Top PDF Electrochemical sensing of heavy metal ions (ni) with organic conducting polymer (pani)

Electrochemical sensing of heavy metal ions (ni) with  organic conducting polymer (pani)

Electrochemical sensing of heavy metal ions (ni) with organic conducting polymer (pani)

For the electrochemical sensing of heavy metal ions, Ni ions used as heavy metal ions of concentration 0.1 M. On CHI- 660C electrochemical work station differential pulse voltammetry DPV technique used for electrochemical sensing of Ni ions. First, DPV scan was recorded in 0.1 M KCl solution of modified polyanilin film as working (sensing) electrode, while Ag/AgCl and platinum plate as reference and counter electrodes respectively After the reference solution scan the films were immersed in 0.1 M Ni ion solution for 5 minutes. After 5 min. again DPV scan taken in 0.1 M KCl solution in the same parameters as above and same steps repeat with the immersing time at 10,15 and 20 minutes.
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Polymer-based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Heavy Metal Ions Detection - A Critical Review

Polymer-based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Heavy Metal Ions Detection - A Critical Review

Qu studied two types of chitosan coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) for the removal and recovery of Hg 2+ ions in aqueous solutions [44]. Chen developed a new surface modification method by iron (III)-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization to regenerate the activation of resin-supported N- chlorosulfonamide groups on the surface of polystyrene by electron transfer. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was grafted onto the surface of polystyrene (PS) to remove Hg 2+ from the solution. Other HMIs such as Pd 2+ , Ag + and Cu 2+ did not interfere with the binding of Hg 2+ [36]. Sun combined a heterocyclic compound with an open chain crown ether (OCE) to form a new functionality groups, which was loaded on a PS substrate to obtain a novel chelating resin to remove transition HMIs, such as Cu (II), Hg (II), Au (III), Ag (I) and Pd (II) [45-47]. Wang synthesized a novel chitosan derivative by cross-linking reaction of chitosan Schiff base with sodium alginate and used to remove Cd (II) ions. The balance and kinetic data fit well with the Langmuir and pseudo second-order models. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that at higher temperatures, the process is spontaneous and therefore adsorption is efficient. In addition, the regenerated adsorbent after five cycles can retain 87.15% of the adsorption capacity compared to the newly prepared adsorbent [48].
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A Highly Effective Copper Nanoparticle Coupled with RGO for Electrochemical Detection of Heavy Metal Ions

A Highly Effective Copper Nanoparticle Coupled with RGO for Electrochemical Detection of Heavy Metal Ions

The design and synthesis of electrode materials is a crucial step in the process of detecting heavy metal ions by electrochemical analysis method. Of all the electrode materials, metal nanoparticle-modified electrodes are known to markedly enhance electrochemical sensitivity because of numerous active sites, fast transfer speed and their large specific surface area [8, 9]. Now, varieties of nano-materials have been used to make electrochemical sensor, containing graphene, nanotubes, metal nanoparticles and some composite materials [10–13]. Of the various metal NPs, CuNPs exhibit the superior capacitance performance, which is mainly attributed to the considerably large surface area and enhanced electronic and ionic conductivities [14]. Thus, CuNPs are a desirable substrate in preparing chemically modified electrodes for electrochemical sensing. In addition, excellent sensitivity, small environmental hazards and low cost make RGO get more attention. Abundant carbonaceous materials, for instance CNTs [15, 16], graphene [17, 18], porous carbons [19, 20], carbon paste and carbon nanospheres [21], have been used to produce efficient electrochemical sensors in the past few years. Several sensitive sensors have been developed with graphene oxide and metal NP composites. Periyasami et al. fabricated AuNPs on RGO to detect and monitor toxic heavy metal ions and biocontrol bacterium as a scavenging agent [22]. Riyaz Ahmad Dar et al. constructed a composite material (sliverNP–graphene oxide) to detect As(III) [23]. Bin Zhang et al. fabricated AuNP/CNF hybrids for detecting heavy metal ions [24]. Qi wen Chen et al. prepared a graphene– CuNP nanocomposite via situ chemical reduction for electrochemical measuring of carbohydrates [25]. In addition, Wu et al. synthesized copper oxide nanowires with graphene for detecting pentachlorophenol [26]. However, the use of CuNP/RGO composites for detecting heavy metal ions, including Hg(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), have been rarely studied. Thus, CuNP/RGO nanocomposites can be used as electrochemical sensor to detect heavy metals.
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Fabrication of Anchored Complexes as Electrodes for Sensing Heavy Metal Ions by Electrochemical Method

Fabrication of Anchored Complexes as Electrodes for Sensing Heavy Metal Ions by Electrochemical Method

Anchored coordination complexes as electrochemical sensors play a significant role in the modern era. It is evident that this becomes a fact on account of their practical convenience. Furthermore, they have unlimited scope in ecological, therapeutic, experimental and biomedical applications. It has been observed that 165 such papers have reported on anchored complexes for electrochemical sensing during the past two years. While human vitality is rigorously threatened by heavy metal ions today, numerous trials are restrained for screening these in nature. This retrace highlights the electro analytical methods and the masterpiece contribution of anchored coordination complexes as electrochemical sensors for the identification of heavy metals such as indium, uranium, lead, beryllium, and mercury in 2015 and 2016.
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Platinum nanoparticle in tantalum electrode for the electrochemical analysis of heavy metal ions formed by the ion beam sputtering deposition

Platinum nanoparticle in tantalum electrode for the electrochemical analysis of heavy metal ions formed by the ion beam sputtering deposition

Abstract: Today, contamination from heavy metals in the atmosphere is a global concern. Efficient detection techniques are therefore necessary if heavy metal exposure levels in different media are to be determined. The voltammetry method for in situ detection of heavy metal ions is a very sensitive electrochemical method. This thesis explores emerging developments in electrode alteration, materials production and experimental optimization. An electrochemical sensing platinum nanoparticle in the tantalum electrode is provided by means of an Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition (IBSD). The electrode was made with a Pt solution, sputtered simultaneously with hydrochloric acid corrosion on tantalum substrate. In the study of heavy metal ions, for example, the platinum nanoparticle electrodes as prepared were used Square wavelength voltammetry (OSWV) Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ and Ag 2+ . The porous electrodes were observed in a broader range by the Pt nanostructure electrode for heavy metal ions. Furthermore, the susceptibility to detection has been shown to be saturated as the thickness of the layer electrode exceeded 50 nm. For Hg 2+ 0,003-1 M, for Cu 2+ 0,005-3 M and for Ag 2+ the linear detection scale is
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Platinum Nanoparticles for the Electrochemical Study of Heavy Metal ions Formed by the Sputtering Deposition of the ion beam Electrode

Platinum Nanoparticles for the Electrochemical Study of Heavy Metal ions Formed by the Sputtering Deposition of the ion beam Electrode

Abstract: An electrochemical sensing platinum nanoparticle in the tantalum electrode is provided by means of an Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition (IBSD). The electrode was made with a Pt solution, sputtered simultaneously with hydrochloric acid corrosion on tantalum substrate. In the study of heavy metal ions, for example, the platinum nanoparticle electrodes as prepared were used Square wavelength voltammetry (OSWV) Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ and Ag 2+ . The porous electrodes were observed in a broader range by the Pt

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Remote-Controlled Robotic Platform for Electrochemical Determination of Water Contaminated by Heavy Metal Ions

Remote-Controlled Robotic Platform for Electrochemical Determination of Water Contaminated by Heavy Metal Ions

Model of robotic platform with an electrode immersed into analyzed solution is shown in Figure 3A. Real image taken with pan/tilt color camera is shown in Figure 3B. In this manner all samples of metal ions (Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) were analyzed. From the collected values the calibration curves were constructed. The linear electrochemical response of Pb(II) ions was observed in the concentration range 0.8 – 50 µg.mL -1 (Fig. 3C) with a coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.9904. For Cu(II) ions was electrochemical signal linear in the range 0.04 – 13 µg.mL -1 (Fig. 3F) with a coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.9983. For Zn(II) ions were obtained values linear in the concentration range 0.2 – 50 µg.mL -1 (Fig. 3D) with a coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.9853. Finally, by Cd(II) ions the values were linear in the concentration range 0.02 – 25 µg.mL -1 with a coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.9983.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Fluorescent Sodium Neem Gum Xanthate Carbon Dots and Potentiometric Sensing of Heavy Metal Ions

Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Fluorescent Sodium Neem Gum Xanthate Carbon Dots and Potentiometric Sensing of Heavy Metal Ions

sensing of composite carbon paste electrode shows better selectivity to mercury ion. However, the mercury response CCPE has a minor dependence on the pHs a shorter response time. Sodium neem gum xanthate C-dots exhibited different behavior with respect to that of different buffer solutions.

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Electromembrane extraction and electrochemical measurement system for heavy metal ions detection in aquatic environmental samples

Electromembrane extraction and electrochemical measurement system for heavy metal ions detection in aquatic environmental samples

Water contamination is a worldwide problem which deserves attention due to its negative impact on eco-system, human health as well as economic growth (Ben Salem et al. 2014; Kim & Kang 2016). Heavy metals, as one of the pollutant categories receive concern due to their high toxicity even at concentration as low as parts per billion (ppb). Furthermore, the toxicity of heavy metals can be increased by transformation to more toxic compounds due to their average long-life. Depending on the type and speciation of heavy metal, it accumulates mainly in bones, brain, kidney and muscles, which may cause serious illnesses such as anaemia, kidney diseases, nervous disorders and sickness or even death among (Chen et al. 2012; Ben Salem et al. 2014; D. Wang et al. 2016). In infant and children, exposure to heavy metals above the standard level can result in delays in physical and mental development (Y. Wang et al. 2016a; Liu et al. 2014; Xia et al. 2016). Therefore, the determination of heavy metals has contributed to the awareness among human to provide beneficial guidance on the physiological effect on body and environment.
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Influence of Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Ions on Streptomyces Bacteria Revealed by Electrochemistry

Influence of Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Ions on Streptomyces Bacteria Revealed by Electrochemistry

Electrochemical determination of heavy metals ions at HMDE belongs to the ultrasensitive analytical tools [68,76-78] and can be utilized for studying their reactions with complexes [79,80]. We have recently shown appropriate procedure for such purpose. The suggested technology enables fully automated analysis of real sample. In the case optimization of measurement parameters there are not observed any major differences between the published papers. The achieved results can be summarized as: the most suitable electrolyte acetate buffer pH 5, the deposition time in the interval 120-240 s and deposition potential in the interval from -1.0 to -1.2 V [68,69,81]. In this study, determination of metal ions concentration was carried out using both standard addition method and calibration curve. For this purpose, there is available very accurate dosing instrument (dose of 5 ± 1 µl), see in Fig. 1.
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Bio sorption of heavy metals by using eco- friendly materials as an alternative source.

Bio sorption of heavy metals by using eco- friendly materials as an alternative source.

Heavy metals present in the industrial effluent cause health hazards to plants, animals, aquatic life and humans. At high concentrations metals are toxic to animals as they could be dispersed in water and consequently enter the food chain and affect the humans by magnification that causes serious health hazards 1 . Unlike organic pollutants, the majority of which are susceptible to biological degradation, heavy metals do not degrade into harmless end products 2 .Treatment processes for heavy metal removal from water include precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, adsorption and co-precipitation/ adsorption. Several methods are being used for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous medium by various materials (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, electrochemical treatment, membrane technologies adsorption on activated carbon etc,) 3 . Among the different heavy metals (Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Chromium) Chromium is considered as dangerous one and has become a serious health hazard 4 .Chromium is discharged to the environment through various industrial wastes including electroplating, tanning, steel industry, textile dyeing, manufacturing of pigments, refractory materials. Among different oxidation states of Chromium (-2 to +6) only Chromium +3 and +6 are present in the environment of which Chromium +6 is highly toxic due to its oxidizing nature 5 . Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Copper and Lead are the main pollutants of fresh water 6 , also they carcinogenic and persistent in nature 7 .
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Biosorption of heavy metals by using eco- friendly materials as an 			alternative source

Biosorption of heavy metals by using eco- friendly materials as an alternative source

Heavy metals present in the industrial effluent cause health hazards to plants, animals, aquatic life and humans. At high concentrations metals are toxic to animals as they could be dispersed in water and consequently enter the food chain and affect the humans by magnification that causes serious health hazards 1 . Unlike organic pollutants, the majority of which are susceptible to biological degradation, heavy metals do not degrade into harmless end products 2 .Treatment processes for heavy metal removal from water include precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, adsorption and co-precipitation/ adsorption. Several methods are being used for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous medium by various materials (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, electrochemical treatment, membrane technologies adsorption on activated carbon etc,) 3 . Among the different heavy metals (Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Chromium) Chromium is considered as dangerous one and has become a serious health hazard 4 .Chromium is discharged to the environment through various industrial wastes including electroplating, tanning, steel industry, textile dyeing, manufacturing of pigments, refractory materials. Among different oxidation states of Chromium (-2 to +6) only Chromium +3 and +6 are present in the environment of which Chromium +6 is highly toxic due to its oxidizing nature 5 . Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Copper and Lead are the main pollutants of fresh water 6 , also they carcinogenic and persistent in nature 7 .
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A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with a chitosan-based film for in situ heavy metal ions measurement

A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with a chitosan-based film for in situ heavy metal ions measurement

development of electroanalytical procedures for the detection of heavy metal ions, for which Chit is employed as an electrode modifier, allowing adsorption of the metals ions, and thus improving the sensitivity of the method [4-6]. Furthermore, the useful characteristics of Chit in terms of electrochemistry for the design of modified electrodes include biocompatibility, a high mechanical strength, good adhesion on traditional electrochemical surfaces, and a relatively low cost, as it is a renewable resource [7-9]. On the other hand, it is well-known that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit many excellent electric properties, which make them ideal candidates for electrode materials for heavy metal detection. Normally, they act as an adsorbent/preconcentrator agent and a transducer platform. Numerous investigations have been carried out to explore the potential applications of CNTs, due to their advantages such as good conductivity, high electron transfer rates, high surface area and providing lower detection limits [10-13]. Chit was used as an electrode modifier in the cross-linked form, with CNTs employed as the crosslinking agents. We observed that the crosslinking treatment increased the number of free hydroxyl groups in the Chit and, thus, improved the adsorption of metallic cations on the electrode surface [14-16].
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Heavy Metal Analysis in Tai Lake Water Sample Based on Vanadium Oxide-Polypropylene Carbonate Modified Electrode

Heavy Metal Analysis in Tai Lake Water Sample Based on Vanadium Oxide-Polypropylene Carbonate Modified Electrode

Pure commercial electrode such as glassy carbon electrode, indium tin oxide electrode, carbon paste electrode and screen printed electrode only showed acceptable performances towards heavy metal ions electrochemical determination due to the limited catalytic and adsorption properties. In order to overcome this problem, various nanomaterials were prepared for commercial electrode surface modification and enhance their electrochemical performances. For example, Bagheri and co-workers demonstrated a triphenylphosphine-multi-walled carbon nanotube composite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for trace heavy metal ions detection [14]. Recently, Zhu and co-workers demonstrated a trace heavy metal ions electrochemical sensor based on the graphene nanodots modified porous gold electrode [15]. Cui and co-workers synthesized a nitrogen-doped porous carbon for electrode surface modification and the successfully used for electrochemical determination of Cu (II) [16].
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Spectroscopic Techniques and Electrochemical Sensors Technologies for Heavy Metal Ions Detection: A Review

Spectroscopic Techniques and Electrochemical Sensors Technologies for Heavy Metal Ions Detection: A Review

Heavy metals are having a negative effect on the environment and when they get mixed in the biosphere and enter living creatures via alimentary chain there by destroying human health. Heavy metals become poisonous when they not metabolized by the body and gathered in the soft tissues. It’s dangerous effect is because of a bond making of metals with the thiol group of proteins which goes to the cell, amends the biochemical lifecycle [4]. International bodies such as the WHO played a great role in conducting a proper survey and reviewed effects of heavy metals on human health from time to time.
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An Optical Sensor Based on Polyvinyl Benzyl Malonate Cross Linked with Divinyl Benzene Dispersed in a  Hydrogel Membrane for Detection of Some Heavy Metals

An Optical Sensor Based on Polyvinyl Benzyl Malonate Cross Linked with Divinyl Benzene Dispersed in a Hydrogel Membrane for Detection of Some Heavy Metals

In previous work we have developed a dicarboxylate functionalized polymer that demonstrated chemical sensing. It showed good response to pH changes as well as to varying concentrations of copper and calcium ions. Our recent investi- gations showed interesting results upon testing the functionalized sensing polymer on heavy metals. This sensor is composed of microspheres of polyvinyl benzyl malonate lightly-cross-linked with divinyl benzene dispersed in a hy- drogel membrane. The response of the optical sensor is based on the interaction between the metal cations with the de- protonated functional group. The polymer, thus, undergoes shrinking as a result of neutralization of adjacent negative charges on the back-bone of the polymer. This causes significant changes in the optical properties of the sensing ele- ment. The optical changes were measured as absorbance vs. wavelength as the sensing membrane is exposed to solu- tions of varying concentrations of heavy metal ions. The sensor showed significant increase in absorbance up to a con- centration of 5 × 10 –3 M to the following metal ions: Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Cd 2+ . Furthermore, the studied capacity of the deri- vatized microspheres showed close values to Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ (1.20, 1.09, 1.08 mmol/g respectively). These kinds of properly functionalized polymers appear to be suitable, versatile sensing elements for the detection of low concentra- tions of heavy metal ions. In addition, all of the tested heavy metals showed a similar value of the equilibrium formation constant, (log K f1 is 2.63). In contrast, the sensor showed no significant response to varying concentrations of K + and
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Electrochemical co-detection of Heavy Metals in Astragalus Membranaceus by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

Electrochemical co-detection of Heavy Metals in Astragalus Membranaceus by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

An environmental-friendly, fast, green, sensitive and simultaneous method was developed and validated for the co-detection of three heavy metals in Astragalus membranaceus by using the electroanalysis method of SWASV. The heavy metals of interest were isolated from complex Astragalus membranaceus matrix using an optimized digestion system and low-cost sample preparation procedure. For assuring the high repeatability and accuracy, the deposition condition was carefully optimized based on the properties of morphologies and peak current, it can be concluded that the optimized deposition potential is suitable for the electrochemical co-detection of Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ . In addition, it is demonstrated that the intensity of the anodic peaks at -0.87V, -0.61V and -0.24V were proportional (R 2 = 0.9978, 0.9805, 0.9870) to the concentrations of Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ in the electrolyte over the range of 0.10-1.00 µg·mL -1 , and the concentration of Cd 2+ in the range of 0.01-0.10 µg·mL -1 . The proposed method has been successfully applied to the co-detection of those three heavy metal ions in Astragalus membranaceus standard reference material with satisfactory recoveries of 88.00- 110.00%. Then, the optimized method was applied for fast screening of 3 heavy metals in 10 commercially available AM samples and the results showed that two samples were positive for Cu 2+ with levels much lower than the set MRLs. The study of electrochemical analysis of heavy metals will make big progress toward the rapid screening of more contaminants in other medicinal herbs or related products with complex matrix.
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ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF INTERACTION OF THE HEAVY METAL IONS IN HYDROXYLATION REACTION OF SALICYLIC ACID ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE

ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF INTERACTION OF THE HEAVY METAL IONS IN HYDROXYLATION REACTION OF SALICYLIC ACID ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE

INTRODUCTION: The complexation of organic compounds with selected metal ions has a wide variety of applications in medicinal chemistry, surface chemistry and analytical chemistry. Complexation of medicinal substances with metal ions influence the bioavailability of drugs in the body and the biological action affects the stability of medicinal compounds since a large number of metals are taken into the body system either with drugs or in the form of diet 1 . The complex formation has been suggested as one of the important mechanisms for certain drug action 2 .
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Fluorescent Chemosensing Properties of New Isoindoline Based Receptors towards F  and Cu2+ Ions

Fluorescent Chemosensing Properties of New Isoindoline Based Receptors towards F and Cu2+ Ions

tylammonium fluoride up to 4 equivalents and the re- sulting spectra are shown in Figures 3(a) and (b) respec- tively. The Figure 3(a) shows the receptor 1 was charac- terized by strong absorption bands at 258 and 287 nm. Peaks at 258 and 287 nm of receptor 1 decreased gradu- ally while two new peaks formed and increased gradually at 383 and 535 nm simultaneously with increasing amounts of F − ions (0.01 ml (0.33 equiv) of 5 × 10 −3 M). The col-

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High Electronic Excitation Induced Modifications by 120 MeV Ni9+ Ions in Ag-Polypyrrole Composite Films: A Comparative Study

High Electronic Excitation Induced Modifications by 120 MeV Ni9+ Ions in Ag-Polypyrrole Composite Films: A Comparative Study

composite film. The Ag-PPy composite films are synthesized by using the electrochemical technique. The composite films are characterized by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), I-V measurement and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques before and after irradiation. The magnitude of the effect of ion beam energy and the effect of irradiated target material during the SHI irradiation are discussed. An attempt is made to study the influence of SHI irradiation on Ag-PPy on the basis of energy absorption and energy dissipation during SHI irradiation.

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