Interviews were conducted on six selected participants at two different charter management companies in North Texas. Interviews have disadvantages, such as the inability to gain the participant's trust, the fear of being identified with a statement used in the study, or the inability to connect with the participants in the allotted 30-45 min time frame for each interview. Cluster sampling was used to identify the qualified participants by dividing the population into separate groups to ensure homogenous participant selection (Yin, 2018). The population for this study was contacted via email and telephone, date, and time were established for the group meeting. A brief overview of the research was presented to each group, and eliminating questions were asked on the direct or indirect involvement in knowledgetransfer; I identified the extent of cross- departmental information required for tasks; identify both viewpoints on how knowledgetransfer contributes to employeemotivation. A selection was made from the cluster sampling of participants that meet the criteria; once the participants have been notified by telephone or email that they have been selected to participate in my study, the five open- ended interview questions were emailed to the selected participants to help them prepare for the interview process. The interview protocol included in the consent form was provided to each participant to ensure that consistency is presented for triangulation.
It is also known that nonprofitorganizations are active participants of the processes of life long learning by providing formal and informal ways of learning to people of all ages. This topic is becoming popular in international research; especially since the EU agenda is focusing on achieving the goal of turning Europe into the most developed knowledge-based region in the world. The EU is also giving more attention than earlier, to the nonprofit/voluntary sector. As proofs of it we can mention that the year of 2011 was called Year of volunteers and volunteering, and the movement focusing on active citizenship draws attention also to this sector. This paper also wants to acknowledge the role that nonprofit nongovernmental organizations can play in this process and address some of the issues that are related to knowledgetransfer and engagement of people.
According to Robbins and Coulter , “Organizational culture is described as the shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act” (p. 80). Culture can widely affect the knowledge sharing process by facilitating or restricting the flow of knowledge. Levine  contended that “an organization that supports information sharing and knowledge creation among its members and is committed to including and reconciling multiple view-points is likely to establish effective and efficient processes as well as improving organizational life” (p. 23). Furthermore, Ahmed, Lim and Loh  asserted that knowledgetransfer can be promoted in the organization based on the appropriate cultural norms widely held by the organization; they, however, warn that if the wrong norms exist, regardless of the effort and good intention of individuals trying to promote knowledge, little knowledgetransfer is likely to be forthcoming as a result (p. 59). Even with the existence of the aforementioned culture scenario, employees will easily learn what values and behaviors are acceptable regardless of what is communicated officially by the company (, p. 291).
forms Chatter, Yammer and Podio are examples of social media, which are used in an organizational context for internal communication and collaboration. Salesforce Chat- ter is an enterprise social network as well as a collaborative application based on cloud-computing apps. Podio is also an enterprise social network and an online work platform. Podio users can create workspaces to collaborate with specific groups of people, and use an employee network for company-wide communication across de- partments and get their work done using apps. Yammer is a secure, private social network, which enables employees to collaborate easily. These platforms are also referred to as ‘Enterprise 2.0’  or enterprise social networks, because they are de- ployed in a business environment for internal communication. The platforms provide new opportunities for organizations to benefit from the human resources and valuable knowledge that resides in the organization, which, potentially, can enhance work routines, business practices and knowledge sharing.
By choosing to use a correlation design to seek an answer to my research question, I was deciding against using an experimental or quasi-experimental design, given that there was no possibility of my intervening in the organizations that had agreed to participate in the study to test the effectiveness of any kind of implementation of leadership theory. The subjective responses were not necessarily a drawback because they tended to eliminate uncertainty and unreliability in participants’ responses, which might have been distorted by sudden changes in leadership style (Su & Zhang, 2013). The main reason for choosing a correlation design instead of a casual comparative or experimental design was that correlation research enables the researcher to examine the relationship of several variables in one study. A correlation design yields knowledge regarding the extent and nature of the relationship between the variables of interest to enable addressing the primary research question and its derivative hypotheses (Su & Zhang, 2013).
volunteer retention from the perspective of Self-Determination Theory (Allan et al., 2016; Moran et al., 2012). Across motivation theory, the influence of the external environment and culture has produced consistent results (Allan et al., 2016; Kotter, 2012). E.L. Deci and Flaste (1996) specifically found that where people live, work, and socialize plays a significant role in their actions and decisions. Rural communities and nonprofitorganizations both present unique complexities that alter individual and social perspectives on needs and priorities (Neuhoff & Dunckelman, 2011). Persistent poverty, rising age, and a lower employable population, plague rural areas. Compared to urban areas, rural counties face a more complex battle between social service needs and available resources (Newstead & Wu, 2009).
organization through frequent communication. Therefore, leaders must establish positive relationships and working environments to encourage two-way communication with their subordinates; a constructive working climate positively affects employee turnover. Muldoon, Keough, and Lovett (2018) stated that leaders are encouraged to maintain positive relationships with their followers to ensure that followers have few excuses to leave their organization. Specifically, face-to-face communication encourages the sharing of knowledge and idea collaboration (Khazanchi, Sprinkle, Masterson, & Tong, 2018). All participants indicated that they communicated with their staff regularly. The majority of the participants believed that effective communication in the workplace was the primary reason that employees decided to remain employed at their organization. Additionally, all participants reiterated that listening to their staff was imperative to create a positive working environment. Participant 5 stated, “Communication with my staff is important because when you give them a voice, it makes them feel empowered.” Additionally, Participant 1 shared,
The board competence refers to the knowledge, skills and behavioural abilities of the board. This competence concerns both, the personal capabilities of each board member and the overall competence of the board. In detail, the competence is related to the per- formance of a job or a task and is not related to an individual. Furthermore, it focuses on the intentional behaviour of a person which means the capability to translate the own knowledge and skills into action. 41 Concerning the personal capabilities, in the litera- ture, some personal qualities of board members are discussed. Lee and Phan identified the following twelve generic competencies for the individual board members: strategic perspective, business sense, planning and organizing, analysis and judgment, managing staff, persuasiveness, assertiveness and decisiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, commu- nication, resilience and adaptability, energy and initiative, and achievement motivation. In order to perform a task effectively, board members must be able to combine their personal capabilities and knowledge of various functional areas and apply these skills to the organizations' specific issues. 42 In addition to the generic competencies of each indi- vidual board member, further studies indicated competencies regarding the overall board competence. The level of competence of the collective board could be differenti- ated in six areas and involves the contextual, educational, interpersonal, analytic, politi-
project work, if required in their day-to-day business work. The lack of the ERP big picture was discovered as a problematic area in ERP knowledgetransfer. Whoever is involved in the project activities has to have a concrete idea about the ERP concept initially, but not its details. Therefore, it is vital to take a strategic decision to carry out organization wide employee awareness programs (kick-off workshops, monthly bulletin, newsletters, etc.) on the ERP concept and its importance to the whole company even before starting the implementation. The management of customizations and the extent of incorporating best business practices are two main knowledge issues that have been recognized based on the empirical evidence from case implementations. The top management has to take strategic decisions on determining on the customization points and incorporating best business practices based on the ERP package knowledge that they possess. Therefore, implementation partner should table out the options of customizations vs. adoption of best business practices with the pros and cons of each option for the client’s top management to decide on the same. The knowledge of system configurations, vendor managed KM systems and documentation templates have largely been transferred after the business requirement gathering stage, because at that time the users have a great deal of understanding of the ERP concept and system functionalities in order to digest additional knowledge.
The IRS requires that all employers report their employee withholdings by filing Form 941 every quarter, and the Illinois Department of Revenue requires that all Illinois employers file Form 941-IL every quarter. Both of these forms must report the total amounts of income taxes withheld. The IRS form must also include the total number of employees, as well as a breakdown of the employer and employee portions of the taxes due under the Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) (which include taxes for Medicare and social security) and any taxes due under any state unemployment tax authorities. During each payroll cycle, the NFP must withhold these taxes from the wages paid to its employees. The NFP must pay the money owed to the IRS and the Illinois Department of Revenue at certain times throughout the year. Depending on the amount of the taxes owed, the NFP must transfer the withheld taxes to the IRS and the Illinois Department of Revenue every day (for very large employers), every two weeks, every month or every quarter. The quarterly payment period only applies to very small
In a previous research, the study focused on the processes of knowledgetransfer in multinational corporations and the associated challenges in international settings (Perjanik, 2016). Research finding revealed that several barriers could exist during a knowledgetransfer, which includes a lack of value for new knowledge, motivation to apply new knowledge, and combination of issues (Lievre & Tang, 2015). As suggested by Garrick and Chan (2017), leaders should be the facilitators for fostering motivation and trust. In the studies of Neukam (2017), and Badara, Johari, and Yean (2015) on knowledge sharing through collaboration, the authors identified culture as the controller of behavior. Therefore, Neukam (2017), and Badara et al. (2015) proposed that leaders must promote a favorable culture that favors knowledgetransfer. Hence, leaders are essential pieces in the process of knowledgetransfer and must continuously motivate their employees to embrace the new way of thinking (Garrick & Chan, 2017).
The path analysis values are shown in Figure 1 and Table 3. Intrinsic motivation significantly increases employee creativity (β = 0.287, t = 5.396, ρ <0.05), and knowledge sharing (β = 0.594, t = 13.290, ρ < 0.05), which supports H1 and H2. Furthermore, knowledge sharing also increases employee creativity (β = 0.728, t = 15.115, ρ <0.05), which supports H3. Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to complete a task because it is interesting, challenging, and satisfying. Intrinsic motivation is one of the most important factors in encouraging and producing employee work creativity (Udin, Handayani, Yuniawan, & Rahardja, 2017; X.-H. Wang, Kim, & Lee, 2016). Most organizations try to increase intrinsic motivation of employees by providing job autonomy and constructive feedback, with emphasizing the importance of work (Kuvaas, Buch, Weibel, Dysvik, & Nerstad, 2017). Employees who are intrinsically motivated express more creativity, tend to last longer on the job, have a lot of knowledge, and show better work performance. According to SDT, when employees are intrinsically motivated, they will have more positive correlations and consequences in terms of the quality of their work, health, and well-being(Deci & Ryan, 2000). They also have positive experiences to control their behavior and are more likely to balance family and work life. Liao and Wu (2009) emphasize that knowledge is a very important resource for preserving and learning new techniques, solving problems, creating core competencies and starting new situations. Diverse knowledge serves as a basis for encouraging creativity in the organization. Knowledge produces, enhances, and facilitates employee creativity. C. Tang (2010) shows that knowledge sharing creates a knowledgeable work environment, which encourages creative ideas and solutions. Therefore, knowledge sharing is important especially when employees need information and the right exchange to create creative ideas (Liao & Chen, 2018; Tan, Luh, & Kung, 2014). The results of this study are in line with the findings of Liao et al. (2018); Sulistiyani, Udin, and Rahardja (2018); Tuan (2019); Wahyudi, Udin, Yuniawan, and Rahardja (2019) that knowledge sharing has a significant effect on employee creativity.
The United States has one of the largest nonprofit sectors in the world in both size and scope (Collins, 2011). Nonprofitorganizations account for a substantial and increasing share of the workforce in the U.S. (Benz, 2005). Hidden in the growth of the nonprofit sector is the concerning issue of high turnover and the related recruitment and retention issues (Salamon & Geller, 2007). In 2016, the average total turnover rate in nonprofitorganizations was estimated at 19%, an increase from 16% in 2013 (Nonprofit HR Solutions, 2016). The direct monetary costs of turnover range from 10% to 60% of an individual’s salary depending on the wage and role (Boushey & Glynn, 2012; Mitchell, Holtom, & Lee, 2001). The indirect costs associated with employee turnover include the loss of efficiency before the employee actually leaves the organization, the impact on their coworker’s productivity, and the loss of productivity while a new employee achieves mastery of the new position (Boushey & Glynn, 2012; Mitchell, et al., 2001; Mor Barak, Nissly, & Levin et al., 2001; Opportunity Knocks, 2010). Retention of employees in any industry is a serious concern for leaders but this is especially serious in the nonprofit sector where the ability to successfully and effectively achieve their important social mission depends heavily on their employees (Guo, Brown, Ashcraft, Yoshioka, & Dong, 2011; Kim & Lee, 2007; Seldon & Sowa, 2015; Walk, Schinnenburg, & Handy, 2014; Word, 2014). What can be done to reduce turnover and prevent the associated costs in the nonprofit sector?
Researchers have studied employeemotivation at length; the biggest misconception has been that good wages were the primary motivational factor among employees regardless of the industry by which they are employed. This generalization or supposed knowledge has misdirected frontline supervisors and managers for years. Effective motivation of employees in non-profit organization has become one of the most challenging in the light of organizational trends to downsize, and in relation to the demands associated with managing a diverse workforce. Not much attention has been paid to motivate employees in non-profit organizations. This may be due to the small size of majority of the organizations. Various authors have suggested that goals and objectives for voluntary organizations should often best be obtained by the use of intrinsically motivated employees as well as employees who sympathize with goals and objectives of the organization but in most developing countries as Nigeria, where a large percentage of her populace are living below the standard of living, it becomes a difficult task to ascertain committed employees who could willingly work to achieve the goals.
from Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta. Three main findings emerge. The first is that the interchange of paid employees and vol- unteers is a common occurrence among the participating organiza- t i o n s : 8 0 p e rc e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t s u c h interchangeability occurs to some degree within their organization. The second is that the likelihood of the interchange goes in two di- rections: paid employees replacing volunteers and volunteers re- placing paid employees. The patterns of interchange in both directions are similar, though—with means of 29 and 22 percent, respectively—there is a slightly greater tendency for paid employ- ees to replace volunteers. The range, as noted in the results, is from zero to 100 percent in both directions. Moreover, for both ques- tions, there are organizations at all points of the scale of inter- changeability ranging from zero to 100 percent. These data suggest that within the averages are many different patterns of interchange. The next step in this research project is to attempt to break out the differing patterns and to create a typology of organizations based on the interchange factors, and to probe in greater depth the dy- namics of interchange within such organizations. This detailed probe will focus on a small sample of cases at the extremes: organi- zations whose human resources interchange volunteers and paid employees liberally and, at the opposite extreme, organizations that completely separate these two categories of human resources. Fur- thermore, our findings in this research can be triangulated, and bi- ases arising from imperfect knowledge, as described previously, can be estimated.
the janitor to the president of the organization. The motivational strategies also include the compensation package being offered to the employees. Employee appreciation events, a team atmosphere within the workplace, and creating individual greeting cards for each employee. Company B tries to hire individuals that has the intrinsic motivation and are inspired by the services that they will offer to the community. They offer benefits based on the market range. This participant thinks that their compensation package is a huge retention tool. The goal of the human resource individual of this organization focus on giving the managers the tools to advocate for their employees as well the tools to create a relationship based on motivating their employee. Company C’s motivational strategies includes a work life balance, flexibility with work hours. The compensation package of this organization included a week off work between Christmas and New Year’s Day, personal time off (PTO), and a weekly Friday meeting that gives the employees the opportunity to work with other members of the organization on any new programs. Company’s E motivational strategies included writing letter for individual’s leaving the organization to pursue a career in U.S. military academy. Another motivational strategy is a flexible work schedule, time to attend their child soccer practice, and the opportunity to attend conferences in Europe. Company F also offers a flexible work schedule to their employees.
After conducting the research and completing data analysis, I concluded that the themes identified align with the motivation-hygiene theory. The findings also support the literature on effective employee retention efforts. Identified themes include employee fit (emerged 19 times in interviews), workplace culture (emerged 28 times in interviews), and employee feedback (emerged 21 times in interviews). Employee fit considers motivators such as the individuals’ desire for career advancement and personal growth. Employees are provided opportunities to further ingrain themselves in the work they do, allowing for a sense of personal fulfillment. The theme of workplace culture can fall within hygiene factors or serve as a motivator. The findings of this study suggest that workplace culture may serve as a motivator; workplace culture supportive of employee needs can provide a sense of responsibility and personal growth. All the participants indicated that employee feedback allowed the organization to identify and address the needs of employees. By identifying employee needs, managers can gain a better
individualized consideration. Transformational leaders are typically found to possess high levels of emotional intelligence, acting as role models for followers, earning their respect, contributing to an ethical workplace, and uniting followers with shared vision (idealized influence) and a common mission (inspirational motivation; Corona, 2010; Ismail et al., 2010). Transformational leadership is therefore consistent with a nonprofit organization’s focus on mission and values. Transformational leaders also inspire creativity (Gong, Huang, & Farh, 2009) and innovation (intellectual stimulation) and establish an atmosphere of open communication, providing feedback and support (individualized consideration), and form strong follower/leader bonds (Corona, 2010; Ismail et al., 2010). Creativity and innovation are often vital tools that nonprofitorganizations use to fulfill their missions and accomplish their goals with limited resources. Those with high levels of emotional intelligence possess the key to being extraordinary transformational leaders (Corona, 2010). Emotional intelligence is a quality inherent in the original theory of transformational leadership without formal definition or recognition.
Human Resource Management Dependent on the Type of NPO? The NPO sector as such is quite heterogeneous. NPOs can be classified ac- cording to a number of criteria (Badelt, 2002a: 70f.), for example, the pur- pose of the NPO (membership, service, advocacy, or support), its stage of de- velopment, its size, and its proximity to private sector companies, to public sector organizations or to society as a whole (Zauner, 2002: 174). A classi- fication of NPOs could be carried out also according to their geographic affiliation (e.g., Eastern European countries, transition economies, Western European countries, U.S.A.). Following this idea of heterogeneity among NPOs, the question arises whether HRM should be differentiated, too, according to the type of NPO. A second question is whether there is even empirical evidence for potential differences in HR strategies.
The types of written policies appropriate for any particular nonprofit will vary based on its activities, but they should be designed to address specifically the liabilities to which the non- profit is exposed, as discussed in § 3.2 above. Policies addressing conduct of directors, employ- ees, and volunteers; conflicts and apparent conflicts; and fundraising activities would probably be appropriate for nearly all nonprofits and, if consistently applied, will contribute to the nonprofit’s overall strategy for risk management. In addition, employment-related risks can be mitigated through the creation and use of an effective employee handbook (and separate volunteer hand- book, if appropriate) and effective reporting mechanisms and procedural systems for handling any such incidents, if they arise. Items that could be included in such a handbook are rules for design-