Rumor is an energy saving protocol that provides an ef- ficient mechanism combining push and pull strategies to ob- tain the desired information from the network . In Rumor, the nodes generating events send notifications that leave a sticky trail along the network. When query agents visit a node where an event notification agent has already passed through, they can find pointers (i.e., the trail) towards the lo- cation of the corresponding source. In general terms, when a node receives a query two things can happen: i) the node already has a route toward the target event, so it only needs to forward the query along the route; or ii) the node does not have a route, and therefore, it forwards the query to a ran- dom neighbor. The random selection of the neighbor in this case is relatively constrained, since each node keeps a list of recently visited neighbors to avoid repeatedly visiting them. Clearly, the forwarding strategy in Rumor could end up producing spiral paths, so an intuitive improvement would be to reduce its level of routing indirection. To this end, Cheng-Fu Chou et al. proposed the Straight Line Routing (SLR) protocol , which aims at making the routing path grow as straight as possible. More recently, Shokrzadeh et al. made significant efforts to improve Rumor in different as- pects with their Directional Rumor (DRumor) . Shokrzadeh et al. later improved their DRumor protocol by means of what they called the Second Layer Routing (SecondLR) . SecondLR uses geographical routing immediately after lo- cating the source of an event, and Shokrzadeh et al. have shown that this approach considerably improves the perfor- mance of DRumor. Despite these efforts, current query-basedrouting protocols are mainly energy savers, and have shown relatively poor performance when it comes to balancing en- ergy consumption.
The comparative results between CBRR and SPEED are plotted in Figure 5. It can be seen that the both CBRR protocols achieve nearly 100% delivery ratio (Figure 5(a)) and stable end-to-end delay around 0.05s (Figure 5(b)). All these in CBRR contribute to the Rout- ing/MAC cross-layer design, which can timely collect the state information of wireless channel thus to avoid more collisions during the forwarding procedures. In contrast, higher packet generate rate may bring forth more packet collisions thus lead to higher packet miss ratio (Figure 5(a)) and longer delay (Figure 5(b)) in SPEED. In Figure 5(c), SPEED consumes the average energy about two times more than those of the two CBRR protocols due to its beacon broadcasting. It is worth noting that the average energy consumption of each protocol decreases slowly as the packet generation rate increasing. The reason is that when the packet gen- eration rate is small, most nodes are always kept in idle state, whose energy consumption is the main part of the total consumed energy. However, more and more packets have been forwarded thus can lead to lower average en- ergy consumption as the generate rate increasing. Fur- thermore, Figure 5 illustrates that the overall perform- ance of CBRR-TwoHop is little better than that of CBRR-OneHop because the two-hop neighbor table can be helpful for further meeting the real-time requirements in the two-hop range.
Several hierarchical routing protocols have been proposed for wirelesssensornetworks in the last few years [8, 11–19]. Many of them introduced a multi-hop inter-cluster com- munication approach to extend the network lifetime. LEACH  is the first well-known cluster-basedprotocol for WSN, built upon two phases: the setup phase and the steady state phase. In the setup phase, CHs are selected according to a distributed process, in which each node chooses, independently, to be a CH or not based on a probabilistic formula. The non-CH nodes join their cluster depending on the strength of the signal received from the CH. Next, each CH creates a time division multiple access schedule (TDMA) and sends it to all its cluster member nodes. In the steady state phase, a one- hop data transmission from each CH to the BS takes place in the relevant formed topol- ogy. LEACH uses a code division multiple access (CDMA) code to reduce inter-cluster interference. After each round, a randomized rotation of CH is conducted to ensure load balancing. However, LEACH has some limitations. It does not consider either the sen- sor node’s residual energy or its position during the CH election process. Moreover, it is a single-hop routingprotocol where the direct transmission of data from the CH to the sink node makes it inappropriate for large scale networks since it will cause more energy dissipation and rapid death for distant CHs.
Many researchers have worked on QoS routing protocols. Some of them are aimed for designing a real-time or reliable protocol while others consider both. As an example, SPEED  is a real-timeroutingprotocol which tries to route the packet guaranteeing a fixed speed all over the network. The speed is checked locally at each hop and a back-pressure mechanism is used to move around the voids. This protocol does not consider multiple latency requirements and reliability is not mentioned in the routing policy. MMSPEED  is another routingprotocol which uses multi-SPEED approach to form different speed layers each supporting a fixed speed. The latency is estimated locally, without additional packet transmission, and using IEEE 802.11e  as the MAC layer and a priority queuing method, the packets of different requirements are isolated. For reliability support, it uses multi-path approach which sends duplicated packets in case of an unreliable link. However, this method is not energyefficient due to the waste in sending the duplicated packet. Furthermore, multiple copies of the packet may cause congestion near the sink. The other drawback of the mention protocols is that they do not take energy into account in choosing the next hop.
Due to the presence of attacks in WSNS, the nodes are easily impersonated by wormhole attacks. To overcome the issue of wormhole attacks, we propose to design the security basedroutingprotocol for ad hoc networks. We achieve the detection of wormhole misbehavior using threshold value of network cross time. The integrated cryptography scheme is developed to achieve the data integrity. The proposed work SRP achieves the better packet delivery ratio, low delay and overhead than the existing schemes while varying the mobility, time, throughput speed and number of nodes. In future, we extend this work to energy consumption model and au- thentication approach.
Abstract: In recent past few years, have seen a drastic improvement and development in the wirelesssensornetworks. This sensornetworks are mainly dependent up on the optimal deployment of the sensor nodes and efficient data transfer architectures .in addition, the energyefficient clustering mechanism are used to route the data packets from the source to the destination.in the clustering algorithm, the entire network region is divided into zones. In this clustering technique, the node reachability and effective communication is achieved by using the proposed scheme.in this paper, we proposed as criteria based zone head selection algorithm for wirelesssensornetworks by considering the distinct parameters such as a network lifetime and residual energy. The metrics for zone head selection is based on the residual energy, distance between the nodes and elapsed time. The simulation results of the given proposed scheme are out performing better than the existing routingprotocol. The result has been verified by the number of parameter is zone head selection and its impact is on the calculated in terms of networks stability and lifetime.
WirelessSensor Network (WSN) consists of small sensor devices, which are connected wirelessly for sensing and delivering specific data to Base Station (BS). Routing protocols in WSN becomes an active area for both researchers and industrial, due to its responsibility for delivering data, extending network lifetime, reducing the delay and saving the node’s energy. According to hierarchical approach, chain base routingprotocol is a promising type that can prolong the network lifetime and decrease the energy consumption. However, it is still suffering from long/single chain impacts such as delay, data redundancy, distance between the neighbors, chain head (CH) energy consumption and bottleneck. This research proposes a Deterministic Chain-BasedRoutingProtocol (DCBRP) for uniform nodes deployment, which consists of Backbone Construction Mechanism (BCM), Chain Heads Selection mechanism (CHS) and Next Hop Connection mechanism (NHC). BCM is responsible for chain construction by using multi chain concept, so it will divide the network to specific number of clusters depending on the number of columns. While, CHS is answerable on the number of chain heads and CH nodes selection based on their ability for data delivery. On the other hand, NHC is responsible for next hop connection in each row based on the energy and distance between the nodes to eliminate the weak nodes to be in the main chain. Network Simulator 3 (ns-3) is used to simulate DCBRP and it is evaluated with the closest routing protocols in the deterministic deployment in WSN, which are Chain- Cluster Mixed protocol (CCM) and Two Stage Chain basedProtocol (TSCP). The results show that DCBRP outperforms CCM and TSCP in terms of end to end delay, CH energy consumption, overall energy consumption, network lifetime and energy*delay metrics. DCBRP or one of its mechanisms helps WSN applications by extending the sensor nodes lifetime and saving the energy for sensing purposes as long as possible.
communicate through wireless channel without any existing network infrastructure. Because the resource constrained nature of WSN a data packet routing requires multiple hops to exchange data across the network. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a secure energyefficientroutingprotocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The proposed energyefficient elliptical curve based spherical grid routingprotocol for WSN provides correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that data packets can be delivered in time to the destination. Secure route construction can be done with optimized WSN performance matrices such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, minimum energy consumptions, communication overheads & end to end delay. This proposed algorithm evaluates Spherical grid routing protocols for wirelesssensornetworksprotocol while varying no. of nodes and pause time and results are compared with few existing routing protocols using network simulator.
sensing (measuring), computing, and communication elements that gives an administrator the ability to instrument, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specified environment. The administrator typically is a civil, governmental, commercial, or industrial entity. The environment can be the physical world, a biological system, or an information technology (IT) framework. Network(ed) sensor systems are seen by observers as an important technology that will experience major deployment in the next few years for a plethora of applications, not the least being national security. Typical applications include, but are not limited to, data collection, monitoring, surveillance, and medical telemetry. In addition to sensing, one is often also interested in control and activation.
Zhao, Zhou and Gao  in 2012 proposed “Energyefficient and cluster basedroutingprotocol for WSN”. Their work is based on the LEACH protocol. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is the first routingprotocolbased on hierarchical clustering and a classical hierarchical routingprotocol in WSN. It divides WSN in several clusters. The first step in this approach is the election for the selection of the cluster head. The second step is the transmission of data between sensor nodes in the network. This can be accomplished through clustering heads.The energy consumption has been reduced greatly and the network lifetime has been significantly improved. Lee, Kong, Lee and Byeon in 2005 proposed “Cluster BasedEnergyEfficientRoutingProtocol without Location Information for SensorNetworks”. Their work is based on the LEACH protocol. They have proposed the use of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) for transmission of data and sharing of information between Cluster Nodes. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the energy consumption.
WSNs, energy saving, lifetime of the network and scalability has improved. Recent researches have been proposed the number of cluster basedrouting algorithms to address the main challenges in WSNs and designed to improve the energy savings and network lifetime or else oriented quality of service (QoS) with reduced the overheads. In this section, presents a short summary of some research related works. In (Zhen Hong, 2016), a clustering-tree topology control algorithm based on the energy forecast (CTEF) is proposed for saving energy and ensuring network load balancing, while considering the link quality, packet loss rate, etc. The evaluation of the fundamental performance limits of WSNs has been addressed in several research works. In (Hu, 2004), the energy-constrained limit of WSNs with respect to the network throughput and operational lifetime has been evaluated. In (Abdelzaher, 2004), the authors have evaluated the real-time capacity of multi-hop WSNs, identifying how much real-time data the network can transfer by their deadlines. In (Chalapathi Rao, 2016), proposed a Data Density Correlation Degree (DDCD) algorithm on wirelesssensor network is works as a middleware for aggregating data sustained by a more number of nodes within a network. The problem encountered in the recent past was of the more battery power consumption. Therefore, this paper proposed the efficient and effective mechanism of energyefficient procedures for data aggregation in wirelesssensor network and increase the network lifetime. In (Ricardo Severino, 2014). presents a solution to enable these networks with the ability to self-adapt their clusters’ duty-cycle and scheduling, to provide increased quality of service to multiple traffic flows. Importantly, our approach enables a network to change its cluster scheduling without requiring long inaccessibility times or the re-association of the nodes. It shows how to apply our methodology to the case of IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-tree WSNs without significant changes to the protocol. Finally, it analyzes and demonstrates the validity of our methodology through a comprehensive simulation and experimental validation using commercially available technology on a Structural Health Monitoring application scenario.
EnergyEfficient Hierarchy-based Clustering RoutingProtocol (EEHCR) is to generate energy-efficient clusters for randomly deployed sensor nodes, where each cluster is managed by a set of associates called a head-set. First step in this approach is to setup the cluster and form hierarchical clustering model. In this most efficient node becomes cluster head (CH) in each cluster using election algorithm. Since the role of CH is energy consuming the election algorithm is also based on the energy parameter. After a specific number of transmissions, a set of new clusters are formed. The clusters are maintained for a short duration called round. A round consists of an election phase and data transmission phase. In an election phase, the sensor nodes self-organize into a set of clusters, where each cluster contains a head-set. In data transmission phase, the cluster heads transmits the data to base stations (BS) periodically and spontaneously. In EEHCR clustering is one of the key processes to perform routing. Clustering includes partitioning stage and choosing cluster head using election algorithm called election phase. In data transmission phase CHs construct route towards BS for routing which prolongs network life-time. Different phases in this model of system are (I) Cluster formation by electing cluster head (CH), (II) Hierarchical tree building, (III) Path building where cluster heads, sink will finalize the path for routing, (IV) Sensing and relaying where source can send data to sink by least cost path, (V) Tree update which may involve cluster reformation with new cluster head selection, (VI) Route maintenance to prolong the network life-time. So basically the entire process has two subgroups which are setup phase and steady phase. In setup phase the clustering and tree formation takes place where in steady phase data transmission and routing performed by the nodes in the network.
Most of the energy is consumed when the nodes are active, listening for an event to occur. At MAC layer lev- el, sleep-wake scheduling connected-k neighborhood (CKN) , geographic-distance-based connected-k neigh- borhood GCKN  was proposed as an effective mechanism in which the node is active briefly and sleeps for a long time to prolong the network lifetime. Though in sleep-wake schedule, the sender node has to wait until the neighbor node wake up and hence incur delays in transmission. In sleep window MAC (SW-MAC) , the wake-up rate can be tuned according to the current traffic of the network which exhibits collision due to syn- chronization and is not reliable. However, asynchronous MAC scheduling can awake or sleep by transmitting a preamble longer than receivers wake up rate without the constraint of synchronization mechanism. But too long preamble, Berkeley MAC (B-MAC)  increases the delay and too short preamble, X-MAC (Extended MAC)  might increase energy. The B-MAC and X-MAC based MAC (BoX-MAC-1)  protocol uses data packet as probe packet instead of preambles and suited for sparse networks as the energy and collision increase linearly with node density. A state-of-the-art receiver initiated MAC protocol, A-MAC  performs poorly in networks with asymmetric links degrading Packet Reception Ratio [PRR] as the sender node fails to receive a probing packet from the anticipated receiver. The most recent work that addressed the above problem was Asym-MAC , a MAC protocol designed for low-power duty-cycled WSNs with asymmetric links. More specifically, for asymmetric link, the transmitter-initiated and default MAC for receiver-initiated is used. The hybrid method achieves up to 66.7% lesser delay compared to A-MAC protocol.
Routing is the methodology to discover the path/route among communicating nodes, in addition, to transmit the information data throughout the selected path in the form of packets. The main feature of routing is to select the path between the communicating nodes and to keep up the path up to the successful transmission of the information packets. In WSN, routingprotocol appearances an additional overhead in contrast by means of wireless transportation based sets of connections, due to its features such like mobility, heterogeneity within the movable nodes, the lack of an intermediate controller and peer to peer system. Furthermore, several routing protocols developed in WSN based on various frameworks, attributes, and features of the network. Utmost of the available routing protocols in WSN considered based on a variety of patterns consequently as to manage with network features of WSN . One of the major challenges in WSNs is efficient- energyrouting, since its applications are built-in disaster assistance, military, and health care. Throughout the assignment application, it is not at all possible to recharge or put back the battery. Various routing protocols designed are discussed in literature survey taking into consideration that the energy of the wireless nodes in WSN. Out of that one such routingprotocol is “energy aware routingprotocolbased on the reactive status of mobile nodes”. The intention of the development of this routingprotocol is to expand lifetime as well as to achieve energy-efficiency of the network in the system . The routing protocols, which are designed based on energy awareness i.e., selecting the routing path, connecting transmission nodes through the nodes which have utmost left over power or greatest residual energy, are reserving the several of the wireless nodes intended for transmission of the data information due to their higher remaining energy . This condition in the network known as blockage transitional node and bottleneck intermediary node drops the packet due to two reasons such as each of the wireless nodes does not have enough buffer to hold the traffic or its processor does not support the incoming packets in a transitory approach. Figure 1 show the bottleneck intermediate node's situation, in this node 4 becomes a bottleneck node .
We propose an optimized slot scheduling protocol that improves the energy efficiency of data transmission over industrial WSNs. In our approach, one big slot is allocated for all nodes at each tree level and shared by the nodes for data transmission to their respective parents. Since the nodes at the lower tree levels have to process much more data packets, thus have higher probability of collision. Our approach, therefore, suggests for a demand (length of a slot) based slot allocation according to tree level by a wait time generation function. The approach lowers the probability of collisions, thus minimizes the number of packet retransmission, which is definitely a major reason for energy wastage. We are also able to reduce the competition among nodes because only those nodes that belong to the same tree level are allowed to contend for wireless channel. Moreover, we optimize the energy consumption at various points in a big slot scheduling by allowing a node to enter sleep mode whenever possible. We analytically show that our approach is energyefficient and prove our claim by simulation experiments.
In the clustered routing architecture, nodes are grouped into clusters, and a dedicated node as cluster head collects, processes, and forwards the data from all the sensor nodes within its cluster. A cluster head is chosen from the nodes. Each node decides whether it will become a cluster head or not. If a node become a cluster head for one time, it cannot become cluster head again for P rounds, where P is the desired percentage of cluster head.
III. Energy Consumption Model: In this paper we apply a radio model proposed in  as radio energy model to measure energy consumption for proposed ANCBER algorithm. A Modular approach would be implemented to measure the energy consumption. The approach would consist of transmitter ,the receiver and the power amplifier module. The proposed hybrid protocol would optimize the energy by using cluster basedrouting in wirelesssensor network. The transmitter and the amplifier module would be responsible for energy consumption of the sender and the receiver module would be responsible for energy consumed at the receiving node .The signal power at the receiver node, the energy absorb by the transmitter and the time for transmitting and receiving the data traffic between the cluster would be measure. Based on the above parameters the proposed techniques would be compared and evaluated with the LEACH and HEED clustering algorithm.
The TDMA based scheduling is done based on the set-up phase and the steady state phase. Since each source node does not always have data to send, the duration of each frame is not fixed. Each frame consists of a schedule period and a data transmission period. During each schedule period, cluster head set up a TDMA schedule for collision-free intra-cluster communication. In the first schedule of each round, cluster head assigns the same time slot to cluster members. In the other schedule period, cluster head assigns different time slot to source nodes. Each data transmission period is divided into time slots equal to the number of source nodes in a cluster. Each source node sends its data and expected traffic load of next frame to the cluster head over its allocated transmission time slot, and keeps its radio off at all other time. All non-source nodes have their radios off during the data transmission period.
IRELESS Sensor Network (WSN) is basically combination of different technologies like wireless communication, information technology and electronics field . The concept of WSN is based on equation Sensing+CPU+Radio = Thousands of realtimeapplications .Sensor nodes in WSNs are small sized and have ability to sense, gather and process data while communicating with other nodes in the network, via radio frequency(RF) channel. The process of determining path between source and destination for data transmission is called as routing. In WSN network layer is mostly used for implementing routing of incoming data and designing routingprotocol is one of the challenging task in WSN. Due to node deployment recharging sensor node is normally impracticable. Therefore, energy saving is one of the important design issue in wirelesssensor network. Also, data transmission and reception dominates the energy consumption of sensors. Therefore, ultimate objective behind designing the routingprotocol should be energyefficient as possible to prolong the network lifetime. Various hybrid routing protocols have been proposed to meet the application requirements of WSNs.
ABSTRACT: Wirelesssensornetworks became an ever growing research area due to its wide variety of applications. WSN which consists of set of nodes deployed in a sensing filed is limited by battery power. So our aim is to increase the network lifespan by making the sensor zone energyefficient. Here we are proposing an integrated centralized with distributed zone based clustering approach to increase the network longevity by mitigating the energy consumption problem. Initially centralized approach is implemented to divide the deployed area into zones and to select primary and secondary zone masters. Each nodes sends their data to the corresponding primary zone master. Then it will forwards the collected data to the base station through an energyefficient optimal path. After each round, energy of primary and secondary is compared and one having the highest residual energy will become primary zone master and other become secondary. Here new zone masters get selected only if current zone masters energy is less than average energy. Our paper ensures uniform distribution of energy by selecting optimal number of zone masters and provides energyefficient data delivery through an optimal path.