Top PDF The effectiveness of Japanese official development assistance in Indonesia

The effectiveness of Japanese official development assistance in Indonesia

The effectiveness of Japanese official development assistance in Indonesia

The primary objective of the Koto Panjang Dam Project is to utilize water resources to produce electric power with 114 megawatts of the installed electricity generation capacity. The Koto Panjang Dam is located at the 10 kilometers downstream at the confluence of two main rivers. The lands of 124 square kilometers behind the dam were considered to be flooded by the reservoir. Under the construction project of Koto Panjang Dam with the 58 meters height and the 356 meters crest length, ten local villages were estimated to submerge and therefore 2,644 families were needed to be displaced from the area.71 At first, the project was seemingly fruitful considering the fact the supply of electricity increased in this area and more than 91% of households in the sampled village possessed rubber plantation after their relocation as opposed to only 55% of them owned rubber plantation on the former lands. Nevertheless, the Koto Panjang Dam Project has brought devastating effects rather than benefits to the people’s lives and surrounding environment. It is very questionable whether it was necessary for Japan to provide the Koto Panjang Dam project financed by its ODA and for Indonesia to construct the dam against the indigenous people’s will.
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The Dimensions of Effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In Improving Sustainability Development (Study on Communities of Seven Tribes in the Area of PT Freeport Indonesia

The Dimensions of Effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In Improving Sustainability Development (Study on Communities of Seven Tribes in the Area of PT Freeport Indonesia

Abstract:- Approach in this research is quantitative whereas research purposes this is (1). Quantify the data and make a generalization of results of samples from a population, (2). The number of sample that are plentiful, (3) done in a structured, (4). Data analysis using statistical and (5). The results of research to provide recommendations (Maholtra, the 2004). With the analysis of the effectiveness of the corporate social responsibility of PT Freeport Papua as well as observations made using the scope of time (time horizon) are cross section or the one shoot, which means the data retrieved from a specified time. The results showed that Corporate Social Responsibility, is an activity conducted by the company in order to implement the economic responsibility to stakeholders or stakeholders such as how to obtain profits and raise the price of the stock or the legal responsibilities to the Government are already well underway. 2} PT Freeport Indonesia, recognized corporate social responsibility has been held, but test and analysis research describes activity Corporate Social Responsibility the company has yet to give effect to the improvement of the welfare of society, 3) testing statistics explained that the external factors include (a) the Central Government/region (investors, local government, stability Security Area); (b) the level of participation of the community; (c) human resources Capacity; (d) Institutionalcapacity, not much effect and give a strong impact against the efforts of increasing welfare as well as the sustainability of development in the area of mining work PT. Freeport Indonesia 4.) Internal factors include the size of the enterprise, Leverage, profitability, the structure of Ownership has no effect and give impact on the welfare of the community improvement efforts and the sustainability community development the seven tribes as part impact of the activities of the PT. Freeport Indonesia. 5) Cultural values community positive and significant effect against the Sustainability Development by implementing Corporate Social Responsibility.
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The Effectiveness of the Role of Universities in Building the Entrepreneurial Community in Indonesia

The Effectiveness of the Role of Universities in Building the Entrepreneurial Community in Indonesia

The College's role in motivating students to become a young entrepreneur is very important in growing number of businesspeople. With the rise of entrepreneur from among scholars will reduce the amount of added unemployment even increased the number of jobs. The question is how the College parties can print a young entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education in Indonesia is still less gain enough attention adequately, either by education or community. Many educators are less attentive to the growth of entrepreneurial attitudes and behavior of target students, both at secondary schools, as well as in higher education. Their orientation, generally just on setting up manpower.
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Development Effectiveness  Based Economic Independence in Indonesia

Development Effectiveness Based Economic Independence in Indonesia

companies have only a portion of about 14.6 percent. The latest data on oil and gas BP mentions, there are only about 20 of the national oil and gas company that manages oil and gas field in Indonesia. Its dominating foreign capital effect on the direction of the privatization of the public sector, the domestic economy and mastery of marketing of goods and services produced developed countries. The role of the international creditor institutions through various loan schemes abroad plays an important role pushing the agenda, through the discharge of various products such as ACT regulation water resources, oil and gas ACT, the Act electric power to the privatization of State-Owned Enterprises. This condition expresses the onset of shifting State responsibilities replaced his role by the Corporation. Whereas on the other side. The management and the control of SDA strategies mainly Mineral and Oil resources (petroleum, natural gas, coal, gold, copper, uranium) is the source of the country's foreign exchange. Natural resource-rich Indonesia already should be a source of attainment of economic independence that increasingly rise of national stability. Need for firmness of the Government against various foreign companies that master the SDA Indonesia. The Government can renegotiate or
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The Effectiveness of Health Service at the Social Security Office of the Governing Body (BPJS)  in Indonesia

The Effectiveness of Health Service at the Social Security Office of the Governing Body (BPJS) in Indonesia

Health care professional holding important roles in building a society that is prosperous, healthy, community health development does not stand alone but rather have a synergy with other fields such as education, the Ministry of the social, economic, cultural etc., the number of health care issues at home sick even though society has had a health security card proves that is not the only party responsible BPJS but rather the management of the hospital along with the entire health team doctors, nurses, employees are required to be able to synergize cera fast, precise and profesiuonal, in addition to Government support in the form of policies and supervision and the construction should be more intensive and focus, it is also very expected involvement of all elements of the stake holder, private health care contributed to the mutually synergistic.
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Effectiveness of Law Enforcement in Indonesia

Effectiveness of Law Enforcement in Indonesia

The laws that apply in society are like distinction in the social classes. For the community in the social stratification and above clearly get a different treatment than the community that has a social stratification down. People who in their families have higher positions or positions have special or distinguished honours from communities that originate from the background of a family of ordinary people or have no position or Position in the community. This means that there is an indication that the treatment for the lawbreakers of the law enforcement officers occurs injustice. The law is sharp down and the law blunt upwards, the phenomenon is almost happening in all corners of the homeland in Indonesia. Departing from the idea that not very few people, both educated society and society are not educated, even people who are daily involved in the legal world although especially in Indonesia, those who are still astonished when they understand the law is as a commander to answer, decide, or to settle a cause or case, it is not very few laws as the law becomes barren not give birth to what the community expects Itself (Uthman, 2013:241). Expectations of society against the law are far from circumstances or desires in law enforcement, will only add a concern in society.
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Main characteristics of Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA) flows

Main characteristics of Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA) flows

Yokota’s classification permits an understanding of the characteristics of foreign aid in terms of aid implementation. However, a serious shortcoming of this classification is that it does not incorporate a complicated decision-making process on foreign aid allocation. For example, although both grants and loans are implemented by the Japanese government, they undergo different decision-making processes. To comprehend the characteristics and features of Japan’s ODA, this paper will concentrate more on the foreign aid flows rather than its implementation.

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Liberal Economics, Governance, and Official Development Assistance: Empirical Comments on Theoretical Themes

Liberal Economics, Governance, and Official Development Assistance: Empirical Comments on Theoretical Themes

While the idea ―that ‗aid buys growth‘ has remained an integral part of the founding myth and ongoing mission of the aid bureaucracies‖ (Easterly 2003, 34), it is the distortions associated with growth that often determines the effectiveness of aid. ―The incentive to invest aid and its subsequent productivity as capital are affected by various policy distortions that can lower the return on capital‖ (Burnside and Dollar 2000, 847). Hence the outcome of aid ought to depend precisely on how it is used, where it is invested, and what expectations drove such investment. Since different countries may have different economic policies as well as confront different levels of market distortions, does this therefore mean that the incentives from aid would be more robust in some countries and less in others? And what specific factors could contribute to the differential impact? The problem with measuring the relative impact of aid (if any) is that its effect may not lend itself to a single discrete outcome and in most cases could be subsumed within various socioeconomic and political indicators. It is therefore plausible to argue that the generic focus on the ―aid-growth‖ nexus may have, by default, created a condition where the absence of a direct and robust relationship between aid and economic growth would essentially be construed as a failure. In light of this observation, donor and recipient countries as well as national policy makers sought to reassess the link between aid, policy, and growth by adding more countries and more data beyond what was used in the original Burnside and Dollar (2000) work. The result found that the proposition that aid promotes growth in countries with good policies was also not statistically significant. While not arguing that aid is, in itself, ineffective; they simply note that adding additional data to the Burnside and Dollar (2000) study raises new doubts about the effectiveness of aid and suggest that economists and policy makers should be less optimistic about concluding that foreign aid will boost growth in countries with good policies (see Rajan and Subramanian 2005; Alesina and Dollar 2000).
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An empirical analysis of the determinants of agricultural official development assistance

An empirical analysis of the determinants of agricultural official development assistance

Even though all three terms are relevant to recipi- ent needs for aid, they are possibly correlated with one another while describing similar situations. In fact, the estimated Cronbach’s alpha of 0.72 does sug- gest that the three “Needs” variables are correlated. To take advantage of efficient estimation and avoid a potential problem of multicollinearity, principal component analysis (PCA) is adopted. As seen in Table 4, the data for recipient needs for aid in three eigenvectors are reduced to one eigenvector with the biggest eigenvalue, 2.73357. The first principal component, namely “Needs_pc1” is measured to ac- count for about 91% of the cumulative proportion of variance explained. Therefore, instead of representing recipient needs data in three dimensions, the equa- tion can be simply estimated using only “Needs_pc1.” The donor interests are reflected in terms of vari- ables related to polity and past colonisation. The polity data are widely used to measure the level of democracy in a country. As Burnside and Dollar (2000) pointed out, polity can be an indicator for po- tential aid effectiveness. In addition, as almost all the OECD/DAC members are democratic governments, aid provision is likely be contingent on the polity level of the recipient country. The variable colony reflects the fact that, ceteris paribus, donor-recipient relations under past colonialist rule may promote aid flows between the two countries. A number of trade models suggest that a colonial past is a significant determinant of bilateral trade (Ghosh and Yamrik 2004; Melitz 2007; Zhou 2011).
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International Comparison of Japan’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) policy

International Comparison of Japan’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) policy

The introduction of the ODA Charter in 1992 can be seen as Japan’s official pledge to pay more attention to political conditions in recipient countries and to impose political conditionalities on them. However, in practice, the Japanese government has continued using foreign aid as a diplomatic tool to pursue own economic interests. In this paper, in order to determine the quality of Japanese foreign aid, Japan’s ODA will be compared with the foreign aid of other countries. In term of quantity, the amount of Japan’s ODA is impressive. In 1989, Japan topped the US as the biggest donor of foreign aid among all aid donor countries. Despite the impressive quantity of Japanese foreign aid, the ratio of Japan’s ODA to GNP in 1999 was 0.27 percent, which was lower than the average ODA ratio to GNP among DAC members (0.39 percent). Denmark was the country with the highest ratio (1.06 percent) followed by the Netherlands (0.82 percent). In term of geographical distribution, a prominent characteristic of Japan’s ODA is that Asia, especially East Asian countries, receives the biggest share of Japanese aid. Far East Asia received 54.5 percent of this amount, and South and Centra Asia received 19.2 percent. African countries in South of the Sahara were left far behind receiving only 9.5 percent of total Japanese bilateral aid, while the African countries in North of the Sahara received only 2.1 percent. Furthermore, Grant Share (GS) of Japan’s ODA was 39.6 percent, while the DAC’s average rate of GS that year was 77.8 percent. Among DAC members, the Scandinavian countries, Australia and New Zealand had a very high GS, almost 100 percent. Germany’s and France’s GS were nearly 80 percent. These figures show that Japan’s GS has been one of the lowest among DAC members. Also, Japan’s untied aid ratio became one of the highest of the DAC
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The questionable economics of development assistance in Africa: hot fresh evidence, 1996 2010

The questionable economics of development assistance in Africa: hot fresh evidence, 1996 2010

bureaucracies, multilateral aid agencies and recipient government officials. Indeed donors pursue multiple goals and these vary over time. For instance, economic gains seem important in Japanese aid, global welfare improvement in Nordic aid and political goals in French aid. Hence, few would object to the inference that our findings may also be explained by a motivation of the French to maintain their colonial legacies and influence in Africa. These results on the questionable effects are broadly consistent with recent development literature (Marglin, 2013; Wamboye et al., 2013; Titumir & Kamal, 2013; Banuri, 2013; Ghosh, 2013; Krause, 2013; Monni & Spaventa, 2013). Indeed the position of Amin (2013) on the possibility of neocolonialism governing grand aid is broadly in line with Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2013) on the entrapment of Africa within the global colonial matrices of power or Kindiki (2011) on the need for African countries to strategically overcome dependence on international regimes. Amin has further reiterated that development cannot be reduced to the Washington consensus and what donors think is good for Africa. According to the author, it should be a holistic process that clearly articulates what Africans desire (Obeng-Odoom, 2013).
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Changes and continuity in Japanese official development assistance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

Changes and continuity in Japanese official development assistance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

Building on a conflict model of the Japanese state that treats the bureaucracy as a divided but powerful power centre, the paper argues that recent developments in Japanese society have [r]

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Relationship between official development assistance and economics growth: a var estimation

Relationship between official development assistance and economics growth: a var estimation

Economists who support foreign aid state that the arguments of foreign aid critics carry the mark of exaggeration. Jeffrey Sachs (2004), Joseph Stiglitz (2002) and Nicholas Stern (2002), among others, have argued that despite some failures, aid has contributed to poverty reduction and growth in some countries. Without foreign aid, some countries would have had even worse results. Aid theories supporters also believe that many of its shortcomings are more attributable to donors than to recipients, especially since aid is largely aimed at cementing political alliances rather than financing development. Examples include the success of many recipient countries such as Botswana, Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, and recently Uganda and Mozambique. They point out that for 40 years, since aid has been delivered on a large scale, poverty indicators have declined in many countries, and health and education indicators
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Changes and continuity in Japanese official development assistance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

Changes and continuity in Japanese official development assistance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

volunteers in areas where the Japanese government does not and, this can prove vital in showing the local people that Japan 'cares' and is actually providing them with assistance Ministr[r]

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Seventy Years of Official Development Assistance: Reflections on the Working Age Population

Seventy Years of Official Development Assistance: Reflections on the Working Age Population

Based on Masud and Yontcheva (2005) and Binder and Georgiadis (2010), we include a set of control variables that influence the country‘s level of development: a) rural development proxied by agricultural value added per worker as a percentage of GDP (rural); b) poverty headcount based on 1.90 US$ a day (poverty); c) trade openness measured as imports plus exports as a percentage of GDP (trade); d) Government expenditures on education and health as a percentage of total government expenditures (health) (education); e) the size of the working age population captured by the ratio of working age population to total population (working); f) rents measured by total natural resource rents as a percentage of GDP (rents); g) inflows of remittances as a percentage of GDP (remittances); and h) net enrolment rate in secondary education as a percent of relevant age group (secondary). Data are sourced from the World Bank (2016). Variables‘ descriptive statistics and definitions appear in Tables A2 and A3.
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Policy of Micro Enterprise Development in Indonesia

Policy of Micro Enterprise Development in Indonesia

In the current era of globalization, every country must have problems, not least economic problems, Small and Medium Enterprises or commonly in short MSMEs have an important position in building the country's economy, not only in the absorption of labor and welfare of local communities, but also can stabilize the problem of social inequality. Examples of SMEs are street vendors, the existence of street vendors can contribute greatly to the economy of our country, because with the street vendors can help reduce poverty, the existence of street vendors itself is a form of independence of society where society want to rise from economic keterbelitan and try entrepreneurship, but in fact existence The street vendors are often used as the source of the problem, such as the culprits, or the symbols of the city, the government should provide the proper land for the street vendors so that the street vendors get their formal legal, therefore the government is expected not only to prioritize the development of MSMEs, but as well as optimization, so that no loss is borne by one party only. The development of MSMEs needs to optimize because the existence of UMKM contributes greatly to the economic development of our country, MSMEs can also reduce the unemployment rate in Indonesia. Therefore, the government in the effort to develop MSMEs should be run properly, so that there is no imbalance or losses experienced by certain parties, the government should also consider the defense for small, micro and medium enterprises, the government should optimize SMEs not only provide the government credit business or common people in short KUR, but also consider the continuity and security of the business, so far the consideration and security of the work done by the government fairly weak, for example the difficulty street vendors get formal legality. Development of micro small and medium enterprises overall that is by giving positive and real support to the development of human resources such as entrepreneurship training, technology, information, access to finance and marketing, Expansion of export markets, these are all indicators of success to build a community- based business climate.
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Civil society and donor funded democratisation: Sierra Leone case study

Civil society and donor funded democratisation: Sierra Leone case study

Additionally there is a large amount of official development data available internationally from the World Bank, OECD and domestically from the Development Assistance Coordination Offi[r]

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Annual report 2011 on the European Community’s development policy and the implementation of external assistance in 2010. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. COM (2011) 414 final, 6 July 2011

Annual report 2011 on the European Community’s development policy and the implementation of external assistance in 2010. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. COM (2011) 414 final, 6 July 2011

During 2010, the Commission delivered budget support programmes (€495 million) to Africa for poverty reduction with a continued strong focus on the MDGs. It also continued efforts to combat the short-term fiscal impact of the economic crisis on the most vulnerable countries through the Vulnerability FLEX instrument which allows poverty-focused programmes to be maintained in the face of tighter fiscal constraints. The EU has been active in fighting hunger in Africa via its food facility and specific food security projects. Many EU projects in the region also directly target health-related MDGs. The EU continued its action in fragile countries and plays a leading role in sectors like democratic governance, justice, security sector reform, infrastructure, public financial management and rural development.
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Social Responsibility in the Development of the Community’s Seven Tribes in the Region of the PT  Freeport Papua, INDONESIA

Social Responsibility in the Development of the Community’s Seven Tribes in the Region of the PT Freeport Papua, INDONESIA

In the Work Area of PT. Freeport Indonesia is known as the "seven tribes" in slang called "seven tribes" namely employees from local communities who inhabit the work area of giant companies located in Timika, the seven tribes in question include the Amungme, Kamoro, Mee, Moni tribes. , Dani, Damal, Nduga, they are 7 of the 250 tribes that inhabit seven customary areas of Papua. The Kamoro tribe is located in the southern coast of Papua, if it enters the company area, namely Amamapare port "a place for shipping gold and copper taken from underground and Grasberg, then drop to the mile74 smelting plant and flow through the mine pipe, exit at portsite and export overseas according to needs from 33 countries that have received goods from Freeport Indonesia "if they enter the government area, the port is called Paumako, this place looks like the houses of Kamoro people are lined up on the coast, heavy waves every day hit the pillars of stilts that stand on sand, they live without a steady income, not many work at PTFI and civil servants, even if they can count on their fingers.While the Amungme tribe is included in the other five tribes, behind the mountain Nemangkawai, the company says "Grasberg" while the government calls "tembagapura" which crosses wide in the central mountains of Papua, Papua which other people commonly call "a small paradise that falls to earth" because it will abundantly the natural wealth that God gave to the people of Papua in general and specifically the seven tribes.
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Earth Observation Actionable Information Supporting Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts in a Sustainable Development Framework

Earth Observation Actionable Information Supporting Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts in a Sustainable Development Framework

The impact of natural hazards on lives and economy are of prime importance to society, especially for developing countries, where mortality is disproportionately high and material losses can have a catastrophic impact in economies. The roadmap to reduce these impacts is laid out in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework). The aim of this initiative is to reduce the number of affected people and disaster-induced casualties, minimize direct economic loss and reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructures and basic services. The broader thematic framework of the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also recognizes the opportunities to achieve SDGs though reducing disaster risk. Finally, the Paris Agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as third pillar of the global policy framework, stresses the importance of having a risk assessment and management strategy and the need of reducing risks related to climate change.
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