3 While the analysisframework presented in this paper is general and is applicable to any energy policy, any sector, and any country, the study summarized in this paper targets energy efficiency programs for the building sector within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The GCCregion consists of six Middle Eastern countries: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar. The GCCregion has the largest oil and natural gas reserves in the World . The economies for all the GCC countries depend almost exclusively on fuel exports and therefore are significantly dependent on oil and natural gas prices that have been fluctuating significantly in the last decade. Moreover, GCC countries have the highest energy consumption per capita as illustrated in Figure 2 especially since 1990’s. Indeed, the GCCregion is experiencing a significant growth in energy demand over the last two decades mostly due to rapid population growth and heavy energy subsidies. Specifically, Figure 2 indicates that the residential electricity consumption per capita is significantly higher in the GCC countries than in the G-7 countries throughout the 1990-2014 period . Recently, GCC governments have indicated stronger interest in reducing dependence on energy resource revenues and diversifying their economies. Linked to this interest, an emerging focus on energyproductivity, which aims to maximize the economic and social benefits from each unit of energy consumed [6-7, 14].
Energy operations and its consumption investigations turned into a critical region for the examination plans and for implementing diverse applications of the energyanalysis in all types of buildings around the world for purpose of measuring and decreasing the energy use. Thus, arranging energy consumption study needs great reproduction abilities keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend and break down the building practices which will prompt outline enhanced and developed models for regeneration which reflect its distinctive implementations. This paper highlighted the main idea of energy consumption uses and the main studies for real case studies of conventional building (M-building) in Sweden under the view of LEAP software as a simulation tools for measuring energy consumption and replications. The study shows that by apply the three situations in the consumption scenario (Baseline, Mitigation and applied Energy Consumption); a time frame calculation will be clearly identified through its diverse key assumptions (demands, transportation and resources) and also to produce a wide range of logical adjustable analysis for these conventional buildings. Also, the simulation in this study has taken a place in the evaluation analysis process, LEAP which has found that the conventional buildings with a less or no efficient implementations could highly request more energy for heating and cooling between 60 Kwh/ and 160 Kwh/ yearly, while the Swedish sustainable buildings request less energy between 40 Kwh/ and 100 Kwh/ yearly. This simulation and evaluation was made in the average outdoor temperature for four different weather conditions (7.7 ℃, 4.8℃, 1.8℃ and -1.7℃) according to Stockholm Annual Weather Averages .
Performing an energy retrofit can be a great challenge for small and medium office buildings without many energy management resources. The framework presented in this paper allows building owners, project managers, architects, and engineers with no expertise in energy management to maximize energy savings and understand the building’s energy consumption though a relatively simple but thorough bottom-up approach. With the assistance of a free online retrofit toolkit (CBES), the 8-step framework leads to significant savings. Although these savings vary depending on the building’s specific conditions and characteristics, they can be as large as 50% of total energy consumption, as shown by the presented casestudy. This framework is recommended for small and medium office building owners who cannot invest in an energy audit or specialized professional. Larger and more resourceful office buildings are recommended to hire an expert team to perform a detailed energy audit and analysis that will lead to the most cost-effective retrofit solutions for the building.
The focus of some research is the importance of ecological and healthy design. Environmental awareness is now not only constrained to energy savings, but also is contained within eco- logically sound construction, i.e. minimum energy input, resource consumption, and pollution production as a part of the production, installation, and use of insulation materials  . By using natural building materials in structures, human health can also be posi- tively influenced  . Natural building materials regulate internal air humidity well and their characteristic aromas have a posi- tive effect on the human psyche. In a straw bale test house in Germany, several important properties were systematically mea- sured and showed excellent results for healthy living conditions  . Organic materials are generally water vapour permeable and can accumulate moisture by adsorption from the air. Other favourable properties of organic materials are the moisture absorption capac- ity into the internal porous system at increased air humidities, and
According to the model generated, insulated surfaces decrease the energy used in dwellings, with exception of the insulation of piping which tended to increase energy use. A more detailed analysis should be undertaken to discover the reason for this. Energy use also tends to decrease in newer buildings and in non- detached dwellings. The presence of a thermostat, garage, shed and basement tend to increase energy use, probably because they affect the behaviour of the users, for example, in their use of rooms or heating in these areas. Having an open kitchen decreases energy use, probably because of the heat generated by cooking and the use of appliances. The presence of a bath increases energy use related to water heating.
The use of disturbance predictions, in particular weather predic- tions, for building climate control has been investigated in several works [4–8,2] . A link to the cited papers and a more extensive bib- liography can be found on the OptiControl website  . In these studies the predictive strategies are shown to be more efﬁcient when compared to conventional, non-predictive strategies for ther- mal control of buildings. In  the authors compared different predictive controllers taking into account weather predictions with a non-predictive strategy for a solar domestic hot water system. The simulation results showed that in particular for a small stor- age tank, the predictive control strategies achieved a lower energy cost compared to the non-predictive strategy. In [10,11,8] the use of a short-term weather predictor based on observed weather data for the control of active and passive building thermal stor- age was explored. The predicted variables included ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. In  the implementation of MPC for a chilled water plant was investigated. A predictive control strategy using a forecasting model of outdoor air temperature was investigated in  for intermittently heated radi- ant ﬂoor heating systems. The experimental results showed that the predictive control strategy saved between 10% and 12% energy dur- ing the cold winter months compared to the existing conventional control strategy. In  the authors described the testing of MPC for a heating system on a real building in Prague. Energy savings in a predictive Integrated Room Automation (IRA) were investigated in  . The proposed model predictive strategy manipulated the passive thermal storage of the building based on predicted future disturbances while respecting comfort bounds for the room tem- perature. The predictive control outperformed the non-predictive control because the room temperature could be kept within its comfort bounds with minimum energy, i.e. low energy cost actu- ators were exploited as much as possible. The effect of automated blinds and lighting control on heating and cooling requirements were studied in  ; the authors investigated the reduction of the annual primary energy usage in building climate control for the case of Rome. In the study of  , the inﬂuence of occupant behavior on energy consumption was investigated in a single room occupied by one person. The simulated occupant could manipulate six controls, such as turning on or off the heat and adjusting clothing. The sim- ulation results showed that occupant behavior signiﬁcantly affects the energy consumption in the room.
Similarly, most of the intensities will also increase to deliver higher levels of comfort (Fig. 3). Space cooling and lighting intensity in Chinese buildings are still low compared to developed countries. With economic development, people demand more energy services to provide a more comfortable working and living environment. Because of this, energy use will increase, unless intensity increases are offset by increases in efﬁciency. In commercial buildings, more ofﬁce equipment will result in more energy use per ﬂoor area. We assume that energy intensity will grow rapidly, for example, with brighter lighting of retail space or thermostats set at lower temperatures in the summer. The use of ofﬁce equipment will also grow signiﬁcantly, resulting in higher energy use per ﬂoor area in ofﬁce buildings. The energy consumption of China’s air conditioner users has increased dramatically, to a current level of about 15% of national power consumption. In the summer, electricity consumed by air conditioning accounts for 40% of the of peak load. Space heating stands out as the exception, since building shell improvements allow consumers to reach higher levels of comfort with the same energy consumption. Currently, heat loss through exterior walls is about 3–5 times as high in Chinese buildings as in similar buildings in Canada or Japan. Loss through windows is over twice as high. Additional major losses are caused by imbalances and inability to control heat use in central heating systems, commonly forcing consumers to open windows as the only means to regulate overheating. We project signiﬁcant improvements on both these fronts.
A life-cycle (LC) model has been implemented for a Portuguese single-family house. The ﬁrst goal is to characterize the main LC processes (material production and transport, heating, cooling, maintenance) assessing seven alternative exterior walls for the same house to identify environmentally preferable solu- tions. The second goal is to compare the results of three life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods – CED (cumulative energy demand), for primary energy accounting; CML 2001 (Institute of Environmental Sciences of Leiden University) and EI’99 (Eco-indicator’99), for multiple environmental impacts – to deter- mine the extent to which the results of a life-cycle assessment are inﬂuenced by the method applied. The results show that the most signiﬁcant LC process depends on the operational pattern assumed. Regard- ing the assessment of the exterior wall alternatives, the results indicate the wood-wall is the preferable solution. Non-renewable CED shows results similar to abiotic depletion (CML 2001) and resources (EI’99) categories, as well as some correlation with climate change/global warming potential (GWP), acidiﬁcation and eutrophication. However, no correlation was found with the remaining impact categories. Comparing CML 2001 and EI’99 categories, GWP, ozone layer depletion, abiotic depletion, acidiﬁcation, and eutroph- ication present robust results that permit a straightforward comparison between the two LCIA methods. Nevertheless, CML results present slightly higher impacts for the use phase, while EI’99 for material pro- duction. In addition, the two LCIA methods can present inconsistent results between similar categories (different ranking of alternatives), which ultimately can inﬂuence the choice among solutions.
The electricity dispatch curve is also an important parameter for the smart grid operations. Since, the oil and natural gas reserves are abundant in the region, the power generation depends entirely on these two sources. In Table 1, we present the generation mixture of the member countries over the years. The table reveals an interesting fact that the cost of producing electricity is quite different among the members. For instance, Qatar and Bahrain have plenty of natural gas resources, hence hundred percent of the electricity is generated by fossil fuels. However, relying entirely on natural gas reduces the ramping capabilities of the generation, therefore, these countries have to waste a sizable portion of their resources on not necessary lighting of skyscrapers. On the other hand, countries like Saudi Arabia and Kuwait produce a significant portion of the electricity through diesel generators. Considering the cost and negative environmental impacts of such generators, the interconnection of power grids would provide a good level of savings. For instance, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia could purchase electricity from Qatar and eliminate the need for running diesel generators. Moreover, the GCC members are seeking ways to accommodate the growing demand in through diversifying their generation portfolio. United Arabic Emirates is building nuclear power
Most heat transfer is mitigated by the insulation within the walls. However, the wall must be able to hold the weight of the roof, the weight of wind pressing against the sides and snow loads on top of the roof using structural studs; studs, whether aluminium, wood or another material, act as a “thermal bridge” and thereby reduce the thermal resistance per linear foot relative to their prevalence within the construction of the exterior wall (Wujek & Dagostino, 2010, p. 44). The calculation for the prototype building will consider a standard construction framing structure of studs placed along the canter of the wall at 16 inches on-canter. The framing material for all comparative buildings will be 2x6 wood studs because the material is easily accessible in the U.S. and the thermal bridge effect is the least among common construction materials.
Whilst a well-established literature on metrics to assess innovation performance exists, relatively little work has linked it to the energy technology innovation process. This paper systematically brings together indicator sets and derives an indicator framework for measuring energy innovation, offering an important step forward in the quantitative evaluation of energy innovation performance. It incorporates input, output and outcome metrics that relate to different stages along the energy technology innovation chain, namely research, development, demonstration, market formation and diffusion. To test its efficacy, the indicator framework is applied to the case of wind energy in China, drawing comparisons against global market leaders such as Denmark, Germany and the USA. The paper finds that the framework enables a more rigorous comparative analysis of energy innovation between countries than currently offered by either the application of piecemeal indicators and complements contextually rich qualitative case studies. The empirical analysis shows that China has begun to lead across a range of innovation inputs (e.g. R&D expenditure) and outputs (e.g. publications) but lags considerably behind international competitors against other output and outcome indicators such as patents, revenue and exports.
The CSR activities lead to the upliftment of the destitute among the society. Banks established according to the principles of any religion may have more inclination towards fulfilling their religious duties as well as their social duties by practicing CSR. On the other hand Conventional banks guided by their moral duties and social and mandatory compulsions for undertaking CSR activities. The study examines the preferences and patterns of both the kinds of banks. The study also compares their CSR practices. An effort is also made to evaluate the effects of Islamic Tenets on the CSR practices. The study also looked into the preferences of the banks regarding CSR Collaborating Agencies. Casestudy method, Content Analysis and Dimension Score Analysis have been undertaken to fulfill the objectives of the study. The study reveals that the Islamic Banks are more innovative in their CSR practices and the effects of Islamic Tenets could be envisaged in their practices. Conventional banks are at par with the Islamic Banks as far as the CSR practices are concerned. The international organizations like UN, UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO etc can play vital role in directing the banks about the CSR patterns, CSR activities, the deserving geographical regions. Collective and coordinated efforts of such international organizations, corporate world, Government Agencies etc can make this world a better place to live.
In many countries, Islamic banks coexist with conventional commercial banks. This coexistence does not pass without facing key challenges in competing between the two, especially on the global stage, making it imperative upon Islamic banks to deal with risks faced by their peers the conventional banks, while also conforming to international standards (Abdullah, Shahimi, & Ismail, 2011). There is a pressure to apply the same regulation for both types of banks, and thus a common legal framework is generally developed. No separate regulatory laws have yet been set to govern the operations of Islamic banks. It is common for Islamic banks to operate under the laws governing commercial banks (Abdullah, Shahimi, & Ismail, 2011)
Al-Mokhtar Doctrine for the Hanbali School is that it is permissible according to the words of Mardaawi, may Allah be merciful to him: "In the case where money is needed, there is nothing wrong with buying the equal of one hundred with one hundred and fifty.” stating his doctrine and that of his companions, on the subject of tawarruq. However Imam Ahmad expressed two opinions, one is repugnance and the other tended towards prohibition and the scholar Bin Taymiyyah and his student Bin Alqaeem Al Jawziyyah, may Allah be merciful to them, tended toward prohibition.(Al- Mardawi, 1979).
Since the financial crisis, the economy is moving more and more towards a world of finance more accountable and equitable. Islamic finance, which is based on ethics and Islamic law of transactions, is part of this movement while putting the real economy at the heart of the system. To compete with conventional finance, Islamic finance faces challenges comparable to that of conventional finance performance. The objective of this study is to combine a religious dimension in the study of Islamic banking performance, for the review of existing literature has shown us that it is represented mainly by the financial and economic indicators quantitative or quantifiable at when the main objective of Islamic banks is not financial. Taking support on the case of the bank "Zitouna" we used a qualitative measure based on a questionnaire sent to bank customers while focusing on the variables religion, the core of an Islamic bank and the variable satisfaction indicator of ethical performance.
Islamic banking system claims to present a progressive business plan very much in line with the teaching of Islam. The origin of banking is traced back to the very birth of Islam during which Prophet (PBUH) himself worked for his wife in carrying her trading operations. It was a true pattern of partnership where the owner supplying capital while the Prophet (PBUH) provided labor and management capability to run the business. Each partner shared the responsibility in an agreed and pre-determined split of the profit and loss. There are over 1.6 billion Muslims around the world, of these nearly 62% live in Asia-Pacific, approximately 20% in the Middle East- North Africa, 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa, while only 3% live in Europe and America. In fact, more Muslims live in India and Pakistan (344 million combined) than in the entire Middle East-North Africa region. Majority of these Muslims are keen to see that their banking needs are handled strictly in accordance with the teaching of Islam.
This study aimed to test the behavioral determinants that affect customers ' savings deposits in Islamic banks in Saudi Arabia of a sample of three Islamic banks are: AlRajhi Bank, Bank AlBilad, and Alinma Bank, this study has adopted the primary sources of data collection and analysis model of study through the form, use the duplicate analysis and analysis of averages, and the results and test hypotheses of this study confirmed that the Islamic Bank branches and spread geographically, and religious belief, and the ratio of dividends to investment accounts in Islamic banks Is one of the most important parameters influencing the customer deposit their savings in Saudi Islamic banks, while the reputation of the Bank and its fame has no effect on the decision of the client handle. The study recommends that the Islamic banking policies and stable pricing savings products, where there is a large variability in returns payable by applicants, and thus ensure that the volatility levels and sizes of deposits have Islamic banks should develop its business through a culture of Islamic banking, and development of awareness for customers.
Against this view of the conventional sociology, the new institutionalism in sociology began to argue that many of these institutional forms and procedures used by modern organizations were not only the product of efficiency or transcendent rationality rather are culturally-specific practices, akin to myths and ceremonies of many societies. The new institutionalism in organization theory takes a rather different starting point. As we will see in the coming lines that he new institutional economics sees institutions as the deliberate creations of instrumentally oriented individuals; organization theorists argue that while institutions arise out of human activity, they are not necessarily the products of conscious design. Economics is often seen defining institutions in two contexts –rules of game and organization. There is an interesting analytical point to be made about the two different concepts of “institutions”-rule of game versus organizations- and their relationship to economics. Douglas North differentiates between organizations and institutions in his comparative study of economic performance as players versus rules. The purpose of the rule is to define the way game is played while the purpose of a team of players within those rules is to win the game by combinations of skills, strategy and coordination [Khalil (1995)]. Khalil (1995) defines organizations as agents like households, firms and states that has preferences and objectives. Institutions are formal and informal social constraints (rules, habits, constitutions, laws, and conventions) which reduce the available resources available. Thus in describing “institutions” either as “rules of the game” or as “organizations” there are both formal and informal characteristics to be considered. Economists concern is whether these institutions are real schemes, which define the cognitive ability of the agent as whether they are subject to optimization rationality and are nominal social constraints. The following matrix can differentiate the different paradigms in economics related to the issue of organizations versus institutions.
The influence of energy to any organization cannot be over looked, so, all organization must manage energy to a large extent if only to ensure its availability. Energy management involves the strategic optimization of every &&&. System and procedures so as to reduce overall energy requirements without compromising quality or standards of performance (8) for profit oriented organizations, it entails the effective and judicious use of energy to maximize profits, minimize costs and enhance competitive positions (3). Improving energy efficiency is a keys strategy in making the world‘s energy system are economically and environmental sustainable. Energy management is the equally of vital importance to environmentalist who are ever concerned about the damage to the environment of harmful waste discharged from the use of non-renewable sources of energy. By reducing emissions, energy management is an important part of lessening climate change. Energy management facilitates the replacement of non-renewable energy.
With an aim to explore the current Islamic banking scenario of Bangladesh, this study examines the key concepts of Islamic banking and its history in the world and in Bangladesh as well. This secondary data based research meets its objectives of reviewing relevant concepts, history and current performance of the Islamic banks of Bangladesh through both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From the establishment of first Islamic bank in 1983, this country has currently eight Islamic banks. Except one individual bank (ICBIBL), most of the Islamic banks show remarkable growth in their profitability in the last decade. One reason behind this consistent negative figure in profitability of this bank is the frequent change of ownership. But overall significant contribution of the Islamic banks in the banking industry is visible from the research. This paper provides up-to-date scenario of the Islamic banking in Bangladesh.