Top PDF Effects of Disasters on People of Low Socioeconomic Status

Effects of Disasters on People of Low Socioeconomic Status

Effects of Disasters on People of Low Socioeconomic Status

Preparedness in America: Research insights to increase individual, organizational, and community action. Risk Analysis,[r]

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The impact of socioeconomic status and multimorbidity on mortality: a population-based cohort study

The impact of socioeconomic status and multimorbidity on mortality: a population-based cohort study

Results: Of a total of 12,480 deaths, 6,607 (9.5%) were of people with low educational level (LEL) and 1,272 (2.3%) were of people with high educational level (HEL). The mortality rate was higher among people with LEL compared with HEL in groups of people with 0–1 disease (hazard ratio: 2.26, 95% confidence interval: 2.00–2.55) and ≥4 diseases (hazard ratio: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.24), respectively (adjusted model). The absolute number of deaths was six times higher among people with LEL than those with HEL in those with ≥4 diseases. The 1-year cumulative mortality proportions for overall death in those with ≥4 diseases was 5.59% for people with HEL versus 7.27% for people with LEL, and 1-year cumulative mortality proportions for premature death was 2.93% for people with HEL versus 4.04% for people with LEL. Adjusting for potential mediating factors such as lifestyle and quality of life eliminated the statistical association between educational level and mortality in people with MM. Conclusion: Our study suggests that LEL is associated with higher overall and premature mortality and that the association is affected by MM, lifestyle factors, and quality of life. Keywords: multimorbidity, socioeconomic status, social epidemiology, inequality in health, mortality, population-based cohort study
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Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

Our findings point for the importance of FM to the public health system, and highlight the need of preparing public policies to prepare the system to the demand posed by FM, and also to provide adequate care aiming to improve the daily life activities and the quality of life, as recently suggested by Blyth [47]. These policies are especially important for people of low income, who depend on the government health care system. Because classification of FM was done using the ACR Criteria proposed in 1990, future studies are necessary to discuss the better criteria to account for the syndrome complexity.
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A Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Rhinosporidiosis in a Rural Tertiary Care Centre in Pondicherry

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The males in this study were found to be farmers, daily wage labourers and factory workers, with the farmers being the most affected group. The females who were housewives in this study all gave a history of exposure to agricultural work of various kinds. In this study there was also a strong association between rhinosporidiosis and rural residential status, bathing in rivers and ponds and low socioeconomic status. Arsecularatne also found similar findings in his study, and found that persons from rural areas engaged in agricultural work and who took baths in ponds where animals were bathed also, were most at risk of developing rhinosporidiosis [5]. He also found that people taking bath in lakes or reservoirs suffer more from rhinosporidiosis of the upper respiratory tract and eye as compared to people taking bath in wells. Arsecularatne, Guru and Pradhan and Jain and Sahal also found in their respective studies a correlation between low socioeconomic status and occurrence of rhinosporidiosis [5,8,13]. The probable reason for this may be the poorer standards of hygiene among people of low socioeconomic status.
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Teachers’ Perspective on a Health Promotion Intervention in Low Socioeconomic Status Kindergartens

Teachers’ Perspective on a Health Promotion Intervention in Low Socioeconomic Status Kindergartens

Obesity is the most common chronic pediatric disease in westernized, especially low socioeconomic societies. We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a kin- dergarten dietary-physical activity intervention applied by the kindergarten teachers, on nutrition and physical activity knowledge and preferences, fitness, and BMI (Body Mass Index) percentile, even one year after the end of intervention. The current ar- ticle demonstrates the Kindergarten teachers’ feedback and perspectives on the in- tervention, a feedback that is important when planning such programs. Quantitative and descriptive feedback questionnaires were distributed to all kindergarten teachers twice, upon completion of the intervention program and one year after. Training kindergarten teachers on the importance of health promotion should be an integral part of their training curriculum. We believe that in our efforts to prevent and treat childhood obesity, a kindergarten dietary-physical activity health promotion inter- vention applied by kindergarten teachers may play an important role.
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Birth Spacing and Risk of Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

Birth Spacing and Risk of Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

effects of both preterm birth and low birth weight as potential mediators in the association between IPI and ASD risk. Among studies that evaluated the relationship between birth spacing and developmental delay and cerebral palsy, most of them included maternal age, measures of socioeconomic status, birth weight, gestational age, race/ ethnicity, and child’s gender as potential confounders/mediators in the adjusted models. The risk of bias for each included study is summarized in Fig 2. Seven studies met at least 5 of the criteria, 4 met 4 of the criteria, and 1 met 3 of the criteria. The most common deficiency was the inadequate categorization of pregnancy intervals.
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Challenges in management and prevention of ischemic heart disease in low socioeconomic status people in LLMICs

Challenges in management and prevention of ischemic heart disease in low socioeconomic status people in LLMICs

population-based ACS registries in LLMICs. In India, for example, the Million Death Study investigators reported that more than three-quarters of deaths from CVD occur at home, and significantly more in rural than in urban populations, suggesting the non-availability of care or a failure to access care [17]. The PURE study reported that IHD mortality was significantly greater in rural partici- pants than among people in urban communities in LICs [5, 18]. ACS registries from LLMICs have reported delays in diagnosis due to diversion to a primary care practi- tioner, which delays admission to a hospital within the re- quired time for various evidence-based treatments; such delays are more common among those of low SES [19]. Additionally, in those of lower SES, there is also a lack of awareness of symptoms, sparse availability of primary care, absence of ambulances (patients use own or rented transportation), poor availability of diagnostic services at primary care clinics (electrocardiogram, etc.), out-of-pocket expenses for expensive medicines and coronary interventions, and substantial delays in obtaining insurance approvals [20]. Furthermore, cata- strophic health expenses are common in those of low SES in LLMICs [21].
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Mindfulness equity and Western Buddhism: reaching people of low socioeconomic status and people of color

Mindfulness equity and Western Buddhism: reaching people of low socioeconomic status and people of color

While MAP may provide a safe, self-reflective environment in which to speak of ra- cism for both people of color and whites, work is also needed to be done by whites within Insight Meditation centers. Sadly, it seems that POC groups are more common than white ally or white awareness groups, perpetuating the societal norm that diversity and inclusion efforts are the job of people of color (Buddhist Insight Network 2012). In light of the necessity and precedent of people of color gathering in solidarity within a structurally racist society, it is not surprising that POC groups outnumber white aware- ness groups in Insight centers. Though unsurprising, this dynamic is good cause for pause, and reflection on what it might be like to have anti-racism groups for whites established with the frequency of POC groups. What would it look like, and what would it take, for the white folks to do their own race work?
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Correlates of socioeconomic status and the health of older people in the United Kingdom: a review

Correlates of socioeconomic status and the health of older people in the United Kingdom: a review

This paper reviews the existing literature on the association between the socio-economic status (SES) and the health of the ageing population in the United Kingdom (UK). It has been noted that socio-economic differentials are more marked across the UK than they are in other developed countries. Social class gradients are significant in health for working age people (up to age 65), whereas studies on older populations have so far been limited so as to draw any robust conclusions. In this paper, we examine the inequalities through selected SES indicators in order to tease out the effects on health outcomes of the older population. We critically review the physical and mental health indicators of older people in the UK with regard to their SES differentials. The findings reveal that older people with lower SES are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes (for example, long-standing illness or increased disability) and have shorter life expectancy compared to those of higher SES. We illustrate how education remains the single most important determinant of health inequality in later life. We suggest that educational level or occupational class allied with material deprivation offer the best combined indicators of SES for studying health inequalities among older people. The findings of this paper has profound implications for prioritising policies to improve the health and wellbeing of elderly people with lower SES and go offer an evidence base of how to understand and to develop interventions that minimise the inequalities in health in later life in the UK.
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Socioeconomic Profile and Nutritional Status of Aged Garo Ethnic People

Socioeconomic Profile and Nutritional Status of Aged Garo Ethnic People

An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Mymensingh district to explore nutritional status of aged Garo ethnic people. Face to face interview was carried out and convenient sampling technique was used to collect data and verbal consent was taken from community leader prior to interview. Nutritional status was determined according to BMI cut off value for Asian population. About 60% respondents were from 60-69 years age group. Male and female distribution was nearly same. Illiteracy was highest (38%) followed by primary (34%) and SSC (20%). About half of the respondents were housewife followed by day labor (18%), farmer (14%), service (10%) and business (8%). Two third of respondents came from low income family. About half of the respondents were normal in terms of nutritional status followed by underweight (30%), overweight (16%) and obese (8%). It is concluded that one third of study population were underweight which is alarming for various morbidity.
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Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

proposed a hierarchical age–period–cohort (HAPC) model- ing approach that uses individual-level data and a multilevel modeling framework. Access to individual-level observations is possible to identify fixed-effect models by the creation of different time intervals among age, period, and/or cohort, and also by the addition of quadratic age effects into the equa- tions. Moreover, as cohort effects arise from differences in life conditions and experiences over the life course of cohorts, and as period effects arise from temporal or sequential changes in life conditions and circumstances that basically have an equal impact on all cohorts, it is possible to conclude that people who are in the same cohort, or same survey year, are indeed embedded in the same social historical context. As a result, in the HAPC model, respondents are simultaneously influenced by two higher level social historical contexts defined by the time period and cohort, which are randomly modeled. 20 We basically adopted a HAPC model, specifically,
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The Effect of Sleep Quantity and Quality on Adults' Blood Pressure: Yazd, 2014-2015

The Effect of Sleep Quantity and Quality on Adults' Blood Pressure: Yazd, 2014-2015

In addition, studies maintained that the OR of hypertension in fat people is 2 times more than the OR of normal people (35) . It agrees with the present study wherein blood pressure in people with normal BMI is 2.08 and is 4.59 in fat people (30) . It can be claimed that the most important findings of this study are those of multivariate logistic regression; among the involved variables, age, gender, educational level, BMI, and sleep duration are in a significant relationship with hypertension within the studied people. The shape of this relationship is as follows: female gender, higher educational level, younger age group, low BMI, and longer sleep duration decrease blood pressure. Other variables did not have any significant relationships with hypertension in the participants. The relationship of effective variables such as gender (33, 34) , educational level (7, 30-32) , BMI (30, 35) , and sleep duration have been approved in surveys and studies. Other variables did not affect per se and their effects were worn off in presence of other variables. Therefore, according to this study’s findings, these variables, among others, should be considered and implemented to plan some interventionist programs in order to improve blood pressure status.
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Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among asthma

Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among asthma

Since asthma and suicide are important public health burdens, epidemiological study investigating the men- tal health status in asthma patients and its relationship with suicidal ideations and attempts would be required to assess the potential risk for suicide, and ultimately pre- vent suicidal completion in patients with asthma. How- ever, very few studies about the relationship between asthma and suicide have been done in Asia especially South Korea. There are a number of epidemiological dif- ferences among the studies that have evaluated suicidal behavior, and an investigation of the various comorbidi- ties and risk factors that lead to suicide in different ethnic groups is therefore necessary. As far as I know, this is the first study suicidal prevalence among asthma patients in Korea.
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Access to midwifery care for people of low socio economic status: a qualitative descriptive study

Access to midwifery care for people of low socio economic status: a qualitative descriptive study

Our study has several limitations. One limitation re- lates to how we applied our inclusion criteria to screen for low-SES. We included some participants who had higher education but would otherwise be considered low-SES. This may have limited our ability to identify barriers experienced by people with lower levels of edu- cation, particularly given that education levels were slightly higher for participants who had not received midwifery care. Another limitation was that all partici- pants had to be fluent in English, as we were unable to provide translation services, so our findings likely do not fully reflect the experiences of newcomer populations with lower levels of English fluency. Another limitation is that we did not apply an intersectional analysis to examine the impact of other social determinants of health, particularly racialization, in our study [67]. This is because we limited the scope of our research based on our available resources, which constrained our ability to recruit and interview enough participants to compare how access to care was impacted by racial identity. It should be noted that there is racial inequality to access to health care in Ontario [67], and while there have been some positive initiatives within the profession of midwif- ery in Ontario to support care that meets the needs of a diverse population (e.g., the undergraduate midwifery curriculum emphasizes cross-cultural competence, and there is a bridging program that supports foreign-trained midwives to enter the profession), the profession has been critiqued for creating a model of care that is based upon the needs of white, educated women and for under-representation of racialized groups within the profession itself [68]. Ontario has a highly diverse popu- lation [69], so this is a rich and important area of explor- ation for future research. We anticipate that research that specifically involves racialized people of low-SES could reveal additional barriers to midwifery care.
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Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender

Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender

Patients and methods: We identified eligible patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database during 2004–2012. Overall and cancer-specific survival differences across marital status were compared by Kaplan–Meier curves. We also estimated crude hazard ratios (CHRs) and adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status associated with survival by race/ethnicity and gender in Cox proportional hazard models. Results: A total of 12,168 eligible patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. We observed that married status was an independent protective prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival. In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, the AHR of overall mortality (unmarried vs married) was highest for Hispanic (AHR =1.25, 95% CI, 1.13–1.39; P<0.001) and lowest for Asian or Pacific Islander (AHR =1.13; 95% CI, 1.00–1.28; P=0.042). Stratified by gender, the AHR was higher in males (AHR =1.27; 95% CI, 1.20–1.33; P<0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated that married patients obtained better survival advantages. Race/ ethnicity and gender could influence the magnitude of associations between marital status and risk of mortality.
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Study the Effects of Vipassana Meditation on Increasing the Level of Psychological well-Being of People

Study the Effects of Vipassana Meditation on Increasing the Level of Psychological well-Being of People

35. Ryff, C. D., Keyes, C. L. M., & Hughes, D. L., Status inequalities, perceived discrimination and eudaimonic well-being: Do the challenges of minority life hone purpose and growth? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003; 44: 275-291. 36. Ryff, C. D., Keyes, C. L. M., & Hughes, D. L., Psychological well-being in MIDUS: Profiles of ethnic/racial diversity and life course uniformity. In O.G. Brim, C.D. Ryff, & R.C. Kessler (Eds.), How healthy are we?: A national study of well- pp. 398-422). being at midlife (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. 37. Ryff, C. D., Lee, Y. H., Essex, M. J., & Schmutte,
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A Study of Low Socioeconomic Status, Black Teenage Fathers and Their Nonfather Peers

A Study of Low Socioeconomic Status, Black Teenage Fathers and Their Nonfather Peers

members of the teenage fathers’ family and peer group were positive or at least neutral about a teenage pregnancy as compared with attitudes ex-. pressed by the comparison group[r]

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<p>New Findings On Gender: The Effects Of Employment Status On Suicide</p>

<p>New Findings On Gender: The Effects Of Employment Status On Suicide</p>

the reference categories of the covariates. The proportion- ality of hazards, an assumption in the Cox model, is tested by inspecting the plots of ln[-ln{S(t)}] against survival time t for the various covariate categories. If the resulting plots are found to be approximately parallel, the propor- tionality assumption is assumed to be satis fi ed by the data. Estimated relative risks (hazard ratios) were obtained by exponentiating the hazard coef fi cients ( β k ’ s) in Equation 1. Thus, relative risk (RR) = exp( β k ’ s). The statistical signi fi cance of the effects of each covariate in the above model (Equation 1) was assessed via the t-sta- tistic, obtained as a ratio of the parameter estimate to its corresponding asymptotic standard error. Parameters were estimated by the method of partial maximum likelihood using the PHREG procedure. 16 Proportional hazards model was selected over the logistic model because the latter fails to account for differences in survival from start of follow-up until event occurrence.
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The effects of lean beef supplementation on the iron status of college athletes

The effects of lean beef supplementation on the iron status of college athletes

might provide a highly absorbable form of iron that is easily accessible and portable. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with a prepack- aged lean beef stick, in addition to a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing iron, would maintain the iron status of college athletes over the competitive season. The working hypothesis was that supplementation with a prepackaged lean beef stick and multivitamin/mineral supplement containing iron would be more effective in maintaining iron stores than supplementation with a multivitamin/mineral alone.
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1. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in preschool children of district Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Pakistan

1. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in preschool children of district Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Pakistan

The high incidence of anemia is associated with low level of education even in developed countries [19]. The prevalence of anemia has got more attention in preschool children and women of child- bearing age [20]. The enzymes required for the formation, functioning and destruction of certain neurotransmitters are also affected by iron deficiency and thus decrease mental capabilities [21]. High prevalence of ID in infants is alarming because it produces negative impact on their short term and long term health status. In short term it will reduce their ability to combat acute infections and will negatively affect their mental development and physical growth while in the long term it will cause short stature, poor school performance and lower capacity for physical work [22].
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