The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between risk taking propensity, need for achievement, entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurialintentionamongUUMundergraduatebusinessstudents. 350 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents which consist of UUM School of Business Management (SBM) undergraduatestudents. A total of 338 questionnaires were returned, but only 335 questionnaires were useable for the further analysis. The data collected through this survey was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22. This study used convenience sampling method where the data collected from population members who are conveniently available to participate in the study. The descriptive analysis was used to determine the respondents‟ profile. Findings of this study revealed that two of the variables, risk taking propensity and need for achievement have positive significant relationship towards entrepreneurialintention. Meanwhile, another one variable, entrepreneurship education has no significant relationship towards entrepreneurialintention. This study could assist in developing, improving and implementing an effective entrepreneurship education. Moreover, it can aid government and also societies in generating the economy through the entrepreneurial activities. Finally, this study proposes several recommendations for future research.
Ahmed I., Nawaz M. M., Ahmad Z., Shaukat M. Z., Usman A., Rehman W., & Ahmed N., (2010). Determinants of Students’ Entrepreneurial Career Intentions: Evidence from Business Graduates. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 15, No. 2 Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organ Behav Hum Dec, 50, 179–211. Al-harran, S. (1957). the New Role of the Muslim Business University Students in the
The purposes of the study are relevant to the entrepreneurialintention of the graduate and non-graduate students as well as to measure the condition of the country (Bangladesh). For the convenience of the study we were selected various educational institute of Dinajpur district as the sampling area. Data were collected from the students of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur Govt. College and Dinajpur Govt. Women College. The numbers of respondents are 400 (graduate and non-graduate students). From 400 students we got 64 respondents who want to become entrepreneur. Based on these 64 respondents we were designed our study and analyzed the data. The analysis was a descriptive statistics where we have measure the value with frequency and Mean value of the data. We have done a correlation analysis to measure the relationship of the factors as well as to know the impact of the factors on determining the future plan (Dependent variable). So we have established a correlation between Aim in life and other influencingfactors.
The willingness of individuals as well as their capacity to begin, manage and organize a new business venture depends on a range of factors. For instance, individuals may display less entrepreneurialintention because of the high risks associated with business ventures; they may fail due to lack of financial support or insufficient knowledge on management. Several studies on entrepreneurship indicate that personal attributes of an individual such as cognitive abilities (Hansemark, 1998) as well as environmental factors such as training, education, support, etc. (Chen et al., 1998; Krueger et al., 2000) influence the entrepreneurial intentions of an individual. A similar classification of factors affecting entrepreneurialintention was intrinsic factors such as locus of control in the individual, level of independence, etc. and extrinsic factors such as unemployment rate in the region, available resources, institutional factors, etc. In summary, factorsinfluencingentrepreneurialintention denote a combination of internal and external resources that may or may not be available to the individuals. The recent trend in entrepreneurial research is to explore both the perspectives in an integrated fashion (Fayolle et al., 2006; Souitaris et al., 2007; Linan, 2008; Wu & Wu, 2008; Fitzsimmons & Douglas, 2011). Following the spirit of such studies, the current paper analyses the complexity of decision making associated with venturing into business in terms of psychological factors as well as social, academic and family support made available to the students.
In the world of entrepreneurship, the fundamental aspect that needs to be embedded in every business starter or business graduate is an entrepreneurialintention. Entrepreneurialintention is very much required in Indonesia, given the number of entrepreneurs today is less than 2% compared to other neighboring countries, like Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and even Vietnam. Moreover, there are only 17% of university graduates in Indonesia who are interested in entrepreneurship. This is due to the fact that the entrepreneurial career is not considered as an important career in Indonesia. Despite several entrepreneurial programs initiated to nurture a business mentality and awareness for the businessstudents, it does not make a significant change in their entrepreneurial behavior. Many of them do not have enough courage to deal with entrepreneurship. It is because the entrepreneurial orientation of the businessstudents is very weak, and there is a lack of self-efficacy to perform the business tasks. In addition, there is seldom any support from their parents and peer groups to make them motivated enough to initiate a business. The entrepreneurship programs like internship program and business incubation program in higher education institutions have failed to enhance the entrepreneurial spirit amongbusinessstudents. These entrepreneurship programs have not been implemented as it should be and desperately need more improvement. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of entrepreneurialintentionamongstudents in the economics and business faculty in Indonesia’s higher education institutions by determining the direct factors affecting entrepreneurialintention. By employing convenience sampling, a total of 381 questionnaires were successfully distributed to the businessstudents and could be used for this study. The usable questionnaires were examined by employing structural equation modeling (SEM). This study found that five predictors are significant factors with respect to entrepreneurialintention: entrepreneurial orientation, social support, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial internship program and business incubation program. To sum up, these factors of entrepreneurialintention are found to be essential elements for students to successfully start a business and contribute to increasing the number of young entrepreneurs in Indonesia.
In today’s competitive job environment, the total job opportunities are inevitably limited and thus one must compete to secure a job as job creation is limited (Ooi Yeng Keat, Christopher Selvarajah and Denny Meyer 2011). As a result, a lot of graduates are unable to get a job upon graduation. Students are now apparently searching for a business education that can equip them with the necessary entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to succeed in running business or to create a job from seizing existing entrepreneurial opportunities (Brown 1999; Henry 2003). Therefore many universities and colleges around the world have responded to this demand by introducing entrepreneurship career (Postigo and Tamborini 2002).
This study aims to examine entrepreneurialintentionamong micro business owner. Although there are many things in common when running a business and owning an entrepreneurial company, there are still differences between each other. During the initial stages, both business and enterprises startups are equally required hard work and commitment, but only a few micro business owners will become micro-entrepreneurs after the time period (Seth S., 2014). Despite this, creating a new business or starting a business is deliberated a Voluntary Conscious Process (Linan, et al., 2013). Throughout this research, the factorsinfluencingentrepreneurialintentionamong micro business owner can be studied.
Entrepreneurship education was the only external variable from students as individuals that had the greatest support in predicting entrepreneurialintention of students, with the acceptance rate of the hypothesis being tested at 80 percent. It indicated the important role of entrepreneurship education to foster aspiring young entrepreneurs in the future. The research findings supported the study of Frimpong (2014), which showed that entrepreneurship education had a positive impact on students’ intentions to establish business partnership after graduating from college. The findings of Raposo and do Paço (2011) had provided some indications about a positive link between entrepreneurial education and subsequent entrepreneurial activity. The findings of Wahidmurni, et al. (2019) found that in higher education institutions that succeeded in creating founders of startups in Indonesia, entrepreneurship education was set as compulsory courses and/or elective courses. Several courses of study programs were also integrated with entrepreneurship, support from extracurricular activities, guidance from business incubator institutions, and facilitation of universities that provide information on entrepreneurial events.
I would like to further my sincere appreciation to Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business (OYAGSB), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), the Student Affairs Department (HEA) and also the Student Accommodation Centre (SAC) who provided me with the data where my sample was drawn.
According to Garzón (2010), individual’s entrepreneurial competence plays a determinant role in the early stage of start- ing a business. McClelland (1961) indicates that adults’ entre- preneurial intentions can be predicted by the entrepreneurial competence in their childhood. Thereafter, some scholars study on individual’s entrepreneurial competences and their impact on entrepreneurial intentions from different perspectives (Bird, 1995; Chandler & Jansen, 1992; Chen, Greene & Crick, 1998). Man(2000) concludes that entrepreneurial competences are the integrated abilities by which entrepreneurs succeed in imple- menting entrepreneurial activities, including opportunity com- petencies, relationship competencies, conceptual competencies, organizing competencies, strategic competencies and commit- ment competencies. Even though at present a large number of researches about entrepreneurial competences exist, they sel- dom discuss the relationship between entrepreneurial compe- tences and entrepreneurial intentions. Schmitt-Rodermund (2004) concludes that student’s entrepreneurial competences refer to their leadership, curiosity and entrepreneurial skills which are influenced by personality traits and family’s education.
Online market is one of the industry that are currently developing and have many potential to become one of the best market in the world. Many entrepreneur have start to move from plain brick and mortar business to adopt both physical and online shops to set up their business and attract customers. There are also some entrepreneur that only focus on online commerce and only set up online shops to perform their business. Advancement in delivery services that now provided more services and allowed for a heavier and bigger products have made online business more convenience to perform by the entrepreneur and sought after by the consumer. Students are one of the prospects customers that have interest and skills to patronage and use online shopping. This study aim to identify and examine the factors that influence online purchase intentions among postgraduate students. Seven dimensions were used in this study consisting of product, price, promotion, product risk, delivery risk, privacy risk and financial risk. This study was conducted in UUM and 500 questionnaires were distributed and 394 of them were recovered and valid to be used as the sample for the study while 50 were lost and 56 were damaged and excluded from the study. This study reveals that the highest dimensions to affect online purchase intentions are products. Meanwhile delivery and financial risk dimensions are revealed to have no significant relationship with online purchase intentions.
These results thus confirm the findings of previous studies in terms of the significant relationship between entrepreneurialintention and entrepreneurship education, attitude toward performing the behaviour; subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The study showed that Ghanaian tertiary student will go into entrepreneurship venture because of the expected result and outcome. They believe that it will give them security after pension give them a job and help them achieve their self-actualization needs thus the total utility they expect to obtain from an entrepreneurial venture, is more than the expected utility from the best employment they can get in the job market , , . In fact this may explain why factors like government policies and scheme, fear of unemployment were not a significant indicator. The research as already indicated also revealed that more exposure is a significant indicator meaning in the view point of the Ghanaian university student, values, thinking, beliefs and experience of existing entrepreneurs and significant others have a huge influence on their intention . This is very significant in developing entrepreneurship training programs for the university students. Emphasis should be place on bringing in more successful Entrepreneurs to share their stories and creating mentorships. The introduction of targeted entrepreneurship programs, internships, creation of business incubators, coupled with industry and university partnerships can be very productive in nurturing the entrepreneurial spirit among university students in Ghana. The study also support  view that entrepreneurship education gives students experience and build their self- efficacy thus influencing their entrepreneurialintention
Like most of the developing countries, Nigeria is facing the problem of youth unemployment. Among the strategies used by these countries to overcome this problem is to get their youths to be engaged in entrepreneurial activities with the ultimate objective of becoming self-employed and self-reliant. Similarly in Nigeria, the government has introduced several policies aimed at eradicating poverty by encouraging self-employment among youths. One of such policies is the introduction of entrepreneurship education into the curriculum of higher education which is aimed at promoting and inculcating entrepreneurship amongst the university students. Hence, this study examines the determinants of entrepreneurialintentionamongundergraduatestudents at Nigerian Universities. Primarily, this study explored the role of entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial education, and self-efficacy on students’ intention to become entrepreneurs. A total of 242 students who have taken business related subjects from Bayero University Kano (BUK), Nigeria and Bauchi State University Gadau (BASUG) participated in this study. The results showed that all the independent variables; entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial education and self-efficacy are significantly and positively related to entrepreneurialintention. The findings of this study provided useful inputs for the Nigerian Ministry of Education with regard to designing a more beneficial and comprehensive entrepreneurship related course contents and curriculum in Nigerian universities. This is aimed at preparing the students for self-employment as entrepreneurs which will assist the government’s efforts in overcoming youth unemployment and poverty in Nigeria.
Entrepreneurialintentionstudyamong the university students at the MIT School of Engineering. The structural model of entrepreneurial intent consists of three main components: personal traits, attitude, and intention towards entrepreneurial behaviors. The model proposes that the intention to become a business founder is moderated by the attitude about entrepreneurship. Their model proposes a direct impact of the perceptions of contextual factors on entrepreneurial intentions. Hence, the environment is assumed to be responsible for the lack of a perfect attitude-intention correlation. A student might be willing to set up a company (regardless of his comparatively bad attitude towards entrepreneurship) because he perceives the founding conditions are very favorable (trigger- effect). Inversely, graduates with a positive attitude towards new venture creation may not decide to start their own business due to a negative perception of salient factors in the environment. This line of reasoning is known in attitude models as the contextual influence on the attitude-behavior-relationship .
The survey instrument included nine normal demographic items such as age, year in school, and major field of study. It also included other factors identified as relevant from existing research studies on the topic, such as frequency of parental and personal travel, level of parents’ education, and educational aspirations beyond an undergraduate degree. The survey also included an additional 57 items that were developed from conversations with faculty experienced in developing or leading study abroad experiences, international program directors, and students themselves. The latter group of items included questions that dealt with issues relating to money, curriculum, family, and safety and cultural concerns. Dependent variables and list items contained Likert-type response continua ranging from “not at all” (response score = 1) to “to a very great extent” (response score = 5).
In presenting this research paper in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Post Graduate degree from the Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), I agree that the Library of this university may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying this research paper in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor(s) or in their absence, by the Dean of Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business where I did my research paper. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this research paper or parts of it for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to the UUM in any scholarly use which may be made of any material in my research paper.
Entrepreneurialintentionamongstudents has been getting attention from numerous of researchers. It has been considered as an important phenomenon that becomes very famous among today‘s youth and students in most countries across the globe. This study aims to revisiting the effect of a number of internal and external factors revealed in previous studies on entrepreneurialintention, and examining the importance of conducive business environment at the university that affecting the entrepreneurialintentionamong postgraduate students. The total number of respondents chosen randomly to participate in this study was 357 postgraduate students from Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). Using questionnaires, the data is collected from students in classes, in the library, and online. The Smart-PLS 3 as one of the leading software tools for partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to test the hypotheses. The study results display that self- efficacy is the only factor from internal factors that has a positive and significant effect; while, in term of the external factors, financial support, family support; likewise, role model and entrepreneurial education, as the dimensions of the university environment, have positive and significant relationships with entrepreneurialintention. The results suggest that entrepreneurialintention has the potential to be supported more in the universities to create the supportive environment that promotes intention of postgraduates to choose their future career in entrepreneurship sectors.
From the finding, it is indicated that students have positive way of thinking to become entrepreneurs as their career choice. High attitude towards self- employment actually indicates that the respondent is more in favour of self-employment than organizational employment (Kolvereid,1996). However, it can be assumed that students were not accessed to the capital, social network and supporting information to start as entrepreneurs. As social network is a business tool that plays a significant role in the success of the entrepreneurs (Salwah, Siti Mistima & Norhatta, 2013), networking is important for entrepreneurs to gain access to resources, business ideas, capital and information. UniKL students should be equipped with necessary skills, experience and exposure if they want to start their own business after completion of their study.
Ajzen’s (1985), theory of planned behavior explains students’ personal belief or personal confidence on becoming an entrepreneur. This idea received strong support from the motivational factors’ literature. For instance, several recent studies were conducted using a direct effects model to study perceived behavioural control based on different samples, such as perceptions of 440 undergraduate university students in Macedonia (Debarliev et al. 2015), 208 students in German university (Tegtmeier 2012) and 222 university students from International University Malaysia (IIUM) (Muhammad et al. 2013). These studies found that students’ self-efficacy (e.g., confidence, capabilities and skills) had influenced their intention to become an entrepreneur (Moriano et al. 2012). Thus, it was hypothesized that: