kolkata will be placed as a
Noise is an unwanted sound that may cause some psychological and physical stress to human beings exposed to it. It is also considered as an environmental stressor and nuisance. Noisepollution has become an inevitable part of modern civilization. It is a fact that sound intensity above 80dB level is harmful to individual belonging to all ages. Noise is present in every human activity, and when assessing its impact on human well-being it is usually classified either as occupational noise, or as environmental noise, which includes noise in all other settings, whether at the community, residential or domestic level e.g. traffic, playgrounds, sports, music 1 . Noise can adversely affect general health and well being in the same manner as chronic stress 2 . Noisepollution is a result of human misbehaviors all over the world. Celebration of different festivals creates minimum noise levels which gives happiness and avoid adverse effects on human health 3 . Celebration of the festivals in India is becoming more and more non-eco friendly. Use of powerful sound systems, orchestra etc along with disturbing loud speakers have become regular features of the society and adversely affect human as well as social health. This kind of noisepollution is beyond tolerable limits which disturbs social and human life. It has become a serious threat to the quality of the environment. At present we are facing serious environmental problems in the form of noisepollution. Noisepollution can be minimized with the help of individual control. Optimum sound is pleasant to human ear, but large intensity sounds are dangerous to health and they
Mishra et al., (2008) studied the adverse impacts of noise on male and female population comprising of different age groups in Roorkee. The analysis indicated that automobiles and loud speakers are major sources of noisepollution. Significant adverse impacts such as effect on hearing, interference with communication, annoyance, sleep disturbance, deafness, are noticeable from the respondents. Public awareness and education are some of the probable solutions suggested for mitigating the problems. Vidyasagar and Nageswar Rao (2006) studied ambient noise levels in Visakhapatnam, an industrial and sea port city in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Ambient noise levels measured at six different locations representing residential, industrial, commercial, and silence zones indicated high sound levels which is alarming. Ambika et al. (2015) mapped noise levels in Mumbai, which is considered as commercial capital of India with massive development projects pertaining to infrastructural and commercial sectors that will be continuing on a regular basis, and observed that the noise levels in the city, on the whole, were very high and above the permissible limits. Balashanmugam et al., (2013) studied the ambient sound levels in Chidambaram at various locations and found that they are higher than permissible limits. Vehicular traffic and air horns are found to be the main reasons for these high noise levels. Sundarakumar (2011) studied ambient noise levels in Vijayawada, a commercially busy city located along Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh. Thirty four noise samples analyzed in urban and rural areas indicated that the noise levels are elevated in urban areas compared to suburban areas. Balashanmugam et al. (2013) studied the noise levels at different locations belonging to four zones viz., residential, commercial, industrial and silence, in Cuddalore, Tamilanadu and opined that the ambient noise levels are exceeding the prescribed limits. Rapid and unplanned urbanization resulting in great influx of people from all parts of the region and country, improper management of town roads and traffics, lack of sufficient parking spaces and exponential growth of both private and public vehicles in the city are identified as the major reasons.
Noise is generally described as unwanted sound and wholly subject to personal tastes and tolerance levels. In addition, the sensitivity of the human ear to noise depends on a number of contextual factors which typically include wind factor, humidity, traffic density, etc. Nevertheless, it is generally accepted that a 55 dB(A) sound will be disturbing whereas a 65 dB(A) noise level will be deemed intolerable, causing severe sleep disturbance. Much of this is caused by traffic-related sound originating from all modes of transport. Operational noise from transportation system alone contributes about 70 % of total noise, whereas roadtrafficnoise is responsible for 55 % of total noise. Ambiant Air Quality Noise Standards (Aaqns)
Abstract: Noisepollution, in the recent times, has been well recognized as one of the major trepidations that impact the quality of life in urban areas across the globe. India’s major cities are rapidly emerging as industrialized and urbanized cities and have started facing severe noisepollution problems. Noise compared to other types of pollution disrupts daily routine and quality of life. Noise level more than permissible limit, is called noisepollution. It is underrated environmental problem. Every day several vehicles are moving in and around the city resulting in immense heavy traffic congestion and severe noisepollution. Therefore most of the major roads experience huge vehicular congestion during peak hours and it crosses the permissible limit of noise. This paper includes a study on hazardous effects of NoisePollution and reviews the literature on research carried out in various years and different parts of the world to demonstrate the current status of noisepollution due to traffic.
ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic noise is debatably one of the most common threats to national parks' resources. Park visitors and workers generally suffer from adverse effects of noise from on- and off-road vehicles. The parks, studied here, are located in strictly urban areas, surrounded by streets with intense vehicle traffic. This study assesses the soundscape of urban parks in two cities of Odisha State, on the basis of acoustic field measurements and interviews. Noise descriptors in and around three different parks in Bhubaneswar and Puri cities have been measured and analyzed. A field experiment has been conducted with 330 participants in three parks, representing urban natural environment. The questionnaire comprised identification of the interviewee, characteristics of the user's profile in terms of his/her use of the park, and aspects of individual‘s perception of the soundscape and environmental quality of the park. Positive correlation has been established among the noise levels of these three parks. The present study reveals that the acoustic sound levels of all the investigated parks are more than 50 dB (A) [permissible limit, established by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for green parks]. Considering the urban elements and acoustical characteristics, it can be concluded that all the parks are affected by several factors such as urban planning, land use, main traffic routes, type of public transportation, and its internal sounds.
41 | P a g e roads Generally, motor vehicles, which form a significant part of urban environment, are an important source of noise emission, contributing about 55% of the total urban noise The rapid growth of vehicular population gives rise to unrestrained noisepollution and other associated health problems causing both short term as well as long term psychological and physiological disorders. Traffic can be considered as the major source of noisepollution in large cities [7,8]Depending on its duration and volume of exposure noisepollution effects can be categorized into physical effects (temporary and permanent loss of hearing), physiological effects (high blood pressure, cardiac problem) and psychological effects (sleeplessness, decrease in working efficiency, stress, annoyance etc)  Chronic exposure to noise can cause temporary as well as permanent loss of hearing. Besides the auditory effectnoise can also cause other significant non auditory health effects, such as cardiovascular problems, hypertension, changes in social behavior and induces depressive tendencies  Long-lasting, high- level sounds are the most damaging to hearing and generally the most annoying. Therefore, a study was planned on noise generated from the different commercial areas of Allahabad city and its impact on the people so as to bring down the pollution level through public participation and to suggest mitigation measures.
Habituation to noise, so that, although people exposed to noise may sustain more problems in everyday life, the physiological reaction of their body will provide a balance in the health status of these people and those exposed to lower rates of noise. In public opinion, people who are exposed to noise become habituated to it. However, habituation to pollution means self-protection against a gradual type of pollution, in proportion to the amount of the pollution. The effects of long term symptoms remain for a longer time, which make people unprotected and weak against other unwanted annoying factors (Karamkhani, 1996). According to the results of investigations conducted on people in noisy places, people exposed to noise will suffer hearing problems, which is assumed some kind of physiological inconsistency causing people to show meaningful differences in terms of general health in some subscales, compared to other groups. Besides the mentioned cause, there are several other minimal factors playing role in the general health of people, such as, genetic, cultural, social, family, economic, job, and climate differences, to name a few. Also, compared to factors affecting general health, a pollutant, especially one with a short time endurance, is not that considerable and does not make any meaningful change among the interviewees in different groups, in the three subscales of such a questionnaire. Results are demonstrative that a few minutes after encounter with loud and short term noise, man can accustom himself/herself to it and improve his/her operation (Bron and Byrne, 2001).
The increasing number of motorized vehicles in the roads especially in the populated area are the major contributor for noisepollution. This research aimed to study the problem of trafficnoise in the town of Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan. For this purpose, a total of nine randomly selected research stations covering the main streets, business center, school and the populated areas were randomly selected. Measurement and observation of level of noise parameters have been using the equipment called Integrating Sound Level data logger Extech Instruments Model 407780. The observations made were at least ten minutes for every observation time for the morning (between 8.00 am-10.00 am), noon time (between 12.00 noon-2.00 pm), evening (between 5.00pm-7.00pm) and night (between 10:00 pm-12.00malam) which covers weekdays and the weekends. The results showed that all value at the all stations is exceeded the standards set by the Department of Environment Malaysia; the noise level 65 dBA for the daytime and 55 dBA for the night-time. Passage area in front of North Gate UPSI recorded the existing Leq 76.6 dBA the highest existing Leq values compared to other nine stations on weekdays observation. Weekend observations recorded value almost similar to the days of the highest noise level recorded in the same way in front of the main door UPSI (74.8 dBA). Various other factors also contribute to trafficnoise in the town of Tanjong Malim, such as the proximity of a close to main roads, the higher number of heavy vehicles routing, the estate of vehicle engine and so on. Various mitigation measurement should be considered to negotiate this problem including the sound management aspect, awareness campaign through education, physical construction of natural fortress such as by planting trees between the noise provenance and receiver, efficient traffic management and by law enforcement.
Data on air pollution co-exposures at a comparable spatial resolution to that for roadtrafficnoise were avail- able for three countries. The results from this subsample analysis suggested that associations between roadtrafficnoise and ‘heart disease and stroke’ were confounded by air pollution, although the smaller number of cases in- creased the uncertainty of the estimates. However, the associations between aircraft noise and ‘heart disease and stroke’ did not appear to be affected by adjustment for air pollution. In relation to aircraft noise, these re- sults are consistent with previous studies in that associa- tions between aircraft noise and MI or CHD mortality have not been found to be confounded by exposure to air pollution [8,9]. The results regarding roadtrafficnoise are consistent with a cohort study in the Netherlands which found the association between roadtrafficnoise and cardiovascular mortality reduced after adjustment for black smoke and traffic intensity on the nearest road . However, our results differ from four studies which found an independent effect of roadtrafficnoise after adjustment for air pollution: cohort studies in Canada  and Denmark [10,14] and a case–control study in Sweden  found increased risks of CHD, MI and stroke in relation to trafficnoise. Differences between studies on whether air pollution is confounding associations between roadtrafficnoise and cardiovascular disease  may result from differences in the local characteristics of study areas, given that the spatial correlation between noise and air pollution is influenced by urban design features and local meteorological conditions [16,41,42].
Transportation sector is one of the main contributors to noise in the urban areas. The trafficnoise environment in Balasore, a city of Orissa, India in terms of standard noise offensives, community response and community health effects are worked out in the present study. A preliminary survey adopting questionnaire method amongst 212 local inhabitants also carried out to gather secondary information about the suffering of noise related physical condition problems. Noisepollution is not properly recognized despite the fact that it is steadily growing in Developing countries like India and in particular in the state Orissa. It is well conventional now that noise is a potential hazard to health, communication and pleasure of social life. Transportation sector is one of the main contributors to noise in this urban area. The present study explicitly reveals that the noise levels are greater than the permissible limit in all the six locations including 24 sites. Of noisepollution associated with the proposed project should be established
1. AMSS Crossroads – settled at the entrance to Trstenik. It is categorized as: city center, craft, commercial, administrative zone with apartments, zones along highways, main and urban roads (belt exposed to direct noise from the main road, 25m width, on both sides of the road (allowed noise level - day and evening 65 dB, night 55 dB) Measurement was carried out from the yard of the Auto-Moto Association of Serbia, in the vicinity of the intersection of two very busy streets, surrounded by residential buildings and noise from traffic.
Abstract: Pakistan, like other developing countries, is facing the growing problem of trafficnoisepollution of the modern world. It is a notable problem of urban areas of the country including Quetta city. The basic cause of this problem is the tremendous increase in traffic volume and lack of proper town planning. This study is the first proper attempt to evaluate the trafficnoise level in Quetta city. To estimate the level of roadtrafficnoise, the technique employed is a “regular grid over a map” . This technique generated 60 observation locations across the city covering almost the whole city. The different zones are classified on the standards of US Department of Housing and Urban Development. The measuring points generated so have been divided into four categories depending upon the activities carried out in that region. It is observed that mixed area i.e. “commercial and residential” are at high risk, where the L max is 93.1 dB and the statistical
Table 3 shows annual variation in accidents of the four stretches. It is observed that no of accidents are more for stretch-4 and 1 than stretch -2 and 3. This is because of high traffic volume on stretch 4. Traffic volume decreases on stretch-3 as stretch-2 is connected to Major District Road of Kulgam via Wanpoh & Shopian District via Bijbehara. Stretch-1 has high population density as this is the main town of the Qazigund on NH -44. Accident rate is more due to more no of commercial and non-commercial vehicles on the road, as this is the only National Link connecting Kashmir Division with Rest of India at base point of Kashmir Division when travelling from Jammu to Kashmir.
The cross-disciplinary approach of psycholinguistics allows for a more nuanced understanding of sound and sound products as they appear within the soundscape . Psycholinguistics is the study of cognition theoretically grounded in the scientific fields of psychology and linguistics. The work of Dubois (and collaborators) on semantic categories contributed to the ‘understanding of the psychological principles of noise categorization, beyond the physical similarity of sounds’ . The research highlights ‘the need for a shift from physical descriptions to cognitive ones’ . A central finding is ‘that one and the “same” acoustic phenomenon could be classified according either to the source that produces it or to the action generating the noise (this is the case, for instance, with the squeaking of a door, which can be categorized either with “noises of doors” – ‘shutting, slamming, opening of a door’ – or with other instances of grincement ‘squeaking’ – of doors, of windows, or of steps)’ . The former is sound-in-relation-to-object whist the latter is sound-in-relation-to-action (or perhaps sound-as-an-entity).
Trafficnoise prediction models are designed to facilitate planning for new roads or account for changes in trafficnoise conditions. Most mathematical models adopt Leq as the most representative physical variable that quantifies noise emissions. Leq corresponds to the sound pressure of a fictions stationary noise that emits acoustic energy similar to that emitted by a non- stationary source (Cvetković et al., 1997). The equivalent continuous noise level in A-weighted decibels (dBA) is widely recognized as a stable descriptor of motor vehicle noise (Cvetković et al., 1997). Mathematical models for the prediction of trafficnoise usually extract the functional relationship between noise emissions and measurable traffic and road parameters. The classical functional relationships based on data measured through semi-empirical models, typically regression analyses, are shown below.
The differences between the study sample and the non-study sample were, although statistically signifi- cantly different on several covariates (see Table 3), gen- erally small. Income and education differences in the postnatal sample and education differences in the preg- nancy sample were greater. However, income and educa- tion did not change the estimates much when left out of the models (at most 7%). Still, income at birth, education and ethnicity were used as predictors of whether or not children were included in the analyses, and predictions from those analyses were used to compute inverse prob- ability weights. The analyses with ipw showed that cau- tion should be taken when reporting the effect estimates of the present study, since some influence of selection bias were indicated. The effect estimates reported in the original analyses might have been overestimated. Still, conclusions based on the ipw analyses were the same as those based on the original analyses.
Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noisepollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors. The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement are: transportation noise control, architectural design, urban planning through zoning codes,  and occupational noise control. Roadway noise and aircraft noise are the most pervasive sources of environmental noise worldwide, and little change has been affected in source control in these areas since the start of the problem, a possible exception being the de- velopment of hybrid and electric vehicles. Social activities may generate noise levels that consistently affect the health of populations residing in or occupying areas, both indoor and outdoor, near entertainment venues that feature amplified sounds and music that present significant challenges for effective noise mitigation strategies.