There are not many reports that utilized chemical vapor deposition in fuel cell related studies. Most of the study focused on the fabrication itself with no application/characterization towards fuel cell operation. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has a long history as a solid electrolyte, and hence more reports are available for YSZ films grown by MOCVD. Chour deposited YSZ films on yttria doped ceria polycrystalline disc and measured OCV (0.87V at 650°C). Before CVD deposition of YSZ, the OCV was 0.7V at 650°C . This increase means either closing out of open channels or higher average ion transference number. Given the small YSZ film thickness (2~5µm) compared to total disc thickness, it is likely that OCV increased by closing out pores. However, this demonstration is far from real fuel cell situation since the yttria doped ceria substrate disc was not porous. For fuel cell application, the substrate (electrode) should have enough porosity for facile gaseous product removal and reactant arrival. This is reported recently using porous cathode as a substrate. The OCV is measured at 0.66V at 925°C . However, for ceria CVD films, OCV measurements have never been reported.
Abstract: Polyaniline films were electrochemically synthesized of aniline in a two-electrode cell. It was observed that the doping influences the color of PANI thin films, which passes from blue to dark green color. Characterizations were made using FT-IR (Fourier transform spectroscopy) and a group theory analysis. A complete assignment of the fundamental infrared modes (400-4000 cm -1 ) of polymer is proposed. Experimental spectra were compared with that calculated by AM1, PM3, RM1, and MNDO. Results indicated that, for aniline, bianiline, and polyaniline, PM3 and RM1 calculated frequencies are in good agreement with experimental data. The geometry and vibrational calculations of four-ring unit (emeraldine base, EB) are believed to be a good representation of polyaniline.
Solar cells are the smallest devices that can be used as irradiance sensors or as samples for studying new solar materials (Misle, 2009).Photons absorbed by the solar cells are converted to electrical power (Mohammed et al., 2007). According to Boyle (1996)energy from the sun is relatively clean and reliable than gas, coal, and oil. Solar energy is significantly abundant and pollution free(Nault, 2005). Thin film technology is utilized to fabricate solar cells that produce power for domestic and commercial uses. Solar energy system is reliable, easy to maintain and install (Siu and Kwok, 1978; Armin, 2009).
use as a window layer of solar cells. ZnSe is used as a material for production of optical elements (windows, lenses, prisms) for infrared (IR) range including passive laser optic elements. It also has a superior optical transmission in the wavelength range of 0.5-2.0 µm. There are several advantages associated with ZnSe heterojunction based devices over silicon (Si) homojunctions or Aluminium Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) heterojunction based devices. The first advantage is that above band gap high energy photons are absorbed by the ZnSe n-type layer before they can reach and damage the pn junction. The second is that the junction can be placed deeper within the device away from lifetime killing surface states thus increasing efficiency because large band gap ZnSe layer is transparent to most of the sun’s light spectrum. This reduces the series resistance of the window (Parent, 2002).
For the preparation of ternary compound semiconductors (PbSe) x (PbS) 1-x the constituent compounds PbSe and PbS have been taken in molecular stiochiometry proportional weights and crushed and mixed homogeneously. The different sets of samples of varying compositions (x = 0.1 to 0.9) were deposited on to the amor phous precleaned glass substrates at room temperature 308 K. All the samples are deposited under the similar optimized conditions. The thicknesses of films were controlled by using quartz crystal thickness monitor model No. DTM-101 provided by Hind-High Vac. The deposition rate was maintained 10-15 Å/ sec constant throughout sample preparations. These samples were annealed at reduced pressure of 0.1 micron for the duration of 4 hours at the temperature of 373 K and maintained carefully. These samples were then used for different characterizations.
One of the leading examples of photovoltaic cell is CIS/CIGS based solar cell. CIS absorber layer having chalcopyrite crystal structure with optimal band gap 1.05 eV and high optical absorption coefficient ~10 5 /cm 2 suitable for high efficiency thin film solar cell development. It consist of elements from different group from the periodic table; Cu from Group I, In from Group III and Se from Group VI. The crystal structure of CuInSe 2 is shown in Figure 1. CIS and CIGS are
Song J, Thapa R , Maity R , Chattopadhyay K (2005) Optical and dielectric properties of PVA capped nanocrystallinePbS thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition . Thin Solid Films, 211: 14–21 Vidhya Y, Velumin A (2009). Electrical characterisation of chemically deposited thin films under magnetic field. Phys. Stat. Sol. 167: 143- 151.
Methylcellulose (MC) is a very interesting, natural organic polymer, water-soluble, not toxic, renewable, biodegradable, relatively low-cost, and has good film-forming properties [21,22]. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no results on the optical and electrical properties of MC doped Pb 2+ ions based biopolymer electrolyte films. Hence, the main objective of this work focuses on the preparation and characterization of biopolymer electrolyte films based on MC as the host polymer for lead ions. It is very important to reveal the optical and electrical parameters of MC incorporation with different filling levels of lead ions, as new material, in order to identify the suitability of the obtained biopolymer electrolyte films for applications towards technology in optoelectronic and electrochemical devices.
shower pyrolysis strategy. It has been accounted for as of now that the splash pyrolysis procedure is most appropriate for acquiring tin oxide films in vast territory substrate applications. Tin oxide films doped with antimony have intriguing electrochemical properties in various electrode forms, for example, low temperature electrochemical ignition of natural contaminations, ozone creation, and natural electro-union. Thus in the present examination, the antimony doped SnO2 films were set up by splash pyrolysis strategy and their electrical and optical properties are investigated.
cm -1 are suitable material for photo electrochemical energy conversions . To utilize CIS for solar energy conversion, single crystal and thin film with high efficiency (~12%) had been synthesized . Polycrystalline CIS thin film can also be synthesized by low cost techniques, such as electrochemical deposition, chemical spray and chemical bath deposition. Electrochemical deposition is very beneficial because of extensive production possibility, smallest waste of components during process and no necessity of pure precursors [3-5]. Pulse electrodeposition allows independent variation of three parameters; potential, period and duty cycle at the same time [6- 8]. The advantages of pulse electrochemical deposition in comparison with (the) deposition technique(s) are well dispersed deposition and good deposition-substrate adhesion. . High stability ternary copper chalcogenide and positive flat band of CIS make it an interesting and practical material to be investigated for photo-electrochemical cell. There is a relation between photo-electrochemicalcharacterization (PEC) and surface characteristic [10, 11]. Depend on preparation terms, being n or p type semiconductor and different electrical and optical behavior of CIS can be produce . Heat treatment of the thin film proves the crystalline structure and subsequently the energy conversion quality .
 H. Gomez, M. de la L. Olvera, 2006, Ga-doped ZnO thin films: Effect of deposition temperature, dopant concentration, and vacuum-thermal treatment on the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties Materials Science and Engineering B 134, 20–26.  H. Gomez, A. Maldonado, M. de la L. Olvera, D.R. Acosta, 2005, Gallium-doped ZnO thin films deposited by chemical spray, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 87, 107–116.  Minoru Oshima, Akiko Ide, Akiko Mochihara, Kenji Yoshino, Yujin Tanikemoto, Kouji Toyota, Koichiro Inaba, Ken-ichi Haga, Toshio Naka, and Koichi Tokudome, 2013, Optical and electricalcharacterization of transparent Ga-doped ZnO thin films grown by atmospheric spray pyrolysis using diethylzinc solution, Phys. Status Solidi C 10, No. 7–8, 1015–1018.  T. Prasada Rao, M.C. Santhosh Kumar, 2010, Physical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 506, 788–793.
of PPY, PANI and PT are obtained directly through anodic polymerization of their monomers in aqueous or organic electrolytes. The preparation of PPY by oxidation of pyrrole dates back to 1888  and by electrochemical polymerization to 1957. This organic polymer in fact attracted general interest and was found to be electrically conductive in 1963. Polyaniline was first synthesized in 1862  and has been extensively studied as a conducting polymer since the 1980s [9, 24]. Depending on the synthesis conditions, it can be obtained in several forms and different structures. The physical form of each of polypyrrole and polyaniline is usually as an intractable powder resulting from chemical polymerization or an insoluble film resulting from electropolymerization [25-27]. Electrochemical method has the merit of easy control of morphology and electrical properties, but there stills the commercial mass production problem. The calculation of excitation energies density functional theory one of the most successful methods in the investigation of optical absorption spectrum, and is developing rapidly as a cost-effective general procedure for studying physical properties of molecules [28, 29]. We have present in this paper our investigation of electrical, structural and optical properties
the resistivity decreased and electrical property changed from semiconductive to metallic with increasing the oxygen pressure. In the present study, based on their explanation, the semiconductive behavior was attributed to oxygen deﬁciency in SrIrO 3 thin ﬁlms prepared at low oxygen
A photovoltaic cell is a transducer that converts light energy into electric energy by photoelectric effect (Husam et al., 2004). In thin film technology, an electric field is developed which prompts a detachment of the charge transporters (electrons and holes). Energy created along these lines was first reported by Chapin (Chapin, Fuller and Pearson, 1954). Based on Chapin’s work, a working photovoltaic cell was developed by utilizing a semiconductor of aluminum with a gold window layer to obtain a p-n junction. By 1956 the cell enhanced effectiveness in terms of power conversion efficiency had improved to just about 1% (Sandeep, 2008). Since then, a lot of effort has been directed to research on thin films. As a result, different thin-film innovations undergoing development today are majorly targeted at decreasing the material’s size for light absorption, subsequently lowering processing costs. Among a wide range of photovoltaic cells, cadmium sulphide (CdS) cells have been broadly examined however achieved efficiencies are still very low (Altosaar et al., 2005). Investigations into these films utilize various methods such as chemical bath deposition, vacuum evaporation, splash techniques etc (Ugwu et al., 2001). Siu and Kwok (1978) studied CdS/Cu x S thin-film photovoltaic cell using the chemical
Techniques more frequently used in the preparation of ZnS films include Spray Pyrolysis , electro deposition  and chemical bath deposition technique , among others. Recently more attention has been bestowed on the development of cost effective thin films deposited techniques, especially in the field of photovoltaic technology, for preparation of quality alternative window layers for devices over large areas in order to economize the technology. In view of this, a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique is hereby investigated for the preparation of ZnS film. Low cost and simple apparatus were used to perform the deposition. This paper presents a study of the optical and electrical properties of the resulting ZnS thin films doped with tin.
TCOs belong to a unique class of semiconducting materials that exhibit high optical transparency in the visible range and good electrical conductivity, simultaneously. These materials are widely used in several devices such as thin film solar cells, touch screens, flat panel displays, sensors, low emissive windows and flexible transparent electronic components. The most common TCOs include tin oxide, zinc oxide, indium oxide, cadmium oxide,
and pressure 1.5 bar yielded the best quality films with sheet resistivity 100Ω/◊ and transmittance of approximately 90% Effect of doping concentration on the films is shown in figure 2. It is observed that resistivity decreases rapidly with the addition of SbCl 3 up to 30mg
(TA)(0.1M,0.3&0.5M) of experimental design was added in to the same beaker and the mixture solutions were again stirred. Among this experiment ammonia was added to change the PH in to certain values (PH 9.20, 9.19&8.76) using PH meter. Later the solution poured into another beaker containing clean glass substrate, clamped vertically. The deposition is made at room temperature, the bath colour leaving a clear red to a permanently chocolate brown. SnS films nucleated on to submerged surfaces, including beaker walls in about 24h for one deposition run. At the end of each deposition run, the layer is rinsed in bid stilled water. The sample was preserved in the desiccators for 2-3days and kept for further analysis. In order to investigate the crystallographic properties of the tin sulphide thin films we carried out the x-ray diffraction analysis using CINEL XRG 300 X-ray diffractometer with CuKα radiation. The surface morphology was observed by a scanning electron microscopy (JEOL, JSM-6400), at 15 kV with a 25.00KX magnification.
Abstract: Lead sulphide [PbS] thin films were deposited on glass slide substrates using the chemical bath deposition [CBD] technique at room temperature for 120 minutes. Optical properties of the thin films were measured by spectrophotometer and then other optical and solid state properties were determined by simulating transmittance data in the wavelength range of 260–2000 nm using a software. The software made use of three optical models of simulation; the OJL model, the Drude model and the Kronig Kramer Relation [KKR] modelfor analysis. Complex dielectric function [ε], band gap [E g ], refractive index [n],
electronics, conducting polymers are used as electrodes and contacts for charge transporting , semiconducting polymers are employed as active layers in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs)  and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) , and insulating polymers are used as dielectric layers in OTFTs . Over the years, much attention has been paid to the development of insulating polymers to replace the conventional gate dielectric materials, mostly silicon dioxide (k ~ 4), to realise flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) with a low operating voltage and high mobility [5,6]. To this end, a number of low dielectric constant polymers, such as polystyrene (k ~ 2.6) and polymethyl methacrylate (k ~ 3.5), and high dielectric constant polymers, such as poly (vinyl phenol) (k ~ 4.2) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (k ~ 7.8), have been synthetized and tested . The majority of these polymers exhibit a low dielectric constant; a thicker layer (>300 nm) is hence required to suppress the leakage current. On the other hand, low dielectric thickness is an essential requirement for the gate dielectric to increase the capacitance per unit area and to achieve low operating voltage [7,8]. Unfortunately, reducing the thickness of polymer thin films below 50 nm is extremely challenging because of the formation of pinholes, non-uniformity, and the degradation of the dielectric strength that necessitates higher dielectric constant polymers [5,8– 10]. Additionally, the present methods for the integration of polymer thin films into devices are mostly solution-assisted and thus present additional challenges, such as the incomplete removal of solvent residues, the degradation of existing layers while in contact with solvents, and a difficulty in achieving local patterning . Therefore, development of polymeric materials with moderate k and stable dielectric performances within a lower thickness range via low-cost techniques compatible with modern microelectronics processing has become important.