Top PDF Effect of water content on the properties of OPS concrete containing palm oil fuel ash

Effect of water content on the properties of OPS concrete containing palm oil fuel ash

Effect of water content on the properties of OPS concrete containing palm oil fuel ash

In developing countries where abundant OPS and POFA are discharged, these materials can be used as partial aggregate replacement material in concrete production for the use in construc[r]

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Effect of unground palm oil fuel ash as partial sand replacement on compressive strength of oil palm shell lightweight concrete

Effect of unground palm oil fuel ash as partial sand replacement on compressive strength of oil palm shell lightweight concrete

3.2. Compressive Strength Figure 6 illustrates the compressive strength result of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete containing unground palm oil fuel ash up to 28 days. Generally, all mixes exhibit continuous strength increment throughout the curing age. The amount of UPOFA added in the concrete mix affect the strength performance of concrete. The result also indicates that inclusion of unground POFA content at 10% able to produce concrete with enhanced strength than control specimen. The use of UPOFA which is finer as illustrated in Figure 7 than natural sand shown in Figure 8, enables the ash contribute towards concrete internal structure densification by filling in the existing void in concrete. Utilization of 15% UPOFA causes the concrete strength to drop. This probably attributed to the characteristic of fine UPOFA possessing higher specific area than sand thus requires more water to coat the UPOFA particles. As a result, the concrete mix becomes drier, more difficult to be mixed and to be compacted when quantity of UPOFA used is increased. Finally, the concrete exhibit lowers strength due to lack of bonding between particle and existence of more voids in the hardened concrete. Similar pattern in increase and drop in concrete strength depending on quantity of waste materials used as partial sand replacement were reported by Singh and Siddique [16].
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Engineering properties of rubberised concrete incorporating palm oil fuel ash

Engineering properties of rubberised concrete incorporating palm oil fuel ash

The utilisation of waste materials and by-products is a partial solution to environmental and ecological problems. One important recent development, in the field of concrete technology, is the utilisation of waste materials and by-products in the construction industry, as aggregates in the production of various types of concrete. Agro-waste materials, such as palm oil fuel ash (POFA), show a great potential ability to be utilised as a pozzolanic material in concrete. The problem of the rising costs of construction materials, coupled with evident environmental degradation, and the need to improve concrete properties; especially in terms of acoustic properties, has stimulated the necessity to incorporate tyre-rubber aggregates (TRA) and POFA in concrete. Rubberised Concrete (RC) is produced by replacing a volume percentage of the traditional coarse and/or fine aggregate with tyre-rubber particles. TRA has been utilized in various gradations from used vehicle tyres and POFA has been replaced partially as cementitious material. This research investigates the wide range of physical, mechanical and acoustic properties of concrete containing recycled TRA and POFA to assess its suitability as a construction material. The influence of factors, such as rubber aggregate content, size, shape and type of rubber particle, was also considered. TRA is classified into three groups, namely fine fibre (R 1 ), fine granular (R 2 ) and coarse granular (R 3 ). The concrete mixture is designed based on ACI 211-91. The TRA component of the mixture is replaced in 5% to 30% by volume. The results of this study show that the best proportion of POFA is 20% with a water-binder ratio of 0.38; which improves the 28-day concrete strength. The results show that despite a great loss in strength with increasing TRA replacement
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Investigation On Properties Of Concrete With Palm Oil Fuel Ash As Cement Replacement

Investigation On Properties Of Concrete With Palm Oil Fuel Ash As Cement Replacement

Abstract: Pozzolanic materials in concrete works are increasing, and are expected to continuously increase in the years ahead because of technological advancement and the desire for sustainable development. This study presents some experimental results on the behavior of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) in concrete. Specimens containing 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45% POFA were prepared at constant water-cement ratios of 0.5 with superplasticizer content of 0.5% with cement. Workability in terms of slump and strength properties were studied, and compared with control specimen. The Study discovered that the workability of POFA concrete was quite satisfactory in the expected range, while the compressive, tensile and flexural strengths increased with POFA replacement up to 25%, 15% and 15%. Consequently the general optimum strength for all variable hardening tests was found at 15% POFA replacement.
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Effect of high-volume ultrafine palm oil fuel ash on the engineering and transport properties of concrete

Effect of high-volume ultrafine palm oil fuel ash on the engineering and transport properties of concrete

Although several alternatives of SCMs, such as fly ash (FA), produce satisfying results in concrete properties [ 15 , 16 ], the replacement levels and mechanical properties remain lower than the targeted levels to reduce the CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere. Therefore, various SCMs have been introduced into concrete mixture to enhance its properties and reduce energy consumption. Among these materials is palm oil fuel ash (POFA), which is a by-product material in palm oil manufacturing [ 17 – 21 ]. POFA remains inactive as SCM due to its high carbon content, high value of loss on ignition (LOI) and large particle size. Ultra fine POFA (UPOFA) particles are exposed to extensive grinding to make them smaller and have better properties than normal POFA [ 22 ] and to give them high compressive strength [ 23 ] for use in self-compacting concrete (SCC) [ 24 ] and high- strength concrete (HSC) [ 20 ]. However, problems regarding the high replacement level of POFA in concrete mixture include reducing the compressive strength and workability [ 25 , 26 ]. Thus, POFA must be improved through different methods, such as increasing the grinding to generate small particles and performing heating to reduce carbon content [ 27 , 28 ]. Treated POFA (TPOFA) has better performance in concrete than ground POFA (GPOFA) because of the reduced LOI and improved chemical composition [ 29 ]. Otaman et al. [ 30 ] used UPOFA as cement replacement in various particle sizes to investigate the compressive strength of cement mortar. The use of UPOFA with a fine particle size results in increased compressive strength of alkaline- activated mortar. In 2019, Hamada et al. [ 26 ] reported that adding up to 30 % of UPOFA in palm oil clinker concrete enhances the compressive strength and workability of concrete. In 2018, Wi et al. [ 31 ] used UPOFA with a particle size ranging between 100 and 150 nm to replace cement. TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that POFA with nanoparticle size had a high pozzolanic reaction and did not affect the compressive strength at the early age due to absorbed free water for cement hydration. The compressive strength increased with time due to the formation of calcium –silicate–hydrate (C –S–H) gels.
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Deformation behaviour of self-compacting concrete containing high volume palm oil fuel ash

Deformation behaviour of self-compacting concrete containing high volume palm oil fuel ash

However, SCM can influence the fresh properties of SCC such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance [2]. Depending on the type and properties of SCM, this effect can be positive or negative for the fresh properties of SCC. The literature review reveals that supplementary cementitious materials, such as silica fume, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, fly ash and rice husk ash were used to produce SCC with good workability properties, strength and durability [3]. Previous studies have been done to produce different SCC mixtures incorporating POFA in the range of 0-15% of cement by weight and the effects of POFA on the filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance of SCC were examined. It was found that POFA can be used to produce SCC possessing the aforementioned fresh properties within the acceptable ranges [4]. In another study concrete was produced using a particular level of POFA replacement and same or more strength was achieved as compared to OPC concrete [5].
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Effectiveness of palm oil fuel ash as micro-filler in polymer concrete

Effectiveness of palm oil fuel ash as micro-filler in polymer concrete

Keywords: palm oil fuel ash, micro-filler, polymer concrete 1. INTRODUCTION Sustainable issues of concrete structures have motivated researchers to boost new innovative applications [1-3]; such as, polymer concrete (PC) in construction industry. PC is produced from polymer resin, which acts as the only concrete binder; dry inert granular aggregate; and filler. Since it does not contain cementing materials and water, its hardening follows the polymerization process when additives, catalysts, or accelerators are added. Generally, PC with filler has better mechanical properties due to its effective dispersal in mixture and ability to induce denser concrete mixture packing, though the type of filling materials (natural, granulated, or synthetic) also plays a pivotal role in affecting the composite characteristics [4].The characteristics of PC incorporated with filler are governed by several factors such as the type of filler and binder, the size and shape, and also the amount of binder used [5]. Filler fills the gaps between larger particles to enhance the mechanical properties of PC. Several researchers such as Atzeni et al[6]. have proven that the addition of fly ash as filler in epoxy mortar has enhanced their specimens’ mechanical properties more than conventional quartz flour filler due to greater fineness. This has been supported by Gorninski et al.[7], Bhutta et al.[8], Noor et al.[9], Mirza et al.[10]. The authors concluded that, the higher the fly ash filler content, the denser the PC packing. The general explanation is that very fine filler reduces the total pore volume and average pore size [11].It has also been suggested that denser concrete with fine fillers undergoes delayed diffusion of aggressive agents [7,12].
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Mechanical properties of concrete containing Eggshell Powder (ESP) And Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) blended cements.

Mechanical properties of concrete containing Eggshell Powder (ESP) And Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) blended cements.

Finer particles of POFA also will achieve the higher total surface area and will give a higher chance to pozzolanic reaction in concrete. It’s also determine the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, poisons ratio, shrinkage and creep of concrete and 30% POFA content of hardened concrete are comparable to OPC concrete. Basically, POFA has been used not only in normal concrete application but also in special concrete such as high strength, high performance and aerated concrete application, several researcher describes that the POFA can be used to reach the high strength and high performance of concrete [27]. Today, the usage of ESP and POFA are taken as a wide substitute for construction materials. Therefore, many researchers were carried out the experimental investigation to study the mechanical properties of concrete by substituting this both of material (ESP and POFA). Normally, ESP and POFA was used to partially replacing ordinary Portland cement in concrete by varying the percentages of applications for both materials.
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Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the
production of concrete

Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

Research carried by Ranjbar et al. [10] used volume 10%, 15% and 20% of POFA as replacement of cement in the production of self-compacting concrete to study its durability and mechanical properties. Water to cement ratio used in this study was 0.35 for all specimens. In short, the researchers found that POFA is a great potential as the replacement of cement in SCC. However, POFA caused the reduction in workability of SCC but this can be improved by the additional of superplasticizer. The increases of POFA content lead to the reduction in early mechanical properties but the final strength of the SCC containing POFA was comparable with normal SCC. In addition, the SCC containing POFA showed the less surface water absorption and higher durability under acid and sulfate attack.
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Effect of Mixing Ingredient on Compressive Strength of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash

Effect of Mixing Ingredient on Compressive Strength of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash

Figure 1. Oil palm shell at the palm oil mill Figure 2. Palm oil fuel ash at the palm oil mill 2.2. Specimens Preparation and Testing The experimental programmed is divided in two stages. Experimental work in the first stage focus on determining the optimum POFA content that should be integrated as partial cement replacement for better strength development of OPS LWAC concrete. OPS LWAC concrete used in this research consists of 100% processed oil palm shell functioning as lightweight aggregate material and no granite aggregate is used. Six types of mixes consisting of POFA as partial cement replacement ranging from 0% to 50% were prepared. Amount of POFA added in the mix was by weight of ordinary Portland cement. All the specimens were cast in form of cubes and then water cured for 28 days. The effect of POFA on concrete workability has also been investigated through slump test following the procedures in BS EN 12350 : 2 [17]. The compressive strength test was conducted on the specimens in accordance with BS12390:3 [18] at 28 days. Scanning Electron Microscopy has also been used to investigate the internal structure of the concrete specimens.
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Effect of palm oil fuel ash on compressive strength of palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete

Effect of palm oil fuel ash on compressive strength of palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete

Figure 1. Effect of POFA content on workability of lightweight aggregate concrete mix. 3.2. Dry Density Figure 2 shows the influence of various percentage of POFA as partial cement replacement towards the density of POBS LWAC the age of 28 days. Generally, the dry density of POBS LWAC with POFA for all percentages falls in the range for LWAC. In this research, 10% POFA replacement in POBS LWAC shows the highest dry density. This is due to the pozzolanic reaction from POFA that produces larger amount of C-S-H gel causing the concrete to be more compact finally producing concete with higher dry density. Studies by [8, 9] have proved that the pozzolanic additives reduce porosity and increase the dry density of concrete. However, when a higher amount of POFA is utilized than optimum amount it produces concrete with lower dry density. This is due to porous POFA particle that absorbs high water when it is utilized of more than optimum amount in the concrete mix. As a result, the mix becomes dry and hard to be compact thus causing segregation. Improper compaction resulted in honeycomb that trapped inside concrete paste, leading to low dry density.
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LONG TERM INVESTIGATION ON SULPHATE RESISTANCE OF AERATED CONCRETE CONTAINING PALM OIL FUEL ASH

LONG TERM INVESTIGATION ON SULPHATE RESISTANCE OF AERATED CONCRETE CONTAINING PALM OIL FUEL ASH

Water curing is the most suitable curing for aerated concrete containing palm oil fuel ash to achieve better compressive strength. Occurrence of undisturbed hydration process and pozzolanic reaction leads to formation of larger amount of total C-S-H gel that fills in the internal structure. As a result, aerated concrete containing palm oil fuel ash is denser and capable to sustain larger load as compared to plain concrete. The consumption of calcium hydroxide through pozzolanic reaction reduces amount of portlandite that is vulnerable to sulphate attack. On overall, integration of fine palm oil fuel ash as partial sand replacement increases resistance of concrete towards sulphate attack through densification of microstructure and reduction in the amount of calcium hydroxide content in the concrete. Integrating palm oil fuel ash as partial substitute of sand in aerated concrete production would reduce natural sand consumption and decrease the amount of ash disposed by successfully converting it to be profit making element to the palm oil industry.
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Compressive Strength of Palm Oil Waste Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

Compressive Strength of Palm Oil Waste Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

195 1. INTRODUCTION At present, more than 4.49 million hectares of land in Malaysia is under oil palm cultivation and titled as the second largest palm oil producing countries in the world. Hence, the production from palm oil industry also generates many types of waste products and most were disposed in landfill. Among the by-products that generated from palm oil industries are oil palm shell (OPS), palm oil clinker (POC), empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil fibres and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) Ahmmad et al (2016). According to Muthusamy et al (2015), dumping these waste products in the landfill would only solve problems temporarily and will create other types of environmental problems in future. Another researcher Teo et al (2007) stated the leftover agricultural wastes have been cumulative and caused land and air pollution to the environment. At the same time, the growing demand for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) production and increasing river sand mining activity is seen to create larger adverse effect to the environment unless action taken to solve this issue. The widely used construction material that is ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for concrete production is not environmental friendly. This is because of the pollution caused during its production process, energy intensive and greenhouse effects (Ma and Rao, 2012). The increasing of river sand mining demand would create negative impact to the river and environment finally causing ecological imbalance that would finally affect the quality life of community surrounding. The negative impact issue of natural sand mining has been discussed by Manap and voulvoulis (2015) and Asyraf et al (2011). Smart move of incorporating the freely available environmental polluting palm oil wastes in concrete production would reduce high dependency on natural resources by concrete producer and able to preserve these valuable non-renewable assets for future generation.
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Mortars and Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Fly Ash

Mortars and Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Fly Ash

The mixture proportion of mortar is obtained from ASTM C618 for pozzolanic activity test and presented in Table 1. The binder content was kept constant at 500g/m3 with water to binder ratio 0.5. Cement was replaced by 20% pozzolans by weight of binder for the blended mortar. Control mix represents the zero pozzolans mixture. CUP and CTP are blended mortar mixtures containing untreated and treated POFA respectively. Mixes blended with FA was represented as CF. CUPF and CTPF represent combined blend of untreated POFA with FA and treated POFA with FA respectively. POFA and FA were mixed with equal weight in ternary blend. All mortars were cast in 50x50x50mm molds for 6 specimens for each mix. After 24 hours of casting, the specimens were removed from the molds and immersed in the water for curing process for 7 and 28 days.
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Binary effect of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash on heat of hydration aerated concrete

Binary effect of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash on heat of hydration aerated concrete

1. Introduction The hydration of cement compounds is exothermic where heat is liberated to the surrounding. In other words, when cement is hydrated, the compounds react with water to acquire stable low-energy states, and the process is accom- panied by the release of energy in the form of heat [ 1 ]. The quantity of heat developed upon complete hydration of a certain amount of unhydrated cement at a given temperature is defined as heat of hydration [ 2 ]. The significance of heat of hydration in concrete technology is manifold. The total amount of heat liberated and the rates of heat liberation from hydration of the individual compounds can be used as indices of their reactivity [ 3 ]. Furthermore, heat of hydration describes the setting and hardening behaviour of cement and predicts the temperature rise as well. The temperature of concrete due to hydration is largely controlled by materials and mix properties and by environmental factors [ 3 ]. In fact, the heat of hydration depends on the chemical behaviour of the compounds and is nearly equal to the sum of the heats of hydration of the individual pure compounds when their respective proportions by mass are hydrated separately.
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Influence of palm oil fuel ash on physico-mechanical properties of prepacked aggregate concrete

Influence of palm oil fuel ash on physico-mechanical properties of prepacked aggregate concrete

Properties of grout The basic properties of grout in the manufacture of prepacked concrete are its flow characteristics i.e. grout consistency and bleeding properties. The test results are displayed in Table 3.In the investigation of grout consistency, the effects of different percentage of POFA content with 1% superplasticiser on the fluidity of grout were studied. From the results, it is to note that as the POFA content increases the fluidity of grout also increases. At w/b and s/c ratios of 0.5 and 1.5 respectively, the 10% replacement presented a grout fluidity of 13.9 sec, whereas the 30% replacements exhibited a value of 12.1 for the same w/b and s/c ratios as compared to that of 15.3 sec for OPC grout. Table 3 reveals that, the bleeding of grout mixes containing POFA were relatively less than that of OPC grout. The bleeding capacity of grout which is the ratio of the bleed water to mixing water, for OPC grout with w/b ratio of 0.5, for example, was 10.38% whereas the bleeding capacity of the grouts containing 10%, 20% and 30% POFA for the same w/b ratio were 9.13%, 8.63% and 8.0% respectively. This shows that the POFA used in the grout mixes reduced the amount of bleeding significantly. The dry density of the OPC and POFA grout mixes is illustrated in Table 3. It was found that the density of the grout mixes containing POFA was lower than that of OPC mix. This is to be expected due to the lower specific gravity of POFA (2.42) particle compared to ordinary Portland cement (3.15). For instance, the lowest density of 2116 kg/m 3 was obtained for the grout containing 30% POFA which is 1.5% lower than that of 2145 kg/m 3 for grout with OPC only. Similar trends have been reported in normal concrete containing POFA[24, 25].
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Binary effect of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash on heat of hydration aerated concrete

Binary effect of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash on heat of hydration aerated concrete

1. Introduction The hydration of cement compounds is exothermic where heat is liberated to the surrounding. In other words, when cement is hydrated, the compounds react with water to acquire stable low-energy states, and the process is accom- panied by the release of energy in the form of heat [ 1 ]. The quantity of heat developed upon complete hydration of a certain amount of unhydrated cement at a given temperature is defined as heat of hydration [ 2 ]. The significance of heat of hydration in concrete technology is manifold. The total amount of heat liberated and the rates of heat liberation from hydration of the individual compounds can be used as indices of their reactivity [ 3 ]. Furthermore, heat of hydration describes the setting and hardening behaviour of cement and predicts the temperature rise as well. The temperature of concrete due to hydration is largely controlled by materials and mix properties and by environmental factors [ 3 ]. In fact, the heat of hydration depends on the chemical behaviour of the compounds and is nearly equal to the sum of the heats of hydration of the individual pure compounds when their respective proportions by mass are hydrated separately.
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The durability properties of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete containing coal bottom ASH

The durability properties of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete containing coal bottom ASH

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT In Malaysia, there were 2 largest non-renewable energy resources which were oil and gas where the oil also came from oil palm industry, from this situation, in results which can cause plenty of waste product produced. The annual production of waste oil palm shell (OPS) was over 4 million tons which can cause the usage of landfill areas increasing. From this also, it can cause pollution and health problems for the environment. Production of coal also produced waste abundantly, which can lead to pollution and health problems to the people and the environment. Production of granite is from limestone where it reduced the green hill, in the result this product can cause the destruction of flora and fauna and lastly can be caused the global warming due to the reduction of green hills and trees. With the replacement of oil palm shell as coarse aggregate, it reduced the production of granite. The quarrying of natural sand will result in environmental issues such as lowering ground water level, destruction of natural habitats, soil erosion, etc. The usage of natural sand where the results will have limited supply, source location and the presence of impurities. In order to fulfill the increased in demand of more consistent supply, controlled quality, and environmental friendly sand, it showed that the usage of manufactured sand was better than natural sand plus it was less costly compared to the natural sand.
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Strength and water absorption properties of lightweight

concrete brick containing expanded polystyrene and palm oil

fuel ash.

Strength and water absorption properties of lightweight concrete brick containing expanded polystyrene and palm oil fuel ash.

2 housing and sustainability awareness, construction industries and Malaysia researchers has collaborates in the production of sustainable building materials such as lightweight concrete brick. Abundance of research on the production of lightweight concrete brick has been conducted [3-5]. One of the most preferable lightweight aggregates materials that have been widely used is EPS. This is due to its characteristic which is extremely light. EPS has significantly contribute to the reduction of brick density [3- 13]. However, based on findings by previous researches, EPS concrete or EPS brick has low in strength [3- 13]. Due to this, researchers have extend their research in improvising the EPS concrete brick strength with the addition of pozzolanic materials such as fly ash, rice husk ask and silica fume [14-20]. The ability of these pozzolanic materials in enhancing the strength of brick or concrete has been proven. For instance, in a study conducted by Ling & Teo [3] has shown that, replacement of cement by 10% of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has increased the brick strength from 13 MPa (normal brick) up to 17 MPa. In other study, by Sadrmomtazi et al [14], 10% of silica fume has increased the strength of concrete from 43 MPa to 47.6 MPa. It has proven that, optimum replacement percentage by pozzolanic materials could enhance the strength performance of brick or concrete.
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Influence of elevated temperature on properties of lightweight concrete containing palm oil fuel ash (POFA) subjected to water cooling

Influence of elevated temperature on properties of lightweight concrete containing palm oil fuel ash (POFA) subjected to water cooling

2 This study focused on the properties of lightweight concrete containing palm oil fuel ash (POFA) after subjected to elevated temperatures. The behaviour of the lightweight concrete with POFA at elevated temperatures was investigated in comparison with the behaviour of normal concrete. A comparative analysis was conducted in terms of physical changes of the lightweight concrete. It is projected that the results of this study can deepen the understanding of lightweight concrete POFA leading to safer design and application of this technology. An assessment of the impact of water cooling was also included in this research.
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