Top PDF Electronic waste management in Romania: pathways for sustainable practices

Electronic waste management in Romania: pathways for sustainable practices

Electronic waste management in Romania: pathways for sustainable practices

However, the delays in building and operating activities of the new regional sanitary landfill sites (supported by EU funds) lead to temporary dumpsites where mixed municipal waste is disposed of, including e-waste streams which are not source-separated by population or economic agents, thus, these are discharged either on dumps or in mixed residual waste bins or containers. The e- waste represents around 5-6 % of the total amount of waste in a community and Romania household has EEE products older than 5 years (Region4recycling, 2014). Landfill of e-waste is often used in Romania while recycling work is done in small plants based on manual dismantling (Ciocoiu et al., 2016). The correct source-separated of dry recyclables and special waste streams (such as e-waste, oils, batteries, construction and demolition waste, tires, etc.) are key challenges to avoid contamination of residual wastes with hazardous items which are further sent to landfill sites. Low amounts of e-waste were found in WEEE in household waste composition in Cluj- Napoca city as a result of separate collection scheme and e-waste collection campaigns since 2011 (Pop et al., 2015). Environmental awareness of citizens is crucial in this regard and further campaigns must be implemented in both urban and rural areas.
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ELECTRONIC WASTE CONSCIOUSNESS AND PREVAILING DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN INDIA

ELECTRONIC WASTE CONSCIOUSNESS AND PREVAILING DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN INDIA

The information technology has revolutionized the way we live, work and communicates bringing countless benefits and wealth to all its users. The creation of innovative and new technologies and the globalization of the economy have made a whole range of products available and affordable to the people changing their lifestyles significantly. New electronic products have become an integral part of our daily lives providing us with more comfort, security, easy and faster acquisition and exchange of information. But on the other hand, it has also led to unrestrained resource consumption and an alarming waste generation. Both developed countries and developing countries like India faces the problem of e-waste management. The rapid growth of technology, up gradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health. Optimal and efficient use of natural resources, minimization of waste, development of cleaner products and environmentally sustainable recycling and disposal of waste are some of the issues which need to be addressed by all concerned while ensuring the economic growth and enhancing the quality of life.
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Technical solutions to improve global sustainable management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the EU and China

Technical solutions to improve global sustainable management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the EU and China

Having eliminated the most unworkable options, the next step is to identify the best practice, or combination of practices for WEEE at EoL. Reuse is arguably one of the most sustainable option for WEEE as it extends the life cycle of a product and can be repeated several times. Once reuse no longer becomes an option, either component recovery (remanufacturing/reconditioning/repairing) or material recovery (recycling) are sustainable options. In the event of a small fault with an EEE device such as a cracked or scratched case or software fault, a simple repair or reset is probably the most cost-effective option. For more complex issues such as a failed component, recon- ditioning is a more viable option since the expense of performing a repair is most likely to be only marginally lower than a reconditioning. The advantages of a complete device check and the addition of a small warranty will outweigh the slightly increased cost in most consumers’ eyes. Remanufacturing is another option in which the product loses its identity due to the use of new components. Remanufacturing gives the most amount of added value to a product but is often not viable for EEE products due to the rapid change of technology and fashion. When component recovery is not feasible WEEE can be placed through a recycling process to recover the most valuable materials that are used in the production of EEE devices. These include rare Earth metals that carry a high current value and are finite resources. Additionally, the mining process for certain mate- rials, such as nickel, gold, tantalum and other rare earth elements, is very damaging to the environment and often comes with social injustice. Following successful recovery of ma- terial and components, the remaining non-recoverable material should be disposed of by incineration with as much energy as possible recovered from the process [9, 40, 41].
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Towards sustainable solid waste management: investigating household participation in solid waste management

Towards sustainable solid waste management: investigating household participation in solid waste management

Solid waste management is a critical problem in most of the local authorities throughout the world. Malaysia is one of the rapidly developing countries that face similar problems such as insufficient facilities, slight enforcement, ineffective of policy implementation and lack of technology [1]. This is due to population growth, economic growth, law enforcement inadequate waste, infrastructure and public attitudes among others encountered. It remains a major challenge for municipalities to collect, recycle, treat and dispose of increasing quantities of solid waste, especially in a changing climate. Recycling has been identified as the significant factor towards sustainable waste management and not only can reduce the amount of waste, it also enables the creation of new products from old materials, thus benefiting both the environment and economy. Malaysia has a population of approximately 29.7 million in 2013 [2] with a per capita GDP of USD17,776 in 2013 [3]. Urban population in Malaysia constitutes more than 65% of the total population [1]. Waste generation has increased more than 91% over for the last 10 years due to the rapid development of urban areas, rural-urban migration, increase per capita income and change on consumption patterns that brought about by development [1]. Almost 28,500 tonnes (95%) in 2012 of municipal solid waste have disposed directly into landfills daily in Malaysia [4]. The national average per capita waste generation is 0.9kg [5]. Waste composition in Malaysia is dominated by organic waste, that comprises more than 40% of the waste stream. World Bank (2011) report that Johor state‟s per capita waste generation is about 1.35 kg as one of the second highest in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur (1.57 kg). In year 1993 and 2001 a major effort of recycling was launched in Malaysia by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Unfortunately, limited recycling activities were taken [6]. Concern and awareness among the public in Malaysia have not evolved in parallel with the living standards. Therefore, participation towards _______________________________
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Waste management practices of small hotels in Accra: An application of the waste management hierarchy model

Waste management practices of small hotels in Accra: An application of the waste management hierarchy model

Waste management could be a costly venture if not properly undertaken. A World Bank report (as cited in United Nations Environmental Programme [UNEP], 2009) estimated that about 20-50 percent of the budgetary allocations of municipalities in most developing countries are channeled towards solid waste management. In the same vein, the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) spends GH₵450,000 (US$307,340) a month on waste management, with an extra GH₵240,000 (US$163,910) used for the maintenance of landfill sites (Oteng-Ababio, 2010). Undoubtedly, tourism activities contribute to the urban waste management problem. One of the ways by which tourism impacts adversely on the environment is through the generation of wastes and pollutants. Hotels which are the most tangible manifestation of tourism development contribute to the waste management problem in tourist destinations by generating significant amounts of wastes (Chan & Lam, 2002; Robinot & Giannelloni, 2010; Wie & Shanklin, 2001). This is because, by the very nature of their functions, characteristics and services, hotels tend to consume substantial amounts of energy, water and non-durable products (Zorpas, Voukkali, & Loizia, 2015). Waste generation is probably the most visible environmental impact of the hotel industry (Bohdanowicz, 2005). Generally, wastes generated by hotel guests constitute a significant portion of state commercial waste stream (Georgia Hospitality and Environmental Partnership, 1996).
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Is economic growth sustainable in Romania?

Is economic growth sustainable in Romania?

Abstract: The last events which took place after the 1st January 2007 and Romania’s admission in the European Union imply a sustainable and continuous economic growth, in order to reduce economic and social disparities between our country, EU average and other EU members, through a mobilization of the intern capital and labour force potential. Given this context, the paper aims at identifying and explaining, through a retrospective analysis, GDP fluctuations and tries to evaluate, using the aggregate supply- demand model, the contribution of each structural element in GDP formation and increase. Finally, the article proposes directions of action for continuing the sustainable development of Romania and reducing the gaps between this country and other EU members.
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Committed to a Sustainable Future in Solid Waste Management

Committed to a Sustainable Future in Solid Waste Management

In 2009, DSWM was considering collec- tion alternatives that would provide more sustainable solutions. While evaluating various alternatives, the DSWM worked in partnership with Parker Hannifin Corporation and Autocar Corpora- tion to test run a hydraulic hybrid version of an auto- mated side loader. A pilot program was planned out and imple- mented in 2009. The hybrid vehicle was compared to non-hybrid vehicles that are currently used by DSWM. The pilot program allowed the DSWM to evaluate fuel efficiency, carbon emissions, and vehicle maintenance. Using data collected during the pilot program, the DSWM decided to purchase 6 hybrid automated collection vehicles, which were delivered and placed into service during the last several months of 2010.
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Waste Management Practices in Gadhinglaj (Survey Analysis)

Waste Management Practices in Gadhinglaj (Survey Analysis)

Problems associated with the urban low income group are much complicated than those of rural counterparts as many factors like, overcrowding, neighborhood pollution unsanitary condition and poor services effect them to much greater degree, In this feedback survey we found that Among total population the 43% of population is generates around 1-2 kg per day waste, This is more than the average per household generation of waste. 10 % from the households has their own traditional waste disposal system at their backyard. It is also need to mention the 90% households are depends on municipal disposal system & their collection facility. Almost 80% area is getting daily collection frequency of waste & around 10% area is under alternate day collection facility whereas most of the collection is not separated for Biodegradable & non biodegradable. It has been observed through this survey that 77.4 % waste generated at domestic waste is part of food waste only. & the rest of part like plastic, paper, dust accumulating 11.6%, 4% & 8% respectively. It is observed that there is no awareness among people about separate storage of waste & its use in disposal system. 45 % of people rate the system as satisfactory whereas 30% of them rate it as a good system. Still 20 % are still not satisfied with the current disposal system. Also some people facing odour pollution in their areas. This problem is more significant during rainy seasons.
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Sustainable waste management :  a decision support framework

Sustainable waste management : a decision support framework

The first stage of the framework was completed as in Chapter 4.2. It finalised the goal and scope within which the framework would be constructed and executed. The second stage included the analysis of inventory results and the development of policy options. Through the application of this stage, basic inventory results could be obtained. The results included a basic knowledge of current waste management system and relevant sustainable inventory. The penultimate stage was the impact analysis, as a part of the SLCA. Six impact criteria were classified and characterised from the policies and inventory results of stage two. The impact criteria allowed for a look into the three pillars of sustainability and how high level decision making affected each of the individual categories. The final stage (Stage 4) of the framework involved the application of decision support, using AHP. A decision tree was con- structed, the results of the different sustainable criteria were presented from stage 3 of the framework. Members of the University’s facilities management were then asked to use the tool in deciding which factors were important and by how much more they were important.
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Sustainable Waste Management by Composting in NIT Warangal

Sustainable Waste Management by Composting in NIT Warangal

Solid waste management is a worldwide phenomenon. The composition of municipal solid waste differs from country to country and changes significantly with time. Different steps involved in the disposal of solid waste like waste generation control, collection, transfer, and transport, disposal. The process also includes the separation of waste materials, processing, treatment and recovery of some of this waste. It is one of the vital services conducted by local governments. Improper management of solid waste (SW) causes hazards to inhabitants [sharholy. et al., 2008]. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings [UNEP.2005 and Zaihua.et al, 2018]. The physical composition of solid waste changes from decade to decade.
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Vermicomposting as Sustainable Option for Organic Waste Management

Vermicomposting as Sustainable Option for Organic Waste Management

The rapid increase in the volume of waste is one of the aspects of the environmental crisis, accompanying recent global development. India produces around 3000 million tons of organic waste annually. This huge volume of waste(s) comes from various activities including domestic. Management of solid waste has become one of the biggest problems we are facing today. Most common practices of waste processing are uncontrolled dumping which causes mainly water and soil pollution. Besides dumping or sanitary land filling, the final disposal of solid waste can be carried out by other methods like incineration and composting. Utilization of this waste material for productivity process is important for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study an effort has been made to check the efficacy of E. foetida (red tiger worm) in vermicomposting. Vermicomposting is a bio-conversion process which is widely being used for solid waste management. The vermicompost and vermiwash produced were rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK). The vermicomposting improves the soil structure, enhancing soil fertility, moisture holding capacity and in term increase the crop yield. It becomes an important tool of waste recycling the world over.
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Land-use Planning for Sustainable Waste Management

Land-use Planning for Sustainable Waste Management

Currently, the planning process is not providing these conditions. Delays in making decisions are common and the planning process is not delivering the recycling/recovery infrastructure sufficient to enable the UK to comply with EU Law. This document sets out key land-use planning issues at national, regional and local levels and suggests how they can be addressed now to achieve more sustainable use of resources. This Statement sets out ESA’s views on the operation and performance of the planning process in England. It is a response to the emerging planning framework as set out in the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill and also summarises what ESA’s members hope revision of Planning Policy Guidance Note 10 will deliver. The general principles of this Statement apply with equal relevance to the Devolved Administrations.
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Global Biomedical Waste Management Issues and Practices

Global Biomedical Waste Management Issues and Practices

According to the study of waste management in Hospitals, case project with Ecosir Oy and Eksote on 2016, the thesis propose was evaluation of the current BMWM situation and find out solutions by assisting of a case study project. The Ecosir Group Ltd and Eksote were the case companies involve in the project for evaluations of current hospital's waste and laundry management in South Karelian. The collected data was from both theoretical of literature of online books and empirical results of the case project. The thesis theoretical part was focusing on answering of whyBMWMin wise to keep in good control condition. And the empirical part of the thesis was focusing on given ideas that how to improve this condition and give and case example. The case project of waste at South Karelia Central Hospital study shown that there is no mechanical machinery to assist and there are not sufficient workers to focus on the waste transportation within the hospital. The first step waste assessment of hospital's waste management rooms, the hospital staff were involving in collection of wastes from wards, transporting of trash bags into these rooms and waste containers. The transported wastes were containing of bandages and bloody cloths, sharps and needles which is distributed into different wastes container for making easy to recycle safely. However, there was a set of rules and regulations in order to remove the wastes from rooms but there are some mishaps resulting injuries among the staff who handle the wastes in this hospital. The second steps of the project investigation covered the transportation of wastes from storage rooms to the loading location of the hospital which was the large containers and compressors. The responsible staff was transporting manually to the end point. The final step of waste management at South Karlia central hospital process for is the responsibility of the hospital in distribution of wastes at the final point. The mentioned hospital for BMWuses normal sorting by colored bags; that orange and back bags are used for management of energy and common wastes respectively. Therefore, regarding to the BMWM going on at the South Karelia's hospital some possible solutions proposed. (1) the waste rooms space need to make around the hospital (2) construction of more elevator for wastes transportation to do not much the patients time of movements (3) the waste should be transporting rapidly from storages rooms because currently the waste stays too long the rooms (4) waste handling manually mechanism is physically depleting [Melanen, 2016].
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Capacity building for sustainable post disaster waste management: Construction \& demolition waste

Capacity building for sustainable post disaster waste management: Construction \& demolition waste

Disasters cause substantial damage around the world every year [1]. There has been an increase in natural disasters over the past few years and their impact in terms of human, structural and economic losses has also increased considerably. According to statistics issued by the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) in 2006, natural disasters killed 91,963 people and destroyed US $ 159 billions worth of property and infrastructure in 2005. Apart from the tragic cost in lives it destroyed and damaged buildings and other infrastructure including building contents, even where buildings were not physically damaged it damaged vegetation at or near coastlines. According to the European Commission - a key player in post disaster humanitarian assistance processes – the key issues that need to be addressed after emergency relief are: the creation of a foundation for sustainable and long term reconstruction and the commencement of governance structures and projects in critical areas of recovery, recreating communities and livelihoods, rehabilitation of the environment including waste management, rebuilding infrastructure and transport processes, and strengthening local governance [2].
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Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS for sustainable solid waste management

Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS for sustainable solid waste management

Several key questions need to be answered along the decision making process of WTE management: a) which WTE technology should be used to produce electricity with minimum cost while achieved the targeted energy demand? b) For a long term planning period, when should the decision makers build the technology with desired capacity? c) For a planning region, where is the best sitting site of WTE technology with minimum transportation cost? In response to these concerns, the economic trade-off variable in WTE management system can be assisted by the use of an optimization model which addresses both the considerations of technology selection and site selection. This study aims to address the limitation of previous WTE study by synthesising a multi period (year 2012-2025) cost- effective processing network for MSW. The model preferentially utilizes the waste to produce energy to meet the targeted demand with the best mix of WTE technology, types of waste, power plant capacity, location and annual planning of WTE power plant construction for up to year 2025. Figure 1 explains the framework of the current WTE system as proposed. It incorporated two modeling tools. Firstly, Geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyse the land-use change of case study areas and selects the potential sitting location for WTE power plant. Generic Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) was used to simulate the waste related data and to generate an optimal cost effective solution for the WTE system.
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Capacity building for sustainable post disaster waste management: Construction & demolition waste

Capacity building for sustainable post disaster waste management: Construction & demolition waste

However, United Nations Development Programme Report (2005) highlights poor performance of post-tsunami rehabilitation operations affected by a lack of responsive capacities with local government institutions to address the needs of an event of such magnitude. This was mainly caused by the fact that the strategic and operational level capacities of institutions responsible for public and commercial facilities were not expected to cater for a devastation of this magnitude. As such it has been identified that capacities of relevant institutions in Sri Lanka need to be improved to launch successful post disaster recovery programmes and to face any future challenges similar to the Asian Tsunami (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2005; Asian Disaster Reduction Centre, 2005). In particular, the Joint Report of Government of Sri Lanka and Development Partners (2005) [7] revealed that the construction industry in Sri Lanka did not possess the adequate number of contractors, equipment, skilled workforce, modern management practices or access to easy finance necessary to maintain the required speed of post tsunami reconstruction work. This is a critical issue that needs to be addressed for the purposes of effective post disaster rehabilitation. There are no readymade solutions and every programme must be appropriately designed for a given post disaster scenario. This concept is very effective for developing countries, since most of them lack resources and suffer from inefficient use of available resources.
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Sustainable Practices in Watershed Management: Global Experiences

Sustainable Practices in Watershed Management: Global Experiences

Watershed management is considered by scholars as well as practitioners across the world as the most appropriate approach to ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainability of all land based resources and for improving the living conditions of the people in uplands and low lands. More over watershed management technologies have proven to be effective for mitigating erosion on sloping land, stabilizing landscapes, providing clean water, stabilizing and improving agrarian production systems on small and medium scale. The degree of success of watershed management interventions primarily depends on the will of the people and the scale of activities involved in it. A watershed can be defined as a catchment or drainage basin. It refers to an area which has a ridgeline on three sides and whose surplus run-off is drained from a drainage point. Watershed management is the art and technique of managing watershed resources in way that maximum benefits can be derived from them without affecting the ecological sustainability. Watershed management requires an integration of all scientific knowledge from many disciplines and a combination of technologies, strategies and techniques with the development and use of available tools. Watershed management is a holistic concept, which tries to integrate several components like soil and water conservation, forestry development, agriculture and livestock. It tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side, and human and other living beings on the other.
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Sustainable Management of Animal Waste in a Rural Setting in India 

Sustainable Management of Animal Waste in a Rural Setting in India 

A common practice in rural areas of India is the use of animal waste as a source of biogas to be used primarily for cooking purposes. The animal waste is usually collected at the end of the day, shaped into cakes and then left under the sun for drying for at least 15 days in the summer and 30 days in winter on the walls of the houses. This act does not appeal to the eyes, is unhygienic and may the spread of diseases in addition to the practice being environmentally unfriendly at the same time. According to World Health Organization, about 1.6 million people, mostly women and children, die each year due to cooking and heating with wood, dung, coal or crop waste [1]. When it rains these cakes are usually destroyed which means there may not be a cooking gas source to prepare the food. Apart from loss of the heat source, the washed away cakes move towards the nearby lake or river and contaminate the water body. This contamination has major impacts on human health as the water bodies are normally used directly without any treatment. In addition to the cakes, twigs were also used to ignite the fire and then spread it to the cakes to maintain the temperature required for cooking. Besides supplying energy and manure, biogas technology provides an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and reducing global warming through substituting firewood for cooking, kerosene for lighting and cooking and chemical fertilizers [2]. A study produced by AGAMA energy in 2008 concluded that at least 9.5% of South Africa’s rural houses are viable to produce biogas and take part in a rural biogas program. In other words, 310,000 houses in South Africa produce enough plant or animal waste to feed and run a bio digester [3]. In addition, UAE can also create biogas using animal waste. UAE has a great number of camel and sheep on its land.
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Hospital Waste Management Practices : Jabalpur City

Hospital Waste Management Practices : Jabalpur City

Hospital and health care establishment generate total 5.85 ton per day solid waste. Plastic waste covers 32% of total hospital waste. Maximum numbers of indoor patients are admitted in Government hospital. Government hospitals have a maximum OPD and Beds occupancy. There are maximum 725 beds occupancy is found per day in Medical College. There are two type of hospital waste found in Jabalpur city like Non-hazardous and hazardous waste. Elgin hospital generates total 1.87 kg per bed per day, there were 78.57 percent of non-hazardous and 21.43 percents hazardous waste. There are Average 62.32 percent general waste and average approximate 14 percent waste reusable in non-hazardous waste. GCF hospital generates maximum 78.24 percent general waste. Average 14.26 percent clinical and 9.51 percent sharp waste is generating in Jabalpur city. Maximum 18.13 percent clinical waste is generated by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose medical college. Large numbers of hospitals, nursing homes, health care centers do not take any measure for the safe disposal of the biomedical wastes. The biomedical wastes get mixed up with the municipal solid waste and deposited at the common disposal site. Presumably we can say that maximum part of hospital waste is disposed in landfill/deep burial and open space. This City generates total 2135.25 tons Hospital waste per year and 53.49 % hospital waste dump on open land.
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E-Waste Management Practices of Households in Melaka

E-Waste Management Practices of Households in Melaka

B. Replacement of TVs/PCs/MPs by the Participants Based on Fig. 5 and Table II, mobile phones had the fastest replacement turnover of all the three categories tested, where 28.7% of the participants claimed that they replaced their MPs in less than 2 years and about half, i.e. 47.3% of the participants replaced their mobile phones between two to five years. Moreover, a minority or equivalence to 0.6% participants even changed into new ones within 6 months. This finding is quite compatible with the study done by E&E [13] where the frequency of changing mobile phones is once per 12-18 months an average. This scenario reflected that the advancement of mobile telecommunication results in a high frequency of changing mobile phones because consumers are attracted by their features and stylistic expectations such as coloured screen, audio quality, bigger memory capacity, etc. According to Huang et al., [6], the main reason for upgrading EEE is the commencing of up-to-date products with more advanced features. This can be seen from the launching of iPhone 4, where people were willing to wait and queue in a long line extending all the way back from the entrance of the sales site just to own the latest smartphone [14]. In other words, the rapid replacement of old models by the latest advanced model periodically indeed leads to the short average lifespan of EEE. According to E&E [13], mobile phones usage have increased tremendously in Malaysia, with around 17 million mobile phones that have been used, and a diffusion rate of 70% (whole country), and 100% in urban areas. Consequently, with the high replacement rate as observed in the study, increasing quantities of waste in the form of mobile phones are expected to be generated in the country.
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