Top PDF Elevated palmitic acid production in soybeans

Elevated palmitic acid production in soybeans

Elevated palmitic acid production in soybeans

Soybeans (i.e., Glycine max L. Merr.) possessing a novel genetic determinant for the enhanced production of palmitic acid in the endogenously formed vegetable oil of the seeds are provided. Such genetic determinant is the homogeneous recessive fap5fap5 gene pair that has been found to be capable of formation through mutagenesis. Once formed, such genetic determinant can be readily transferred to other soybean lines and cultivars where it is similarly expressed on a reliable basis under conventional field growing conditions. In a preferred embodiment when a soybean plant possesses the combined presence of the homogeneous recessive genes (1) fap2-bfap2-b, (2) fap4fap4, as well as (3) fap5fap5 for enhanced palmitic acid formation in the seeds, it has been found that an unusually high expression for palmitic acid production in the resulting vegetable oil of the seeds is provided that is in excess of 30 up to approximately 37 percent by weight based upon the total fatty acid content. A resulting vegetable oil is made possible in this instance that is particularly well suited for margarine preparation in absence of the need for hydrogenation.
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Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid content of at least about 14.0% and a stearic acid content of at least about 14.0%. Such high saturated fatty acid content soybeans may also, if desired, have a linolenic acid content of less than about 3.0%. The novel soybean lines are obtained by crossing A6 and A17 or by crossing A89-259098 with AX4663-5-4-5.

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Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

Soybeans having elevated contents of saturated fatty acids

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid content of at least about 14.0% and a stearic acid content of at least about 14.0%. Such high saturated fatty acid content soybeans may also, if desired, have a linolenic acid content of less than about 3.0%. The novel soybean lines are obtained by crossing A6 and A17 or by crossing A89-259098 with AX4663-5-4-5.

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Lipopolysaccharide and palmitic acid synergistically induced MCP-1 production via MAPK-meditated TLR4 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells

Lipopolysaccharide and palmitic acid synergistically induced MCP-1 production via MAPK-meditated TLR4 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells

Diabetes incidence increases in people with obesity characterized as higher content of saturated fatty acid (FA). Data from type II diabetes patients with obesity shows that FA is correlated to chronic low-grade inflam- mation or insulin resistance [10]. Moreover, increased palmitic acid (PA), an abundant FA in plasma, contrib- utes to dyslipidemia in type II diabetes [11], so PA is an important FA involved in diabetes. Many clinical studies report that blood circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is increased in patients with obesity [12]. LPS, which is the major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bac- teria, triggers inflammation response and activates tissue inflammatory factors through TLR4 signaling pathway [13]. Increased FA (especially PA) and elevated LPS may exist simultaneously in type II diabetes with obesity. However, how PA and LPS work in the development of type II diabetes is not fully understood.
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Soybeans having low linolenic acid content and palmitic acid content of at least eleven percent

Soybeans having low linolenic acid content and palmitic acid content of at least eleven percent

Methods are described for the production of soybean varieties and lines exhibiting linolenic acid contents of less than about 2.5% of the total fatty acid composition as determined by gas chromatography, preferably less than about 2.2% and, more preferably, less than about 1.9%, and in one aspect of the invention, soybean varieties and lines having the low linolenic acid characteristic and a stearic acid content of at least 20%, preferably at least 25%, and, more preferably, at least about 30%, and in a further aspect, soybean varieties and lines having the low linolenic acid content and a palmitic acid content of at least 11%, more preferably at least about 13 or 14%. In accordance with still further aspects of this invention, soybean lines are provided which exhibit a low linolenic acid content and an oleic acid content of at least about 60% of the total fatty acid composition, such lines may, if desired, also contain a palmitic acid content of less than about 6.0% and/or a stearic acid content of less than about 3.5%. There is also disclosed soybean lines having low linolenic acid contents and a palmitic acid content of less than about 5.0%, preferably less than about 4.0%.
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Myristic acid potentiates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity and steatohepatitis associated with lipodystrophy by sustaning de novo ceramide synthesis

Myristic acid potentiates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity and steatohepatitis associated with lipodystrophy by sustaning de novo ceramide synthesis

We next analyzed the liver lipid content following the consumption of PA plus MA-enriched diet. Mice fed diets enriched in PA with or without MA showed significant increase in liver cholesterol levels (Figure 7A), without change in the TG content, in line with the mild hepatic steatosis analyzed by Oil-red staining (Figure 6E). Moreover, the hepatic content of FFA did not increase in mice fed the diets enriched in PA, MA or their combination (Figure 7A). However, total hepatic ceramide levels significantly increase in mice fed PA-enriched diet and this effect was exacerbated by the presence of PA plus MA (Figure 7A). This outcome was accompanied by increased expression of CerS6 by PA plus MA compared to diet enriched in PA alone (Figure 7B) and this specific CerS form exhibits preference for 14:0 and 16:0 fatty acids. In addition, PA plus MA decreased the expression of CerS2 and CerS4, which are responsible for the synthesis of C22-C24 and C20 ceramide species, respectively. Gene expression analyses of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism indicated increased expression of the catalytic subunit of SPT, Sptlc2, and sphingomyelin synthase Sgms1 by diets enriched in PA with or without MA (Figure 7C). In addition, Hmgcr and Srebf2 involved in cholesterol synthesis increased in PA and PA plus MA- fed mice (Figure 7C). Moreover, fatty acid transporter Cd36 expression increased significantly in mice fed PA and PA plus MA diet (Figure 7C). Interestingly, mice fed PA plus MA-enriched diet exhibited reduced expression of Scd1, and Srebf1, which are involved in FFA synthesis and esterification. These data indicate that hepatic fatty acids are preferentially channeled for ceramide synthesis rather than TG formation. Consistent with in vitro findings, PA- enriched diet induced a marked elevation in ER stress markers, which further increased by the combination of PA plus MA (Figure 7D).
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Diversification Of Crop Production By Means Of Spreading Soybeans To The Northern Regions Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan

Diversification Of Crop Production By Means Of Spreading Soybeans To The Northern Regions Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan

of crop production in the Northern region of Kazakhstan. Achieving this goal required creating new early ripening varieties of soybeans that are capable of ripening in the conditions of the short vegetation period in the North of the country. Restoring the complete soybean selection process in the Northern Kazakhstan allows creating high- yield, ultra-early ripening varieties of this crop for the particular region of cultivation. Breeding and ecological strain tests of soybeans were performed in cooperation of the Kazakh SRI of Agriculture and Crop Production, and the Kostanai SRI of Agriculture; crossbreeding was aimed at creating soybean varieties that are most adapted to the agri- ecological conditions of the Northern region. The result of the joint work had been the early ripening soybean variety Ivushka (ripening group 00) that was passed for state strain test in 2015.
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An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

The results from the feed mills of Company B are of special interest. In spite of periods with heavy salmo- nella contamination during three years (2000, 2003 and 2005) before the heat treatment process, the HACCP surveillance could never detect any salmonella contami- nation after that step in contrast to in the feed mills of Company A (Table 3 and 4). This demonstrates that management procedures, supported by HACCP-control and heat treatment can prevent salmonella contamina- tion of feed ingredients to be transmitted to the clean areas (after heat treatment) of the feed mills and thereby to the compounded feed, although factors like the design of the feed mills and contamination from other external environmental sources can influence the result. It is logical to assume that when the salmonella contam- ination in incoming feed ingredients increase to a cer- tain level, the feed mill environment may become Table 4 Number of salmonella positive samples from environmental weekly surveillance of the production line - after heat treatment of feed mills of A and B using largely the same feed ingredients
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Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

through distillation (considered of each fatty acid boiling point in Table 3). This will affect into decreasing of the titer and cloud point of DOA, because of oleic acid had the lowest freezing point than all the others fatty acids in DOA, except linoleic acid (see Table 4 ). Linoleic acid (with 2 double bonds of C = H) has the lower freezing point than oleic acid (with one double bond of C = H), because of the additional of the double bond of fatty acid affect to the lower freezing point [13]. The varied reducing of palmitic acid concentration will produce DOA with the lower varies titer and cloud point, should be any the optimum one for the titer and cloud point of DOA that meet its quality standard. It can be found by researching and optimization. Based on this, results will be obtained also an idea to modify the present facility.
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Rhizosphere bacteria induced by aluminum tolerant and aluminum sensitive soybeans in acid soil

  Rhizosphere bacteria induced by aluminum tolerant and aluminum sensitive soybeans in acid soil

Accumulation of organic acid in the rhizos- phere soil. The organic acid contents in the rhizo- sphere soils are shown in Figure 2. These results showed that the genotypes had a significant effect on the concentration of organic acids in soils. Oxalic, tartaric, and citric acids were present in the control soil. Plantation of soybeans increased the concentration of oxalic and tartaric acids, but there were no differences between the two genotypes. However, BX10 increased the concentration of citric acid, whereas BD2 decreased it. Moreover, malic acid was only found in rhizosphere soil of BX10.
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Effect of α-linolenic acid on endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of palmitic acid lipotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

Effect of α-linolenic acid on endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of palmitic acid lipotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

We hypothesized that the cytoprotection provided by a -linolenic acid was a common function of rat primary hepatocytes and would be effective with clinically-rele- vant palmitic acid lipotoxicity. We have previously proved that a -linolenic acid protects against endoplas- mic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of stearic acid lipotoxicity [15]. In this paper, we report that: (1) The characteristics of palmitic acid-mediated ER stress and apoptosis in primary hepatocytes; (2) a-linolenic acid could provide protection against the cell death induced by palmitic acid; (3) Take the role of GRP78, GRP94 expression and induction of CHOP into consideration, the beneficial effects were mediated via modification of the ER stress process with specific attention.
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Synthesis of fatty ethanolamides from lauric and palmitic acid: 
		Optimization using Response Surface Methodology

Synthesis of fatty ethanolamides from lauric and palmitic acid: Optimization using Response Surface Methodology

Interaction of substrate molar ratio and solvent ratio The fatty ethanolamide synthesis was carried out for 3 hours with a reaction temperature of 65 o C and a stirring speed of 250 rpm. Figure-3 shows the expression of the contour response to percent conversion in the synthesis of lauroyl ethanolamide. It was observed that in the low and high range of substrate ratio and solvent ratio, it would be possible to obtain the maximum conversion of lauric acid. Thus, if the solvent ratio is maintained at a certain amount and the ratio of the substrate is increased, there will be a reduction in the conversion of lauric acid. Likewise, if the solvent ratio is raised and the substrate ratio is maintained, the percent conversion also decreases. Observation of the effect of substrate molar ratio and solvent ratio on the conversion of palmitic acid is shown in Figure-4. It can be seen from the figure that the conversion of palmitic acid will increase along with the increase in solvent ratio and substrate molar ratio to certain limits.
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Palmitoleic acid prevents palmitic acid-induced macrophage activation and consequent p38 MAPK-mediated-skeletal muscle insulin resistance

Palmitoleic acid prevents palmitic acid-induced macrophage activation and consequent p38 MAPK-mediated-skeletal muscle insulin resistance

M1-activated macrophages secrete a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines that activate inflammatory pathways in adjacent cells, therefore the levels of 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines and 2 pro-inflammatory chemokines that could be implicated in muscle IR (De Paepe et al., 2012; Hotamisligil et al., 1993; Sell et al., 2006; Tardif et al., 2011) were measured in mac-CM. LPS treatment of macrophages caused the expected substantial increases in production of TNF a , MCP1 and CXCL2 (all p < 0.0001; Fig. 7D-H). However, there were also respective 308 and 296% increases in TNF a macrophage mRNA and peptide in palm-mac- CM versus control (p = 0.0101 and p = 0.001; Fig. 7D and E), changes that were normalised by concurrent palmitoleic acid incu- bation. MCP1 mRNA was increased by 213% in macrophages (p = 0.0074; Fig. 7F) but the increase in peptide concentration in palm-mac-CM did not reach significance (79% increase, p = 0.15; Fig. 7G), and this was not substantially affected by addition of pal- mitoleic acid. No effects on CXCL2 secretion were noted (Fig. 7H), while IL1b levels were below the level of detection for treatment groups other than LPS-mac-CM (data not shown). This suggests that neither CXCL2 nor IL1b are likely to be responsible for the effects of CM in myotubes, while the evidence for a role of MCP1 is equivocal.
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Melatonin attenuates palmitic acid-induced mouse granulosa cells apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress

Melatonin attenuates palmitic acid-induced mouse granulosa cells apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress

The concentration of melatonin used in the present study is 10 − 6 M which seems to be higher than physical level. However, we thought that the high concentration of melatonin used in this study could reflect the in vivo conditions. As we known, melatonin is considered as a broad-spectrum antioxidant. After melatonin reacts with ROS, the melatonin metabolites are produced and accumu- lated in vivo. Subsequently, the melatonin metabolites also work as antioxidants, resulting in melatonin and melatonin metabolites working together as powerful antioxidants in vivo [43]. Accumulating evidence indicates that PA increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in granulosa cells and that oxidative stress is essential for the induction of ER stress in granulosa cells [45]. Therefore, we speculated that PA might induce oxidative stress by stimulating the gen- eration of ROS, destroying the antioxidant capacity, and sub- sequently triggering ER stress and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Melatonin and its metabolites may effectively decrease the PA-induced generation of ROS to mitigate oxidative stress, protecting granulosa cells from PA-induced apoptosis through ER stress.
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Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from soybeans by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide

Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from soybeans by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide

and also tocopherols and triacylglycerols as the major components of soybean total lipids (Olguin et al. 2003; Bond et al. 2005; Nikolić et al. 2008). In recent years, the analysis of fatty acids has gained importance because of their nutritional and health implications (Sahena et al. 2009). Fractionation of oil in terms of its fatty acid com- position is very important for producing products with physical or nutritional properties of interest to the food industry (Soares et al. 2007). Oil of various characteristics could be produced through a simple fractionation process, i.e. just by col- lecting the oil at various time or mass intervals (Hassan et al. 2000). The fractionation effect of supercritical extraction of seed oil is caused by a large disproportion in solubility of triglycerides in supercritical carbon dioxide. Generally, the solubility of triglycerides depends upon the den- sity of carbon dioxide, which can be manipulated through the pressure variation. Snyder et al. (1984) found that the fractionation of soybean oil in supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at 550 bar and 50°C only occurred in the last 10–15% of the oil extracted in which the composition of fatty acid in triglycerides varied.
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Chlorogenic acid against palmitic acid in endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis resulting in protective effect of primary rat hepatocytes

Chlorogenic acid against palmitic acid in endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis resulting in protective effect of primary rat hepatocytes

Coffee has higher concentration of polyphenols among the beverages [11] . Chlorogenic acid is the major poly- phenol in coffee. There are a large number of phenolics exited in promotive health foods and in the plant king- dom, such as vegetables and fruits. Phenolics are also commonly found in beverages made from plants, such as tea, coffee, and wine [12]. In numerous biological tests, Chlorogenic acid has been proved to have super- oxide anion-scavenging effects, in other words, it has the

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Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC θ subcellular localization in rodents

Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC θ subcellular localization in rodents

Body weight (g), carcass fat (g fat/100 g carcass), plasma insulin, and plasma glucose of rats maintained on either the low-fat, oleic acid, HFS-R, or HFS diets for 3 months (n = 8–10/group). In each column, values with different superscripts are statistically differ- ent (P < 0.05; mean ± SEM). Low fat, low-fat diet–fed rats; Oleic, oleic acid diet–fed rats; HFS-R, HFS-R diet–fed rats HFS, HFS diet–fed rats.

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Contribution of Palmitic Acid to Epidermal Morphogenesis and Lipid Barrier Formation in Human Skin Equivalents

Contribution of Palmitic Acid to Epidermal Morphogenesis and Lipid Barrier Formation in Human Skin Equivalents

Characterization of the barrier formation in HSEs revealed similarities as well as differences compared to the barrier formation of NHS. Similarities in the SC lipid matrix between HSEs and NHS include the presence of the main lipid classes and subclasses thereof, and the presence of distinctive lipid lamellae in the intercorneocyte space [7,8,10]. However, differences were reported regarding the lipid composition, such as an increased level of monounsaturated lipids, a reduced chain length of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ceramides (CERs), and a different CER subclass profile [10,11]. Changes in lipid composition coincides with a reduction in the length of the repeat distance of the long periodicity phase (LPP), as well as a lack in the formation of the short periodicity phase (SPP) (Supplementary Figure S1d,e) [7,12]. Also, the formation of a predominant hexagonal lateral organization was observed in HSEs, in contrast to a predominant orthorhombic lateral organization in NHS (Supplementary Figure S1f) [8]. These compositional and organizational differences directly contribute to an impaired skin barrier function, as compound penetration occurs at an elevated rate [4,5,7]. Although the altered composition of CERs in the SC of HSE is relatively well described [7,10,11,13], there is still a need for more detailed characterization of the composition of FFA in the SC of HSEs.
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Cannabidiol Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Injury in Cultured Hepatocytes Through Promoting Autophagic Flux

Cannabidiol Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Injury in Cultured Hepatocytes Through Promoting Autophagic Flux

Under stress status, cell autophagy scavenges useless, redundant, damaged or cancerous organelles, abnormal proteins, and lipid droplets, which play an important role in regulating metabolic levels and maintaining the homeostasis of the body's environment. The previous study of autophagy was mostly based on the degree of autophagic evaluation of autophagy, the evaluation of autophagy by the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I; the increase in autophagy recently found that the level of autophagy did not essentially reflect the level of autophagy, since the number of autophagic bodies was influenced by two aspects of formation and clearance from the angle of autophagic flow. It is true that autophagy includes not only the detection of autophago, but also the dynamic observation of the process of the entire autophagic flow, and the degradation of autophagic substrate p62 is more important for the evaluation of autophagic flow [10]. When the autophagic formation increases, but the autophagic flow is destroyed, the level of autophagic degradation and the accumulation of autophagic bodies in the cells will deteriorate the apoptosis of [11]. Under PA stimulation, although the activity of autophagic lysosome increased in hepatocytes, the rate of degradation and autophagic flow were destroyed, and CBD treatment could reduce the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I in the liver cells and the protein expression of p62, suggesting that CBD may restore the autophagic flow destroyed by PA by promoting the degradation of autophagosomes. In addition, CBD has no significant influence on the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and the protein expression of p62 in normal liver cells, suggesting that CBD has no effect on the production of autophagic and autophagic flow under the condition of no fatty acid stimulation
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Synthesis of palmitoyl ethanolamide from 
		palmitic acid and monoethanolamine: Analysis of variance and surfactant 
		characteristics

Synthesis of palmitoyl ethanolamide from palmitic acid and monoethanolamine: Analysis of variance and surfactant characteristics

Palmitic acid is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals and plants. Palmitic acid is the main component of oil from palm trees, which is the first fatty acid produced in the process of lipogenesis in the form of carboxylic acids with long and unbranched tails [3]. So that palmitic acid is an abundant raw material that can be used in various fields of oleo chemical industry.

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