strategic decisions about implementing organisational practices to plan for the change in policy were made at different times throughout the sector. No clear relationship between teaching quality and pass rates can be shown in the evidence presented in this report. A large number of students have been affected by the change in the D Grade policy that, in turn, has led to a major reorganisation in the delivery of English and mathematics in further education colleges. Prior to the D Grade policy, senior college leaders suggest the ratio of students on Functional Skills English and mathematics qualifications to GCSE was roughly two-thirds to one third; since the introduction of the D Grade policy, senior leaders say that ratio has reversed. The qualitative evidence suggests providers who planned early for this change have been more successful in implementing the policy and are achieving better overall pass rates. Further secondary analysis of DfE data over the next couple of years is necessary to quantitatively test this hypothesis.
There is a strong student-centred approach to identifying and dealing with issues that may affect student learning of English and mathematics. Students take part in focus groups and the outcomes of their discussions are taken seriously, influencing both the ways in which the subjects are taught and also some of the more strategic decisions made by the college leadership. For example, the college timetables English and mathematics in three one-hour sessions a week for each subject. This approach to timetabling reflects feedback from students who suggested that this helps them concentrate and learn more effectively. Similarly, the college policy on class sizes is adjusted for different ability levels, so that the students with the lowest ability and highest associated need are in smaller classes.
4 behaviour development. The key findings identified a number of important associations of interest to both policy makers and practitioners. However, the analytical strategy was predicated on quantitative measures of teaching, pedagogy and behaviours collected from numeric rating scales. This was sufficient to answer the main research questions at the time and the analyses were conducted within the resources allocated to the research. The classroom observational data, however, were more nuanced as the field researchers were asked to collect not only their global numeric ratings but also to take detailed qualitative field notes on what teachers did and how pupils responded. These notes were used to justify their quantitative ratings on the scales. Measures of quality of pedagogy that were taken using two instruments: the Classroom Observation System for Fifth Grade (COS-5, NICHD 2001, see Appendix 2) and the Instructional Environment Observation Scale (IEO, Stipek 1999, see Appendix 2). In compiling their notes, the researchers were also able to add fine grained or “thicker” descriptions of the pedagogy in Year 5 classrooms. Further analyses of the field notes provides greater understanding of the relationships between teaching and learning in Year 5 classes and better guidance concerning excellent, good and poor practice for both practitioners and policy makers..
• Use dialogic teaching and learning, especially for Numeracy. Children in their classrooms are more likely to work collaboratively, to take part in instructional conversations in Literacy, to have opportunities to receive evaluative feedback (from the teacher or from their peers) and they spend more time learning and performing analysis. In Maths, these teachers outperformed other in their use of Maths analysis, the depth of their pupils’ knowledge and understanding, maths discourse and communication and their willingness to allow the children to also be the maths ‘authority’ in the classroom. The dialogue in these classrooms was genuinely two-way; teachers were open to pupils’ suggestions and corrections and used these in their teaching.
Quality of pedagogy: This more detailed measure was part of the overall Teaching quality assessment and included items such as richness of instructional method, a positive classroom climate, productive use of instructional time, the use of feedback, teacher sensitivity and lack of teacher detachment. This measure was significantly related to children’s progress in Maths (ES=0.27). Overall, this factor describes a classroom where teachers provide a rich learning environment where pupils are challenged in their learning and provided with specific evaluative feedback on how to improve their work. Reviews of school and teacher effectiveness research have suggested that schools vary more in their effects on Maths than on Reading (Scheerens and Bosker, 1997; Muijs and Reynolds, 2005). The current results are in accord with such conclusions showing that variations in the Quality of pedagogy in Year 5 classes are particularly important in accounting for differences in children’s Maths progress. The factor Disorganisation was related to the observed behavioural climate of the classroom and results support earlier studies indicating that fostering a calm and orderly climate is important for learning and teaching. Previously, EPPE reported moderate associations between the level of socially disadvantaged pupils in a school and the extent of Disorganisation observed in Year 5 classes (Sammons et al., 2006). Higher levels of Disorganisation were significantly associated with poorer Reading (ES=0.21) and
• the local authority uses UCAS-Progress, its on-line post-16 applications system, and intelligence gathered by Sheffield Futures’ engagement team to identify and contact young people as soon as they become NEET. They are assessed and Sheffield Futures works with them to construct a personal action plan within 4 weeks of their identification;
confidence. Like, he’s been telling other classes about me, like how I am so smart. He’ll be telling them like that I was kinda’ slow at the beginning and I’ve gotten better. He’ll make you feel good about yourself,” and another female student shared, “He will call you up in front of people and brag on you.” The first tenth grade female student continued, “He let me help kids that are actually good at math, that makes me feel pretty good about math.” Some of the messages that Mr. Ramses used were “I tell them that they can still do it!” ”…You can look at it [the past] and it’s just the past. Like an old picture, this is the new picture…of the new you,” “You are an individual person, and you can do your best, so don’t compare yourself to who’s been sitting there, or what you did last year. You just need to do the best you can at this place, at this point….” “If you can do something else and you can do social studies, then you can do math. It’s a little different but you can do it.” “I tell them that they got to break that trend [of poor performance] and get their names up there [referencing top grades],” “I tell them that if you have always hated math, just take the chance, you might like it,” and “If you pass Math 1, I know you’re gonna pass Math 2, Math 3, and graduate.” All of these comments represented what I interpreted as forms of “preaching,” in that Mr. Ramses continually spoke positive messages to students about improvement and this was the primary way that he built confidence in his students. Most of these messages also maintained the assumption that his African American students had past performances of poor to failing.
Language is an important part of social culture (Lawton, 1989). Learning process will be effective if teachers know how to make use and describe appropriate examples of everyday life phenomena in their teaching. Simple and appropriate level of language should be used to explain the everyday life phenomena which related to scientific and mathematical concepts, in order to motivate students to understand better. However, as indicated in Table 4 revealed that majority of the respondents either hardly or seldom use English language at home (Item S3) and they used to speak their mother tongue language at home. This was supported by the facts that they like to read the Malay subtitle when watching television of English program to understand better (Item S13) and they also like to read the Malay story books rather than English story books (Item S14).
Criticism concerning knowledge generation and use oppose the idea that practitioner research is developing a form of research that contributes to a new epistemology of practice that is governed by different criteria and epistemological traditions (Cochran- Smith & Lytle, 2004). They challenge, on methodological grounds, the view that practitioner researchers have the skill, or the analytic ability to do research about their own practice or in their own professional context. Critics belonging to this camp challenge the possibility that the practitioner can function effectively as the researcher in their professional setting. They argue that practitioner researchers are not equipped with essential basic knowledge, skills or understanding of research methodology to be able to conduct research of any significant value (Bartlett & Burton, 2006). Critics maintain that practitioner research ignores the importance of the experience and expertise of the researcher on the outcome of the research process. In addition, the critics question the practitioner-researcher’s ability to satisfy the usual criteria of qualitative research and “transcend the self” (Huberman, 1996, cited in Cochran- Smith & Donnell, 2006, p. 513). Like the critics who question practitioner research on the grounds of knowledge generation, those opposed to its methods of knowledge generation assume that practitioner-researchers are bound by the same methodological criteria as those of more traditional research, and so are not engaged in the emergence of a new genre of research (Cochran-Smith & Donnell, 2006). Regarding validity and generalizability, some critics claim that practitioner research is idiosyncratic and that educational research needs to synthesize findings across settings rather than analyse findings from a single classroom, course or program (Anderson & Herr, 1999). These critics argue that since large samples, uniform procedures, cross-site comparisons, controlling and testing for the impact of specific variables, and a focus on educational outcomes are absent in practitioner research, this approach fails to meet the requirements of research, particularly the property of rigour.
For effective organization of the process of teaching in the real situation of the educational practice teacher needs a deep understanding of psychological content of certain phases of that activity and a sufficiently high level of the basic concepts. For anybody not a secret, that modern school teaches mainly the technique of reading, but has not been able to actually teach reading, the meaning of perception, accurate understanding of the substantive side of the integral text. In addition, when, becoming a student, the student is forced to process huge volumes of
Croft (2002: p147) poses the question of who should teach mathematics to students e.g. when it is appropriate for either a mathematics support centre or mathematics department to teach maths and when is it appropriate to be done in house? Croft (2002: p148) outlines the problems with both strategies. If a mathematics department teaches information science students, they will not have the same background in IR as the author, and will therefore not be able to give the students’ context. Mathematics lecturers may not understand the often negative feelings the students have for mathematics and that they are not mathematics students. These lecturers may feel that they have been dumped in a support role and are taken away from the advanced mathematicsteaching they would like to do. However as the author does not teach mathematics full time, he is unaware of the precise details of the mathematics taught in secondary education. Because of the lag between students leaving secondary education and taking the authors courses, it may be difficult for non-specialists to develop strategies to deal with student problems over the course of time. There is potential for a turf war between departments over who should do this kind of teaching. Croft (2002: p149) argues that mathematics as a discipline is unique within each subject. There is a considerable advantage in having an expert in one particular field of mathematics who also has knowledge of LIS issues. For example, the teaching of maths in IR is very context driven; the author teaches the student body set theory within the context of searching, how to form search sets and manipulate them with various strategies. The use of guest lecturers to deliver some specialist knowledge in the area of probability and statistics might be useful for part of a lecture however.
While Math 98 and 99 have a traditional mathematics course structure consisting of lectures, activities, quizzes, homework, and exams, their effectiveness lies in the personal approach students experience despite the relatively large class size. During the summer of 2007 a group of instructors teaching Math 98 and Math 99 and a couple of tenure track professors held a discussion about how to improve the teaching of developmental math courses so that students would be more successful in completing the developmental math requirement at the end of one year. The group listed the challenges they were facing with the current model. After a discussion it was clear that the single most significant challenge was to keep students coming to class regularly and having them do their work for the class on a regular basis. All agreed to design a new model. Essential components of the new model are described below. Creating a collaborative learning environment.
9.15 All respondents were asked if they agreed or disagreed with a number of statements concerning their education and qualifications. Respondents were more likely to disagree (46 per cent) than to agree (38 per cent) that young people do not get enough careers advice about what to do after Year 11. A majority agreed that you need to have qualifications in order to get a job worth having (74 per cent), that the qualifications you can get on government training schemes are just as valuable as those you can get at school (58 per cent) and that they need to have a part-time job while studying to have enough money to enjoy themselves (70 per cent). A large majority disagreed with the statement that they could not afford to continue studying after Year 11 (87 per cent), and that they would prefer to be undertaking training at their place of work than to be studying for exams at a college. 39 per cent agreed that they needed a part-time job in order to support themselves. Interestingly from the point of view of this study, the majority of respondents (85 per cent) agreed that employers and universities should recognise achievements beyond formal qualifications, and that they would be willing to do a bit more work to achieve a new national award that helped to recognise wider activities (67 per cent). Slightly more respondents (43 per cent) agreed than disagreed that starting work at 16 limits your career opportunities later in life, and 46 per cent agreed that in looking for a job they were more concerned with finding one with training rather than one that pays the best. The results suggest that young people recognise the value of qualifications, both academic and non-academic, and place more emphasis upon getting a job with good training prospects. 9.16 Respondents from the higher social classes were more likely to disagree that
2.48 The majority of projects were predominantly outdoor in nature but frequently complemented by other types of activity. The developmental aspects of the programme, determined by DfEE, have presented the providers with a challenge which most can be said to have responded with a degree of success. The activity industry itself has acknowledged that the combination of youth work skills and activity experience required to deliver effectively are not always in supply (especially during the high demand period of summer) and that staff resources have been stretched. Awareness of the need to place greater emphasis upon personal development and the skills needed to work with often disaffected 16yearolds is high within the projects. The DfEE might consider what role it might play in helping the projects overcome this gap.
As one would expect, younger respondents (11-12 yearolds) reported carrying out more desirable road safety behaviour than did older respondents (13-16yearolds) across all three types of behaviour - i.e. they reported carrying out unsafe road crossing and dangerous playing in the road behaviours less often, and planned protective behaviours more often. Also, from a road safety point of view, the reported behaviour of female respondents was more desirable than the reported behaviour of male respondents. However, a statistically significant area × sex interaction effect for planned protective behaviour suggested that for this type of behaviour the difference between male and females only held for respondents from schools in rural and small urban areas. For respondents from schools in large urban areas, there was no significant difference between the genders.
1. Take a referral and assess the needs of a young person When a 16 or 17 year old presents to you as homeless, you should complete the initial assessment form. This helps establish the young person’s housing situation and will also highlight any other issues that may affect the young person e.g. offending history/ care leaver/ support needs. It will indicate which agencies need to be involved with the young person. Accompanying the initial
Abstract . The present paper proposes to speak about teachingEnglish economics vocabulary. So, at first, we make references to the key points and the issues which are raised by teaching and learning specific vocabulary: learners usually select the words they want to acquire; once learned, words move from active to passive status; one of teachers’ activities is to help students remember the acquired vocabulary; teachers should provide the correct exposure to words and opportunities for learners to practice them.
Perhaps due to this confidence, most HEPs tended to value formative (and generally qualitative) evaluation practices more highly than summative. These furnished them with the opportunity to understand the ways in which their activities were impacting on young people and to hone them for the future. In some cases, this was quite simplistic and delivery-focused (e.g. around catering), but the most developed evaluation practices gathered data from multiple perspectives (young person, teachers, parents, student ambassadors or HEP staff) and used more expansive methods such as group interviews, focus groups and authentic task exercises. In the strongest reported examples, there was a clearly articulated feedback loop between evaluation and future practice, as well as a concern with content, materials and pedagogy.
A teaching strategy that is culturally responsive has been identified as that which fits into the “attributes, cha- racteristics, or knowledge from students’ cultural background” . It is seen to play an important role in creat- ing an enabling environment for learning, thereby raising achievement . Thus, in a heterogeneous society such as ours, it seems natural to acknowledge the role of culture in promoting engagement. But as Ball  noted, the National Curriculum, despite several reforms, does little to reflect cultural diversity. In fact, as ob- served previously, the 1988 reform resisted efforts to develop a multicultural curriculum in schools. It is some- what contradictory that a multicultural society like ours is failing to acknowledge the role of culture in promot- ing learning. Similarly, Bishop and Glynn  noted that culture is a significant part of education that cannot be ignored by educators. They argue that it is not acceptable to structure mainstream educational contexts based on common culture, and educators themselves are ignorant of the fact that they bring their own traditions of mean- ing-making that are culturally generated to educational interactions. They state that incorporating multicultural- ism in the curriculum is as important as assessing how a teacher’s cultural belief and practice affect students’ learning. Contributing to the subject, Howard  suggests that students who possess cultural knowledge that does not conform to mainstream approaches are more likely to “experience cognitive discomfort” as schools are engrossed with “mainstream ideology, language and norms”. He believes that culturally responsive teaching “actively engages students”, and in the case of a lack of interest, it acts “as a catalyst to develop personal inter- est”. The validity of Howard’s assertion is not in doubt, as experience has shown that culturally responsive teaching eliminates disenfranchisement and enhances the factors that seem to maximise the motivation to learn. On the other hand, Lumby  is of the view that adapting pedagogic practices is likely to reduce the monotony experienced by learners who do not engage with traditional methods of teaching thereby increasing more partic- ipation in the learning process.
15 In 2013, careers advice and guidance was still inadequate for many students and few 16- to 18-year-olds used the National Careers Service. In 2013, Ofsted found that only 12 out of 60 schools it visited were ensuring that all students received sufficient information to consider a wide breadth of career possibilities. This was after the Department had introduced a new statutory duty for schools to provide independent careers guidance that was impartial and that promoted pupils’ best interests. The Department responded to Ofsted’s recommendations by, among other things, clarifying the statutory guidance, while Ofsted has given careers guidance a higher priority in routine inspections. But the Department does not yet know if, or to what extent, these actions have led schools to improve. Between April 2012 and March 2013, the National Careers Service had some 27,500 contacts (via telephone, webchat, email, or SMS) with 16- to 18-year-olds, equivalent to just 1 for every 71 people in the age group. It is unclear how many 16- to 18-year-olds accessed careers advice services online (paragraphs 2.8 to 2.16). 16 The Department knows of at least 5,400 5 young people aged 16 to 18 who