Another important aspect is memory. Note that the AVR contains several different kinds of memory including flash program memory, static data memory or SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) and EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory). Typical embedded applications run a single program repeatedly. This program must run from the moment the device is turned on until it is turned off. In many applications, this program is never updated (a microwave oven, perhaps). In other applications, it may be updated but only by qualified technicians, not by the consumer (for example, an automotive engine management system). Consequently, the program memory needs to be non-volatile, that is, it must be able to survive without power. Historically, this was done via ROM (Read-Only Memory) or PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory). In both of these, individual bits can be set or cleared through the use of fuse/anti-fuse links. The difference is that ROMs are programmed at the time of manufacture while PROMs are programmed after manufacture. Both are permanent and cannot be reprogrammed. ROM is less expensive for large production runs but more expensive in small quantities. EEPROM has the advantage of being erasable and thus is a form of non-volatile read/write storage. Flash RAM is similar but is much less expensive. It has the downside that it must be programmed in blocks whereas EEPROM is byte-programmable. Therefore, Flash RAM (also called NVRAM) is ideal as a storage medium for the main program and EEPROM is useful as a medium for storing data that must survive a power cycle. A possible example use of EEPROM would involve saving user preference settings for a digital camera. When power is turned off and back on, the user expects the device to be “as they left it”, not reverting back to a default state. Typically, special instructions or procedures are needed to write to or read from EEPROM.
Among the rapid development in technology and pervasive usage of web enabled services there is greater speculation among customers to look at reducing the manpower in electrical meter reading system. Few research efforts are made in the literature to automate the meter reading process, however the price of the system was not affordable to low power consumer. The reason is they used GSM based meter reading system. So there is a need of low cost smart electrical meter reading and monitoring system. Here a new smart electrical meter reading and monitoring system was proposed that reads and monitors the power reading and keep informing the power usage to the customers and electricity department through web associated interface. Live meter reading are read from the meter through arduino microcontroller and the Energy usage is monitored, analysed and stored in the Thingspeak server. Energy Usage and the Amount is displayed in a In Home Display installed in every home. Each Household is provided with a Login Id which can be accessed via a Smart Metering website (created especially for this purpose) , to acquire a knowledge on their Energy Consumption and think on Energy reduction measures if required. The Energy Usage and the Bill amount is periodically updated in the cloud. The officers at EB can retrieve the energy usage data and the amount of each users even as a spreadsheet for easy manipulation.
Present industry is increasingly shifting towards automation. Two principle components of today’s industrial automations are programmable controllers. In order to aid the tedious work and to serve the mankind, today there is a general tendency to develop an intelligent operation. The proposed system ―ACCIDENT PREVENTION USING EYEBLINKING &HEAD MOVEMENT‖ is designed and developed to accomplish the various tasks in an adverse environment of an industry. The intelligent this project is an owe to the technical advancement. This prototype system can be applied effectively and efficiently in an expanded dimension to fit for the requirement of industrial, research and commercial applications. Microcontroller is the heart of the device which handles all the sub devices connected across it. We have used as microcontroller. It has flash type reprogrammable memory. It has some peripheral devices to play this project perform. It also provides sufficient power to inbuilt peripheral devices. We need not give individually to all devices. The peripheral devices also activates as low power operation mode. These are the advantages are appear here.
Embedded systems are different things to different people. An embedded system is a computerized system that is purpose built for its specific application and task . For this project purpose the system must meet the requirement for real time system. A real-time system must respond to an event within a fixed amount of time otherwise the task is not completed or the error will be occurred . Programmable microcontroller board which is Arduino UNO are used and developed with proposed sensor as the part of the system hardware. Arduino is a small microcontroller board with a USB plug to connect to your computer and a number of connection sockets or GPIO that can be wired up to external electronics, such as motors, relays, light sensors, laser diodes, loudspeakers, microphones, etc. . The GUI of the system are developed on the android platform as both Arduino and android is open source design software and much flexible to work with. By combining both hardware and software the reliable embedded system was created. Wireless interface is created between hardware and software in order to deliver finest user experience to the user.
The Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) is an optimization algorithm is used to search for optimal solutions to a problem. This algorithm operates on a population of potential solutions applying the principle of survival of the fittest to produce better and better approximations to a solution. Evolutionary algorithms provide a universal optimization technique that mimics the type of genetic adaptation that occurs in natural evolution. Unlike specialized methods designed for particular types of optimization tasks, they require no particular knowledge about the problem structure other than the objective function itself. At each iteration step, a new set of approximations is assumed by the process of selecting individuals according to their level of fitness in the problem domain and breeding them together using operators, such as mutation, crossover and selection, borrowed from natural genetics in order to generate the new generations . The GA flowchart is shown in Figure 3.
Interfacing GSM Module to Arduino Uno Board: There are two ways of connecting GSM module to Arduino. In any case, the communication between Arduino and GSM module is serial. So it is expected to use serial pins of Arduino (Rx and Tx). Considering this method, the Tx pin of GSM module is connected to Rx pin of Arduino and Rx pin of GSM module to Tx pin of Arduino. Now the ground pin of the Arduino is connected to ground pin of GSM module. So that’s all the connections required to allow communication between the Arduino and the GSM module and the wiring is over. Now one can load different programs to communicate with GSM module and make it work. The problem with this connection is that, while programming, Arduino uses serial ports to load program from the Arduino IDE. If these pins are used in wiring, the program will not be loaded successfully to Arduino. So you have to disconnect wiring in Rx and Tx each time you burn the program to Arduino. Once the program is loaded successfully, you can reconnect these pins and have the system working.
For implementing our proposed system we used normal single strand conductors but when implemented we didn’t get fruitful results. There was not enough flow of current in conductors to effectively trigger the microcontroller. So we made a sensor PCB with etched conducting strips on it sensing various levels shown below in fig.3. If implemented in real, this PCB sensor can be implemented but by applying AC power to it or we can also use magnetic pressure sensors or some other industry purpose level sensors. Further as a part of our sensor circuit we are using four npn transistors (BC 549) for each of the sensor. These transistors amplify the sensor output so that it can have enough strength to trigger the microcontroller. Fig.1 depicts the sensor circuit in which five sensors are used at various levels (very low,1/4,1/2,3/4,full).Except the very low level sensor all others are connected to the transistors and whenever water level increases or decreases and comes in contact with each sensor the corresponding transistor conducts and amplify the sensor output . Special arrangement is made to indicate the various water levels using an LCD display at the operator control panel. When water reaches each and every level then respective level value programmed in microcontroller will be indicated in LCD and the operator will either open/close the gate. The main reason behind using the transistor amplifiers after the sensors is to provide sufficient energy to the sensor output to trigger the microcontroller.
The proposed system makes use of latest technologies in monitoring driver fatigue and safety. Here we are using ARM 7 LPC 2148 real time sensor part for monitoring different parameter like eye blinking sensor, temperature and vibration and front and back distances .In this proposed system user directly interact with automotive .if there is change in sensor parameter sensor due to driver eye blink ,temperature of vehicle and vibration then sensor sense these parameter and given to the ARM controller . The LPC 2148 controller generates control signal to the steering control and speed control of motor .The steering control unit is control wheel speed and control part connected to motor drive by using this system we can avoid accident mostly happening at midnight. Following flowchart explain the working operation of proposed system.
Autonomous dump trucks Suncor Energy will try Komatsu’s Autonomous Haulage System (AHS) in the mining industry in northern Canada. Each autonomous dump truck is equipped with vehicle controllers, a high-precision global positioning system (GPS), an obstacle detection system, and a wireless network system. These features allow the dump truck to safely operate though a complex load, haul, and dump cycle and to integrate with the dozers, loaders, and shovels that are also part of the autonomous system. Komatsu claims that AHS reduces the number of drivers working in hostileand remote conditions, increasessafety on mine sites, reduces operating costs, increases productivity and efficiency, and reduces fuel consumption and emissions.
Images are more elucidatory than Words. An image explains the imagination associated with its creation. A Picture portrays the beautiful ideas of its inventor. Here cannot imagine the existence of this world without colorful images be it photo gallery of friends and family, technical images related to studies, artistic images from the brush of an expert etc. It can share these images with friends and colleagues, family and relatives and unknowingly with so many outsiders. The very idea of one’s private memories being public is so dreadful. The Internet pace of business today unfortunately leads many to take unethical shortcuts to get the data they want, including stealing it, duplicating it or passing it off as their own original work. Due to the ever growing popularity of internet and explosive number of users worldwide, digital images are less secure nowadays. It is said that every problem has a solution, so is the case of illegal copying of images. Digital watermarking has been proposed as a way to prevent the unauthorized forgery. Its objective is to permanently and unalterably mark the image so that the credit or assignment is farther dispute. In the event of illegal use, the watermark would facilitate the claim of proprietorship, the receipt of copyright revenues, or successful prosecution. The sudden increase in watermarking interest is most likely due to the increase in concern over copyright protection and authentication of content. Copyright-protected digital contents are easily recorded and distributed due to two main factors- prevalence of high-capacity digital recording devices and the explosive growth in using Internet. Watermarking has also been proposed for tracing images that have been illicitly redistributed. In the past, the infraction of large-scale photocopying and distribution often limited copyright
The sensible planet dream may be created true with the applying of the net of things. By victimization the embedded chips and sensors, the smart objects can be enhanced to “think”, “feel”, “talk”, and “interact” with each other. These objects may be increased to move with kinsfolk by utilizing the net and mobile or different network facilities. Such that, these objects may be controlled and monitored from anyplace, anytime and utilize their intelligence services victimization web of things.
the invention of electromagnetic telegraph, since then the various inventions came into picture but the term IoT was introduced or coined by a Kevin Ashton in 1999 to encourage RFID technology. Since 2013 IoT has grown drastically into a system using different technologies like internet to wireless communication and MEMS (micro- electro mechanical system) to embedded system. GPS, control system, wireless sensor network all are used by IoT. IoT is simply a device with ON/OFF buttons which is connected to web. The invention of IPv6 helped in the advancement of IoT in various sectors.
The MQ Series are commonly used gas sensors with electrochemical sensing element incorporated with a small heater, which senses gas whose proportion is known and thus provide an analog output.Methane, a vital Greenhouse gas, can be sensed using MQ-4, TGS-2611 or methane detectors. Since MQ-4 gives output between 200ppm to 10000 ppm, it proved an apt sensor for use due to its other features  as mentioned below:
limit sensors. This is due to the introduction of a continuous, closed feedback loop which can record and account for changes in environment. Early control units that interfaced the PLC to such an arm using this transfer function used either an analogue computer (49) or a dedicated digital computer (46), purpose built by the end user. Both methods required substantial interfacing and programming, increasing the development time. To provide a standard interface unit Texas Instruments built the PID unit (41) providing the application designer with a standard method of programming transfer functions for each application. Presently, state of the art PLC’s use functional block programming on high speed processors to implement PID, ramp, S-ramp and more transfer functions.
Abstract:-This paper present the speed control of single phase Induction motor usingArduino with the controlling objectives PWM and SPWM . Induction motors are widely used Electrical Motors due to their reliability, low cost and robustness. However, Induction Motors do not inherently have the capability of variable speed of operation. Due to this reason, earlier dc Motors were applied in most of the Electrical Drives. But the recent developments in speed control methods of the Induction Motor have led to their large scale use in all Electrical Drives. Out of the several methods of speed control of an induction such as pole changing, frequency variation, variable rotor resistance, variable stator voltage, constant V/f control, slip recovery method etc., the closed loop constant V/f speed control method is most widely used. The design, analysis, and implementation of Single phase Inverter driving Induction Motor is completely carried out usingArduino.
Through the research on the existing C-MANTEC neural network and PID control technology, this paper presents an improved C-MANTEC algorithm based on PID control system. The combining of the artificial neural networks with conventional PID control helps in exploring their respective advantages to forming the intelligent PID control. From UCI Repository cancer dataset, the developed system is tested. The results show that the scheme can not only improve the speed of the algorithm in the training process but also improve the generalization capability of the network, which further enhances the per- formance of PID controllers. The overall power consumed is also reduced to a greater extent.
We can find here and there some examples of software debouncing used not only for switches but also for noisy inputs. In everything related to a user-driven event, I would advise using this kind of debouncer. But for everything related to system communication, debounce can be very useless and even a problem, because we can ignore some important messages and data. Why? Because a communication system is much faster than any user, and if we can use 50 ms as the time during which nothing is considered as a real push or a real release with users, we cannot do that for very fast chipset signals and other events that could occurs between systems themselves.
Electronic metering technology greatly reduces the man power and time and also made easy for remote area people for paying the bill. It also reduces the non-payment of the bill and avoids the mistake due to manual calculation. Power theft is one of the greatest problems that our country is facing and with the help of this AEM power theft can be greatly reduced. This energy meter always have predefined value of amount of electricity that the user is going to use .If there is any huge difference between the amount of power transmitted (including technical losses) and amount of power being billed then it comes to the conclusion that there exist an power theft .This power theft can be greatly reduced with the help of AME. This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system. In the proposed work, the total power consumption at the load end will be calculated by usingarduino microcontroller and it is used to detect any theft between energy meter and service line.
Aim of this product is to get involved in many of the industries where human hand is must to complete the required task, but it may be harmful for human health. Here, instead of using actual human hand, we can replace it by this wireless animatronic hand. We may allow this robotic hand to complete the same task to avoid the risk and required task can be achieved. In industries as the device is preprogrammed, which reduces the ease of interfacing with system. Through these project we have tried to reduce these interfacing gap.
Pulse oximetry a noninvasive method of indicating the arterial oxygen saturation of functional hemoglobin. Oxygen saturation is defined as the measurement of the amount of oxygen dissolved in blood, based on the detection of Hemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin. Two different light wavelengths are used to measure the actual difference in the absorption spectra of HbO2 and Hb. The bloodstream is affected by the concentration of HbO2 and Hb, and their absorption coefficients are measured using two wavelengths 660 nm (red light spectra) and 940 nm (infrared light spectra). Deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin absorb different wavelengths