Water samples from all sampling sites were collected and stored in cool and dark containers and then preserved in a 90
refrigerator before being analyzed for other variables in the Water and Soil Quality Analysis Laboratory at Cuenca University. Particularly, ammonium (NH4 + ), nitrite (NO2 - ), nitrate (NO3 - ) and orthophosphate (PO4 3- ) were determined spectrophotometrically (low-range Hach test kits with Hach DR3900). Moreover, water samples were kept frozen until shipment to Belgium for further analyses, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). Details of the Hach kits can be found in the Supplementary Material S1. Hydro- 95
4.1.2. Need for Data Quality Management System
During the comprehensive investigation for this study, it was noticed that there is a lack of a systematic quality assurance for GHG data which are collected with static chambers and measured via gas chromatography. Many studies that assess the quality of GHG measurements either deal with the effects of chambers on GHG emissionsfrom soil and the technical improvement of chamber construction (e.g. Klein and Harvey (2012), Pihlatie et al. (2013)) or focus on the optimization of GHG flux calculation models (e.g. Kutzbach et al. (2007), Kroon et al. (2008), Pedersen et al. (2010), Pihlatie2013). From the state of knowledge, there are only few information about the quality control of GHG data obtained fromgas chromatography and the controlled removal of outliers based on objective criteria. Many previous studies had no need for the development of a structured data quality management system which checks GHG data from static chamber measurements regarding their suitability for subsequent flux calculation, because the collected data either showed a good linear fit (Gao and Yates, 1998; Yamulki and Jarvis, 1999; Conen and Smith, 2000) or non-linear fit (Livingston et al., 2005; Livingston et al., 2006; Kutzbach et al., 2007; Kroon et al., 2008). Some studies, such as Kutzbach et al. (2007), assume that potential errors of static chamber measurements are negligible and violations of their physically based model assumptions can be minimised by careful planning and performance. However, stable conditions during sampling, such as headspace temperature, humidity, headspace turbulence and pressure perturbations during chamber placement as well as the avoidance of leaks, are difficult to implement under real field conditions (Kutzbach et al., 2007). Nowadays GHG research is also conducted in remote areas with poor infrastructure and eventually unreliable power supply. GHG samples from those regions often have to be stored for long periods and transported over long distances until analysis is performed. Despite utmost diligence during sample preparation and field work, the integrity of arriving samples can be questionable and obtained data can show an unsatisfying fit to the selected flux calculation approach.
The last model to be considered applied in South Africa represents the relationships between rainfall, runoff and nutrient wash-off from developing urban areas of the Or- ange Free State near Bloemfontein and of the Eastern Cape Province near east Lon- don (Hughes and van Ginkel, 1994). The model was used in conjunction with a pre- viously developed socio-economic survey approach designed to determine annual amount of phosphorus that was being discharged onto the catchment surface (Hughes and van Ginkel, 1994). The nutrient export model was linked to an SCS (Soil Conser- vation Service of the United States) type runoff generation algorithm with a storage depletion nutrient mass balance function (Hughes and van Ginkel, 1994). The model forms part of a larger model application system (HYMAS- Hydrological Modelling Application System) developed by the Institute for Water Research at Rhodes Uni- versity. In the model, conceptualising the relationship between runoff and nutrient wash-off was found to be difficult due to the lack of either a reasonably thorough un- derstanding of the processes or observed time series data to illustrate the effects of the processes. However, some sensitivity analyses of the major parameters derived indi- cated the impact on the model results of changing parameter values within certain ranges.
over a period of one hundred or more years – eventually reach a new equilibrium and net carbon sequestration will decline to zero 1,22 . Actively managing the carbon sink by growing bioenergy crops or by managing forests for fuel-wood or timber might in some circumstances extend the timeframe for mitigation 23 , but might also compromise biodiversity objectives. Secondly, climate change feedbacks might affect our findings by altering soil carbon dynamics and the yields of food crops, livestock, bioenergy crops and trees. However, these effects are likely to be reduced by adaptation measures 15,24 , and provided that non-farmed habitats continue to store much more carbon than farmland we think our conclusions will hold. Thirdly, it is essential to assess the sustainability of yield increases 25 . For example, due regard for animal welfare, local air and waterquality and soil function is essential when increasing yields 8,25 . Encouragingly, the techniques we consider that increase yield also have the potential to reduce externalities per unit of production (Supplementary Table 5) and modern livestock breeding techniques allow multiple traits, including health, welfare and productivity, to be considered simultaneously 8 (see Supplementary Discussion). Last, managing water resources in higher-yielding landscapes will require a focus on improving wateruse efficiency in crops alongside careful spatial planning of spared land.
Before incubation, the basal 10 cm of subsoil was removed from the sample with a piston, to give each soil cylinder the same headspace (1.6 L). Soil cylinders were then installed in a microcosm system (Hantschel et al. 1994). Each soil cylinder was placed on a suction plate comprising a 0.45 µm polyamide filter membrane. To adjust the soil samples to defined moisture levels, they were first saturated with 100 mol/L 0.02 m CaCl 2 solution (to simulate rain water). After saturation, samples were drained by establishing a pressure of –100 hPa at the suction plate to lower soil water content
In these lines we aim to construct seven scenarios for the time period 1990) 2050 to assess Estonia’s energy system (demand and supply). Our target is to rely on official organizations’ reports and propose and compare various energy scenarios for Estonia meeting the targets of the European Commission in reducing GHG emissions 40% by 2030 and 80)95% by 2050. To achieve this target, we first forecast energy demand and supply derived from renewable energy sources together with the associated GHG emissions using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) 2 . Furthermore in a second stage our study applies a nonparametric estimator relying on the mathematical method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the efficiency of proposed seven scenarios for renewable policies under the European targets set in 2030 and in 2050.
Besides, lessons from the Montreal Protocol may be instructive. The Protocol prohibits with non- parties trade in ozone-depleting substances (ODS) themselves, products containing ODS, and possibly products made using but not containing ODS. The trade restrictions were used together with financial assistance (i.e., Multilateral Fund in this case) and technology transfer as a means to coerce or force countries to become parties. Although the Protocol has succeeded in securing universal participation by means of the “carrot and stick” approach as the signatories to it make up more than 95% of current world consumption and production of ODS, the fact remains that restrictions are discriminatory. While the restrictions have not been contested by the WTO members, the WTO Secretariat has voiced its opposition to such uses of trade restrictions, and its Committee on Trade and Environment has voiced not to welcome their replication in an emissions trading scheme (Barrett, 1994; Vaughan, 1997), because such measures appear to violate the GATT/WTO principles of most favoured nation, national treatment and non- discrimination. In the Montreal Protocol, this discriminatory restrictions are not that important given the scope of its membership wider than the WTO itself, since most of the potential for trade conflict arises with non- parties to the Protocol. However, if they were used in climate problems, economic implications could be substantial because an emissions trading club is only a small subset of the WTO members, at least at its initial stage. Moreover, there may be some legitimate reasons 24 why many of non-Annex I countries, if not all, might want to remain outside an emissions trading club unless side payments are offered to these countries such that they are not made worse off as members than they would be as non-members. Thus, it seems unfair to discriminate them just on these basis. Then, is there any way out? This leads to another large subject.
Additionally, Schafer et al. (2012) reported that the use of pesticides had highly increased for two decades, currently the usage continues to rise. Land runoff and direct spraying of chemicals exercised in agricultural and urban areas are essential pathways for introducing pesticides to water systems (Schafer et al., 2012). Moreover, Duchemin & Hogue (2009) observed a direct correlation between the pesticide levels and farm inputs in the watershed, in samples obtained from 27 streams in Alberta. Tran et al. (2010) documented that agricultural fields in Flanders extended to the riparian regions of rivers, and these lead to increased levels of fertilizers and pesticides as a result of surface runoff from the lands. Aura et al. (2010) found that nutrients (phosphorous and nitrogen) concentration varied among the stations and increased downstream along Rivers Kipkaren and Sosiani in the Nzoia basin. Song et al. (2009) observed that most of the agricultural sites in France were characterized by high levels of conductivity, which most likely resulted from high loads of organic and inorganic suspended materials in the increased runoff from the agricultural field.
This paper investigates Estonia’s prospects in meeting the new European Union climate commitments to reduce greenhousegas (GHG) emissions till 2030 by 40% and 2050 by 80-95% compared to 1990 emission levels. The contribution of this study is twofold. In a first stage, based on organizations reports and using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) it constructs seven long-term scenarios to examine Estonia's energy system till 2050. In a second stage, using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) nonparametric approach it evaluates the efficiency of renewable energy commitments in reducing GHG emissions. The findings show that the main challenge for the Estonia policy makers will be the energy policies associated with the renewable energy usage. It appears that under the seven different energy policy scenarios the higher the participation of renewable energy the higher the reduction of greenhousegasemissions.
Average Flow)* Log 10 (Source Water Pumping HP) was no longer significant. A
regression model was then formed using the remaining two independent variables. When analyzing this new model, some data points with large residuals appear to be those
utilities with purchased water flows. In these cases the water is provided at pressure already and the energy used to pump the water is included in the cost of buying the water and not the energy use of the utility. The purchased water flow was not indicated by the lasso selection, but was used as an independent variable by Carlson and Walburger (2007). In order to add purchased water flow rate as an independent variable, the raw water collection model was split into two; one for utilities with purchased water flows and one for those without. Once split into two separate models, the purchased water flow rate now became a significant variable. Upon analyzing the two models, a few more data points were located that merit deletion. VA005 is on the extreme upper end of the range and the raw data shows a likely estimation of electricity use rather than actual data. Two utilities show a low electricity value compared to its other characteristics, MD001 and CA020. All three points were deleted and the models were run again. The results showed a good fit for both models. The residuals are evenly distributed and while there are points with high levels of influence on the model, there is no single point with an overwhelming amount of influence.
contributes about 42% of the increasing N₂O emission into the atmosphere. N₂O is produced in agricultural soils by microbial transformation of compounds that contain nitrogen, such as fertilizer and animal dung and urine (Giltrap et al., 2014). Artificial fertilizers are applied to boost the crop’s growth (De Datta, 1995). The inputs of N-fertilizer can occur through either di- rect or indirect pathways. Direct N₂O emission occurs from direct addition of N-fertilizer on the soil whereas indirect N₂O emission may results from processes such as N-deposition from the atmosphere, N-fixation by legumes, and decomposition of biomass residues (Schmidt, 2007; Millar et al., 2010). The increase in available mineral N in soil may enhance the formation of a rubber estate into an oil palm plantation loses the soil carbon content (i.e., release of carbon emissions). However, this phenomenon has been anticipated in literature. Overall, fertilizer-related emissions and fuel emissions during the growth stages contribute to about 79 and 21%, respectively, of the total GHG emissionsfrom the plantation . Therefore, it is likely that the application of nitrogen fertilizer may increase the existing carbon emission from the conversion of rubber to oil palm plantation, but the values are within the estimated for a Malaysian oil palm plantation.
We used the final output (available at: http://avaa.tdata.fi/ web/cbig/gpan) of a comprehensive global analysis that ranked the world’s currently unprotected land according to its potential for expanding and filling gaps in the current PA net- work as stated by the Aichi Target 11 of the CBD (Pouzols et al., 2014). The underlying original data used in this study to derive the PA expansion map included range maps of all red- listed terrestrial vertebrates (24 757 species assessed under the IUCN red list) and the areas covered by each of the world’s 827 ecoregions as defined by WWF (World Wide Fund for Nat- ure). In the analysis, species were weighted based on their threat status, and species ranges were filtered by present and predicted land-use intensity (Van Asselen & Verburg, 2013). The analysis took as a starting point the current PA network (the World Database on Protected Areas) and used the spatial conservation prioritization tool Zonation v.4 to identify the pri- ority areas for PA network expansion to 17% of the global land area (Moilanen et al., 2005, 2014). The process iteratively ranks all areas from lowest to highest priority for conservation, guided by principles such as balance between representation of all input features, minimization of aggregate extinction rates and preference for spatial aggregation (Pouzols et al., 2014).
For many years, most tropical countries such as Ghana have considered themselves as being net carbon sinks or, at worst, carbon neutral. This anecdotal assertion is based on the low level of industrialization in these countries. But given the extensive land-use change occurring in many tropical countries including deforestation and land degradation through poor management and periodic bush ﬁres, it is conceivable that their GHG emissions are increasing . There are relatively few studies estimating GHG emissions in sub-Saharan West Africa, especially within the agricultural sector, and likewise, comparative studies across major land- use types are scarce. Consequently, the majority of practices and techniques for adaptation to climate change that are now being advocated [24, 25] are largely based on knowledge generated in other parts of the world. The GHG inventory initiative of Ghana’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines to estimate GHG emissionsfrom several sectors such as agriculture, forestry waste, animal manures, methane emissionsfrom cattle, and lowland paddy rice ﬁelds . Findings from these estimates as well as those from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre (CDIAC) (http: //www.cdiac.org) indicate that per capita carbon emissions in Ghana are on the increase. As stated by Milne et al. , a general weakness in these estimations is the heavy reliance on lower tier IPCC methodologies. Estimates by Ghana’s EPA also show a gradual increase in GHG emissions with projected further increases based only on “best guesses” or by the use of emission factors (EFs) published by the IPCC . Actual measurements to validate these estimates or EFs are lacking. Thus, there is an urgent need for more assessments of eco- system responses to land management (and mismanagement) in order to improve decision-making regarding climate change adaptation and mitigation. This study sought to ad- dress some of these identiﬁed knowledge gaps. It aims to measure the CO 2 emissions resulting from some of the major
Landuse in the downstream of Parit Tokaya catchment area is a largely built area, ie housing, shops, markets and others. The use of land as a urban solid has an impact on waterquality in the downstream Parit Tokaya. As an illustration can be seen from the largest TSS value contained in the point 6. Large TSS values indicate erosion occurring in river or canal flow. This is due to tertiary canal condition that leads to the secondary canal in M. Sohor Street is the natural canal, so the chances of erosion of canal wall, while at the point 1 and point 2 value of TSS is big enough because the secondary canal there is still a natural canal. The smallest TSS values are at point 4 and point 5. Another indicator as a pollutant source is a small DO value. DO at the point 6 shows the smallest value caused by the settlement around M. Sohor Street, while at the point 4 source of pollution comes from settlement around Ahmad Yani Street. The source of pollutants at the point 2 comes from the settlements around Tanjungpura Street.
Our mesohaline and freshwater wetland sites are located in the South Slough National Estuary Reserve at the southern end of the Coos Bay (Figure 1). Kunz marsh (5 ha) is a mesohaline site that prior to restoration in 1996 had been drained and used for agriculture in the early 1900s (Cornu and Sadro 2002; Cornu 2005b). To examine the role of initial marsh elevation on restoration trajectories, the marsh was divided into four cells, and separated by 1.8 m tall geotextile cloth. One cell was graded to a high marsh (2.4 m above mean lower low water (MLLW)) (0.53 ha), one to a mid-level marsh (2.0 m above MLLW) (0.56 ha), and two to low marshes (1.7 m above MLLW) (0.54 ha; 0.59 ha). The responses for the first three years in sediment deposition, plant community structure, fish usage, and tidal channel development are reported in Cornu and Sadro (2002). In 2016, the geotextile cloth was removed, but sites still reflect distinct transitions in marsh elevation between cells. Kunz marsh is dominated by Carex lyngyei,
Oda et al. ( 2019 ) compare ODIAC (Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO 2 ) with GESAPU, a high-resolution, spatially explicit emission inventory —here, the one provid- ed by Bun et al. ( 2018 ) for Poland. ODIAC is itself a global inventory with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km, based on the disaggregation of the national annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emission estimates provided by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. To achieve that high spatial resolution, ODIAC uses point source information (source points’ geographical location and CO 2 emissions) and satellite nightlight (radiance) data. Because of its greater local “realism”, GESAPU is used as a reference in this comparison. The difference between the two inventories is understood to serve as a proxy for errors and uncertainties associated with ODIAC. This difference is small for total emission estimates of countries (2.2%), point sources (0.1%), and non-point sources (4.5%). However, it increases toward smaller spatial scales, indicating that disaggregation error and uncertainty increase. Oda et al. find a difference (relative at the pixel level) of typically about 30% for urban areas, up to 90 –100% for urban-rural transition areas, and 10% for remote areas. The difference decreases with increas- ing spatial aggregation by approximately 70% for spatial scales, which are typical for global and regional transport models (50 km and greater). Based on their findings for Poland, the authors envisage using ODIAC globally to support monitoring verification and even at subnational levels —it is not unusual for countries to run emission inventories at the state or provincial levels while reporting only national emissions to the UNFCCC. However, as noted by the authors, such a request would need to accompany concerted global actions, ranging from the collection and reporting of data, through monitoring, to international governance.
Farming carbon for profit is viable in WA. A 2006 study found that at the then expected carbon price of $15/t CO 2 -e (it is now $23 a tonne), growing trees for carbon is not a viable alternative for landholders in low rainfall regions (330 mm/year) due to low sequestration rates. In medium rainfall region (550 mm/year), growing trees for carbon and timber is a viable alternative (Flugge and Abadi 2006). A more recent study has found that it is better to increase soil organic carbon as a means of improving the farming system rather than to achieve an economic benefit from storing carbon (Hoyle and Bennett 2009). Some mitigation practices may be technically and economically viable with extra incentives. For example, no-till practices (which are already incorporated in the majority of WA farming systems) that reduce production cost and increase productivity through improving soils may become cost effective (ABARES 2011). Targeted soil nutrient application and improved animal feed efficiency may also be attractive as they have the potential to reduce input costs (Smith et al 2007).
Biofuels have been promoted to achieve energy security and as a solution to reducing greenhousegas (GHG) emissionsfrom the transportation sector. This dissertation presents a framework to examine the extent to which biofuel policies reduce gasoline consumption and GHG emissions and their implications for land allocation among food and fuel crops, food and fuel prices and social welfare. It first develops a stylized model of the food and fuel sectors linked by a limited land availability to produce food and fuel crops. It then analyzes the mechanisms through which biofuel mandates and subsidies affect consumer choices and differ from a carbon tax policy. A dynamic, multi-market equilibrium model, Biofuel and Environmental Policy Analysis Model (BEPAM), is developed to estimate the welfare costs of these policies and to explore the mix of biofuels from corn and various cellulosic feedstocks that are economically viable over the 2007- 2022 period under alternative policies. It distinguishes biofuels produced from corn and several cellulosic feedstocks including crop residues (corn stover and wheat straw) and bioenergy crops (miscanthus and switchgrass). A crop productivity model MISCANMOD is used to simulate the yields of miscanthus and switchgrass. The biofuel policies considered here include the biofuel mandate under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), various biofuel subsidies and import tariffs. The effects of these policies are compared to those of a carbon tax policy that is directly targeted to reduce GHG emissions.
2 The success of this policy is relevant in different ways. As stated previously, the EU is the world’s third largest polluter. Great pollution leads to a rapid change in climate with diverse and hazardous environmental, social, and economic consequences. With the rise of the global temperature, polar ice shields are increasingly melting, leading to a rise in sea levels and islands disappearing in the sea. While some regions experience more extreme weather and an increase in rainfall, other regions are increasingly subject to heat waves and droughts, leaving many areas uninhabitable (European Commission, n.d.). “People die or are obliged to leave their homes because of desertification, lack of water, exposure to disease, [and] extreme weather conditions” reminds Antonio Tajani (2017) the European community. Environmental changes also impact societies with issues “such as health, food security, employment, incomes and livelihoods, gender equality, education, housing, poverty and mobility” (World Health Organization, 2011, p. 24). Furthermore, migration will become a social issue when many areas of the earth become uninhabitable. As of 2017, migration number have already increased by nearly 50 percent in comparison to 2000, reaching a peak of 258 million migrants globally (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2017). Next to this, climate change also has economic impacts, causing damage to property and infrastructure. Especially developing countries suffer from this since the means for reconstruction are often missing. In addition, sectors that rely on the environment such as agriculture are particularly vulnerable (European Commission, n.d.). By reducing pollution in the EU, the EU contributes its share to climate protection and acts a role model for other nations to follow this path.
refueling infrastructure issues. For example, Volkswagen’s Passat Ecofuel sedan uses both a supercharger and a turbocharger to get maximum performance and efficiency when operating either on gasoline or natural gas, with 23% lower GHG emissions operating on CNG than on gasoline (Volkswagen AG, 2009). Worldwide, there are more than 9.5 million NGVs on the road, and their numbers have been growing by 30% annually since 2000 (IANGV, 2010). While there are only a little over 100,000 NGVs deployed in the USA (Yborra, 2008), about one-fifth of full-size transit buses are fueled by natural gas, and there are thousands of natural-gas fueled airport shuttles, delivery vans, trash haulers, and other vehicles. NGVs could be part of a US strategy to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy security. Given recent shale gas discoveries, they could be fueled by domestic gas. They also provide significant reductions in emissions of particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen NO x , and hydrocarbons. However, use of natural gas to