All proponents of thinkingskills (critical, creative,...) emphasize the relevance of thinking for many aspects of life, not just those usually associated with "thinking." For example, the CriticalThinking Community says, "Criticalthinking is the art of taking charge of your own mind. Its value is simple: if we can take charge of our own minds, we can take charge of our lives." In another page they describe the centrality of thinking, and a common educational problem: "Criticalthinking is not an isolated goal unrelated to other important goals in education. Rather, it is a seminal goal which, done well, simultaneously facilitates a rainbow of other ends. It is best conceived, therefore, as the hub around which all other educational ends cluster. For example, as students learn to think more critically, they become more proficient at historical, scientific, and mathematical thinking. Finally, they develop skills, abilities, and values crucial to success in everyday life. Recent research suggests that criticalthinking is not typically an intrinsic part of instruction at any level. Students come without training in it, while faculty tend to take it for granted as an automatic by-product of their teaching. Yet without criticalthinking systematically designed into instruction, learning is transitory and superficial."
The results of this study showed no statistically signifi- cant positive correlations between demographic data and CTS. While Zhang and Lambert (27) and Noohi et al. (28) reported that a number of positive and negative correlations exist between demographic data and criti- cal thinkingskills. The lack of correlation between de- mographic data and CTS in the present study might be attributed to the characteristics of universities and their students; Mahmoodabad et al. (29), in a study from Iran, reported that students attending larger universities are somewhat different considering their GPA and RUEE, and this may affect their CTS. Another probably reason is that many of the senior students in Kashan are employed as part time nurses in healthcare centers. Therefore, as Bit- tencourt and Crossetti (30) have reported, students that work part time have less time to spend on intellectual activities. It seems that when students are employed in clinical settings, they spend more time in performing nursing techniques and following the routines instead of using the scientific knowledge they learned at the univer- sity. Working according to the routines usually does not need much thinkingskills, and nurses simply follow the doctors’ orders. Working in this manner, would gradu- ally affect the nurses cognitive, criticalthinking and hu- manistic skills such as communication skills.
similar to the proposed end of semester examination. As some students, despite this incentive chose to omit these learning experiences the need for compulsory com- pletion of selected learning task seems advantageous. In unit planning, it would certainly seem desirable to ensure that knowledge and skills considered fundamental to chi- ropractic practice are included in diverse obligatory tasks. Consistent with the ethos of student centred learning, stu- dent unit evaluation provides useful feedback for future planning. In this instance, unit modifications in response to criticisms leveled at the format of the student presenta- tions promises to enrich the unit for future students. While retaining the central theme of demonstrating profi- ciency in critically appraising the literature, the delivery mode will be modified from student presentation to stu- dent debate. For example, instead of being asked to dis- cuss the scientific basis for the use of Echinacea, the challenge will be for 2 teams to use scientifically justifia-
From another point of view, it is worth noticing that learning can be an enjoyable process if the students realize that they are able to produce something. The challenge itself is a magnet. The fact that if someone likes something, then they will be more eager to work with that subject needs no proof. On the other hand, positive feelings may affect the level of students’ tolerance and endurance during the class time which is a very important factor per se. This assumption confirms the works of Lozanov (1978) in developing Suggestopedia (Desuggestopedia) in which students reach a state of creative pseudo-passivity letting them experience an internal super activity that allows them to learn. Likewise, in the current study, it was observed by the students’ parents, as well as the teachers that the students would become more attentive, do their homework more seriously, enhance their group work, be eager to initiate communication, volunteer in the class activities, ask good questions, answer questions intelligently, etc.
although reactions varied when students were asked to express themselves instead of listening to the teacher’s lecture, the researchers observed that some students’ attitudes toward geography course changed, and that some held critical views on the textbook content. nevertheless, when the teacher-dominant instruction turned into elite-dominant learning, students with good grades were more capable of, and responsible for, engaging in argumentation; they eventually gained better geography knowledge and learned how to make inquiries and judgments. the high achievement students were willing to discuss and were bold in presenting alternative ideas; however, the low achievement students’ contribution to the group was limited to facts rather than opinions based on analyzing and reasoning. consequently, the high achievement students benefitted the most from the group discussion and made remarkable progress after the instruction. those who passively participated in group discussion missed the criticalthinking opportunities as they lacked confidence, knowledge or the ability to argue and reason. teachers need to pay more attention to those students and to dispatch cognitive tasks to build up these students’ confidence and knowledge. in addition, further research should focus on exploring how to encourage low-achievement students to participate more actively in group discussion.
experimental groups, it was proven that the improvement in the analytical skills of the experimental group students was better on average than the control group. Therefore, teaching literary appreciation with CLA was effective, because it provided a positive effect for students in improving their skills to analyze short stories. In addition to that, teaching with the CLA could improve criticalthinkingskills and critical awareness in responding to social symptoms both in short stories and in real life. However, this must also be supported by providing reading materials or texts. The easier the texts are understood then the more critical the students become (Setyaningsih, 2019).
This finding suggests that the criticalthinkingskills of Latin American university graduates are less developed than that of their U.S. counterparts. By the time our students graduate, they meet or surpass U.S. 4-year college graduates in all criticalthinking categories except “Induction”, and in this category the gap is significantly reduced. This progress is remarkable since this was the lowest-scoring category when they entered the school. It is, however, the category where we would expect to see the greatest improvement given the teaching methodology. Finally, in the case of “Analysis” we even manage to close the gap with respect to U.S. post-graduates. Now we review the results of the California CriticalThinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI). Table 2 reports statistics for each component measured by this test. The upper panel reports the results for the 63 students who took that test shortly after entering the program; the lower panel reports the results for the 52 students who took the on the last day of class. While the CCTST results showed a noticeable improvement in almost all categories, the results are quite different for the CCTDI: the evidence in favor an improvement is weak at best.
www.ijstr.org improved. Mathematical learning must be designed according to the objectives stated in the curriculum . Students' thinking ability is still low, reinforced by Maharani and Waluya's research results, there are 23.33% of students included in the low category, 60% included in the medium category, and 16.67% of the high category . There needs to be a breakthrough to improve criticalthinkingskills through teaching materials. Good and innovative teaching materials can increase student creativity . Success in learning can be influenced by various factors, one of which is teaching materials used in learning mathematics . The use of teaching materials allows students to understand the material in a shorter and more enjoyable time . Teaching material that can be developed by a teacher is a module. The module is one type of teaching material prepared by educators and given to students to support the teaching and learning process, by using modules, students have the opportunity to learn independently . Based on the results of interviews and observations with students and teachers of mathematics at Al- Amin Muhammadiyah Sorong High School, schools still use the textbooks provided. The module used does not yet exist, but the results of the teacher interviews require interesting teaching materials and innovations to improve students' criticalthinkingskills that are still low.
Second instrument was Turkish version of the group assessment of logical thinking (GALT). The instrument was developed by Roadrangka, Yeany and Padilla (1982) for measuring logical thinking abilities and translated into Turkish by Aksu, Berberoğlu and Paykoç (1990). The GALT instrument was composed of 21 items that were selected from the items of other instruments (Lawson, 1978; Longeol 1968). The reliability coefficient of Turkish version of the GALT instrument was calculated as 0.88 (Aksu et al., 1990). The GALT instrument included six sub-scales; conservational reasoning (4 items), proportional reasoning (6 items), controlling variables (4 items), combinational reasoning (3 items), probabilistic reasoning (2 items), and correlational reasoning (2 items). The instrument included 18 double multiple-choice items (items 1 through 18) and three constructed-response items (items 19-21). In responding the items 1 through 18, students were posed with a problem supported with pictorial presentation and asked to choose the best answer (from 2 to 5 possible answers available) for each stated problem. Then, students were required to choose the best justification for the chosen answer from a list of 2 to 5 possible justification. In scoring of the participants’ scores on the GALT instrument, for the multiple-choice items, teacher candidates received 1 point for providing the correct answer with the correct reasoning behind it and 0 point when failed to detect any of them. For the constructed-response items, mathematics teacher candidates received 1 point for correct answers and 0 point for wrong answers.
interpersonal skill development, and ability to challenge one another, as well as build autonomy as a learning agency. Interactive online discussion has the capability to challenge students’ knowledge and beliefs, and introduce new ways of thinking about ideas and reflecting on their own learning journey (Browne & Freeman, 2000). According to Mory (2004), meaningful reflection contributes to students’ ability to recognize knowledge and alter beliefs. As such, online discussion is a useful platform where criticalthinking can be promoted (Stein, Wanstreet, Glazer, Engle, Harris, & Johnson, 2007). Apart from allowing students to discuss course topics at their convenience outside the classroom, interactive online discussion can be structured to move beyond a simple level of information exchange and foster higher levels of cognitive thinking (Garrison, 2003). In this regard, the model of critical inquiry proposed for this study can be used to provoke students’ criticalthinkingskills through online discussion. Bloom's Taxonomy is a widely accepted framework through which teachers can guide their students through the learning process, and peer feedback can be blended into the learning process as a tool to encourage students’ criticalthinking.
Teaching of criticalthinking is important in order to make sound decisions. If students learn to think critically, then they can use good thinking as the guide by which they live their lives (Beyer, 1995). Putting students in group learning situations is the best way to foster criticalthinking (Cooper, 1995). In this research, students of Environmental Science classes were given different group learning activities aimed at developing students’ criticalthinkingskills and Lasallian core values. This is parallel with Cooper’s statement in 1995, that in a properly structured learning environment, students perform more of the active, criticalthinking with continuous support and feedback from other students and the teacher.
In the Malaysian context, a study found that after eleven years of school, students are still unable to apply criticalthinking in their schools or real world situation (Rosnani and Suhailah, 2003; Konting et al., 2007). Besides, the Malaysian National Higher Education Research Institute (NHEM, 2003) conducted a study of unemployment problems among graduates. The study on 561 unemployed respondents showed that the respondents generally believed that they were well qualified and met all the requirements of the regular job market; however, their applications have been turned down due to the lack of CTS.
3. There is a significant relationship between criticalthinkingskills and the computer programming and Mathematics academic performance that requires problem solving skills, analytical skills, and algorithmic-logic formulation skills of the BSIT students. Since computer programming and mathematics subjects requires higher order thinkingskills, that is, to make the students analyze the problem first before presenting the result/output/solutions. It indicates that there is a need of infusing and developing criticalthinkingskills of the students as they move from one level to another.
Only 25 participants received a workbook, CriticalThinking: Building the Basics by Walter, Knudsvig, and Smith (2003). Students marked their answers directly on the pages in the book. In the introduction of the book, the authors address students directly, explaining how the skills they acquire from using the book will enable them to perform at a higher academic level in classes “across the curriculum in any course … and ensure that [students] have every opportunity to become a better learner and thinker” (p. vii). Using the Topic, Class, Description, Relevance (TCDR) strategy, students work through exercises, by answering the following questions found on page five:
Example answers from one of the students in Figure 2 above show that criticalthinkingskills in students are still low. Students have not been able to find the right strategy in solving these problems. Students have not been able to identify problems in the problem.Interviews were given to mathematics teachers in grade VII to find out the extent of students' thinkingskills. Based on the results of the interview, the following information is obtained: 1) The ability of students to ask and answer questions is still low. 2) Students think of the answers first before expressing them to the teacher, if the answers are felt to be incorrect then it will be discussed together. 3) Some students have not been able to observe or analyze examples of problem-solving correctly. 4) Not all students can solve the questions correctly after observing the examples of the questions given. 5) Some students have not been able to solve problems coherently, because it depends on the abilities possessed by each student. 6) Not all students can evaluate their work. 7) Not all students can explain the steps in solving problems. 8) Not all students can use other alternatives in solving problems, because it depends on the abilities possessed by each student. 9) There are still students who quickly give up if they have difficulty in working on the problems.
In Thinking Like Non-Lawyers: Why Empathy is a Core Lawyering Skill and Why Legal Education Should Change to Reflect Its Importance, 86 Gallacher recommends that law teachers change the way they teach legal reasoning, especially to first year law students, in order to make them more empathetically aware of the circumstances by which the court opinions they study arose and the effects those opinions will have on others. He argues that such changes will not only make lawyers better people, they will make them better lawyers. He examines the dangers inherent in an overemphasis on the ‘logical’ form of analysis taught in law schools, and explores real-life examples of logical thinking that failed to persuade non-lawyers in the form of a jury. He also looks at a successful example of empathetic lawyering to show how it can be more effective, and offers specific proposals to help law schools ameliorate the dangers of an over-emphasis on ‘thinking like a lawyer’. 87
Abstract: In regard to recent revolution in the education domain, English Language Teaching (ELT) assigns a sociopolitical dimension to itself in the light of Critical Pedagogy. The present study, in line with the recent educational revolution, aimed to investigate the effectiveness of criticalthinking on improving EFL learners‟ productive skills. The statistical population consisted of 164 pre-intermediate attendees of EFL in an English Language Institute in the city of Babol selected for taking an Oxford Placement Test (OPT). The participants were 80 Iranian pre-intermediate EFL students within 10-20-year range, enrolled in Shokouh English language institute in Babol, who were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups of (N=20) for each group during summer 2018 through the non-probability sampling design. Then, IELTS pre-intermediate speaking and writing tests were taken as the pre-test to make sure that they have failed to have a previous knowledge of objective structures. Unlike the control group, the participants in the experimental group were told to apply criticalthinking instructions in learning speaking and writing skills. After intervention, the same pretest was taken to the participants in both groups as the posttest to determine the result of gaining the medical aid. Independent and paired sample t-tests were run to answer the research questions. The results indicated that criticalthinking is highly contributive in learning productive skills. The findings of this study can be applied in methodological issues.
Slavin (2009) states that the cooperative strategy to develop relationships between groups, the acceptance of classmates who were weak in the academic field, and increase self-esteem of students, thus encouraging the growth of peer tutor awareness amongstudents. Questions raised by the students will lead students also enable the ability to perform its interpretation by trying to clarify his understanding of the subjects. The next step of Simas eric model is exploring, students read again the material carefully in attempt to answer the question. In the process of exploring those students will strive to clarify their understanding and critical reading so they can solve their questions. According to Zane (2013) part of the self regulation as students will be responsible for their own learning progress and adapt modes of learning in achieving the task demands. Self-regulation capability will also be activated for student self-reflection abilities, to self-correct and self-examination to be able to construct their understanding. Self-regulation occur when learning and problem solving, some studies show that self-regulation in learning has been used to improve academic achievement (Howse, at al., 2003: Perry, et al., 2007).
Abstract : The Higher Order ThinkingSkills (HOTS) is the ability to apply knowledge, skills and values in making reasoning and reflection to solve problems, make decisions, innovate and create something. This study is aimed at identifying the level and relationship of HOTS in criticalthinkingskills, problem solving skills, metacognitive skills and decision-making skills used amongstudents of Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Tun Hussein Onn (IPGKTHO). A total of 44 teacher trainees who had attended the HOTS course were involved as a sample of the study. Likert scale set with a four-point likert scale has been used in assessing this study. The results show that students of IPGKTHO can master all skills after they had been exposed and trained. The findings also show that there is a significant relationship at the very strong level between all the skills. In conclusion, HOTS is an important skill that teacher trainees must master.
Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the criticalthinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of criticalthinkingskills (p<0.05). Furthermore, evaluation skills and deductive reasoning had significant relationship. On the other hand, the mean total score of criticalthinking had significant difference between different learning styles.