At present, certified and eco-labelled food products represent one of the fast growing food markets, with a growth rate at 20–25% per annum (Pelletier & Tyedmers 2008). The rapid development of diverse certification and eco-labelling systems underscores the need to standardize criteria to provide producers with clear guidelines and reduce consumers’ confusion (Pelletier & Tyedmers 2008). There are now many certification initiatives and consumer awareness programmes focusing on food safety, animal welfare, environmental protection and social risk assessment standards. However, few of them are life-cycle based and fully cover all relevant environmental issues. Developing robust measures of sustainability and its assessment tools have been highlighted by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) aquaculture dialogues (Bostock et al. 2010). Life cycle assessment is one of the key approaches that can provide a relatively comprehensive measure of the sustainability in the seafood sector to inform certification and eco-labelling criteria. It helps to identify key environmental impacts in the product life cycle that can be used as certification or eco-labelling criteria (Mungkung et al. 2006). Mungkung et al. (2006) identified abiotic depletion, global warming and eutrophi- cation as key environmental impacts for shrimp aquacul- ture that could be covered by eco-labelling criteria. Other important impacts including depletion of wild brood- stock, impacts of trawling for fishmeal species on marine biodiversity, the choice of suitable farm sites, disease spread and release of invasive species could not be quan- tified by traditional LCA. They can be included as ‘hurdle criteria’ and qualitatively described in the expanded LCA (Mungkung et al. 2006).
The INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, which concluded in 2013, emphasises sustainable development in the general objective of the programme and in two specific objectives. With regard to implementation, activities relating to the sustainable management of the environment have fallen into three main areas: cooperation on sea-related issues, exploring new ways to collaborate on integrated coastal zone management and marine strategies at a North Sea level; addressing water issues such as droughts and salt water intrusion into groundwater, adapting to rising sea level and flooding, and modelling and prediction tools at different scales; and low-carbon energy production and distribution around the North Sea. In terms of improving accessibility, transport projects have integrated energy issues, encompassing new approaches for more environmentally-friendly ships and shipping and enabling airports to address environmental challenges. Sustainable and competitive communities have been promoted through focusing on issues faced by the urban fringe and rural areas, with initiatives to improve services and environmental quality and increase energy efficiency. Overall, projects have supported technological change, derived compatibility between economic growth and environmental improvements, and increased the number of new environmental business opportunities.
This study, which benefits from reconnaissance surveys and recent literature on spatial degradation, examines the environmental and anthropogenic challenges in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. It argues that the visible environmental restrictions posed by hydro-climatic, vegetal and geomorphic related occurrences are not significant to prohibit the development of the region. Specifically, the study observes that anthropogenic activities which strongly defied sound environmental principles are accountable for the protracted spate of environmental pollution, cycle of underdevelopment, unemployment, widespread poverty, occurrence of diseases, and human rights violations in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. Based on its findings, the study recommends a number of realistic measures to reposition the region towards the path of sustainable development. These measures include urgent remediation of vastly polluted environment, routine monitoring of the region using satellite remote sensing, adequate infrastructural provisions matched with effective maintenance culture, amendments of mineral derivation, control and utilization laws, provision of reliable jobs to the immediate communities, and harnessing of hydro-climatic resources for permanent safety of the region’s infrastructures. These measures require the integrated efforts of different environmental experts and authentic cooperation of indigenous communities, crude oil industries and the federal government of Nigeria to succeed.
20 the ERA protection goals, procedures and basic data requirements among countries, but it is not without faults and science-based tools and results need still to be debated and potentially incorporated into revised versions (Lillicrap 2018). Taking a step forward, it would be useful if a common and widely validated ERA modelling approach could be developed for at least those countries that rely on generic ERAs. In this regard, the selection of a suitable set of exposure models, which cover the main species and environmental scenarios in Europe, would be beneficial for various reasons. Firstly, it would help in directing economic efforts towards its improvement, testing and validation. Secondly, different stakeholders (i.e., risk assessors, regulators, farm managers) can be better acquainted with its use, and thirdly this will prevent different levels of ERA and enforcement being taken among different member states. A common modelling strategy for ERA will also benefit from a set of ready-to-use realistic (worst-case) environmental scenarios that represent the main physico-chemical conditions, geographic regions and management practices within Europe, similarly to the approach adopted within the regulatory ERA of plant protection products (FOCUS 2001). The development of such a task for aquaculture would require that the major aquaculture zones in Europe are classified according to their environmental characteristics (e.g. current and bathymetry characteristics), and that main aquaculture production practices are identified for at least the key species produced. In this way, the toolbox should also be complemented with a set of specific protection goals that consider the temporal and spatial frame of allowable chemical effects, and ecological modelling tools that allow the prediction of population and community-level effects under such relevant spatial-temporal frames.
Throughout human evolution and history, significant advancement in human development has been accomplished with increase in energy consumption, espe- cially electricity, and this has a tie with population explosion. Energy consump- tion correlates with industrialization and standard of living of any society . It is indeed irrefutable that oil and gas exploration and production activities play a central role and have economic gains for countries that have such natural re- source. It provides wealth creation as well as building a sustained economy all over the world especially if well managed . However, it is worthwhile to state that there are negative consequences of crude oil extraction. Crude oil is a com- bination of oil, gas, water and other impurities. This gas associated with the crude oil is known as associated natural gas . Ideally this associated gas would have been harnessed and sold to consumers or for electricity generation. This however requires costly investment in pipelines, gas gathering facilities, power plants and others related infrastructure. In practice therefore, oil multinationals opt to sell the oil and flare the gas, which is known as gas flaring. In Nigeria, crude oil was discovered in commercial quantity in 1956 in Oloibiri, present day Bayelsa State, and ever since, gas has continually been flared. This is because at the time, the gas was seen as a nuisance by-product and much was not known about the potential of natural gas and its processing facilities were non-existent, therefore flaring was the only option. Another reason why there is continuous flare of gas is complacence of multi-national companies. On a global scale, Nige- ria is currently the seventh largest gas-flaring country as against the second larg- est over the last 10 years , indicating there are tremendous efforts to cut down gas flaring. In Nigeria, access to reliable and sustained supply of electricity is a major challenge for both the urban and rural dwellers. Several analyses of Nige- ria’s electricity supply problems and prospects posit that electricity demand far outstrips the supply . Nigeria generates barely 4000 MW of electricity, which is grossly inadequate for her population, but tremendously wastes a recognized source of energy for more than five decades now. It is against this back drop that this research is conceived to thermo-mechanically and environmentally assess issues of gas flaring, which if harnessed can be used to fire gas turbines, heat to generate steam for steam turbines, gas-to-liquid conversion using the Fisch- er-Tropsch process, collection, compression and reinjection into oil wells for enhanced oil recovery, and Liquefied Natural Gas and other perceived uses.
Cage farming is by large the most important production method of Tilapia in Ghana, with 33,000 tons mainly from Lake Volta in 2014. Tilapia production in cages in the lake had a growth over 500% since 2009. There are currently six large farms: West African Fish Ltd (Denmark), Tropo Farms (Nigeria/Germany), Sunwoo (Korea), Maleka (Lebanon), Triton (India) and Lee’s Farm (Taiwan). The main bottlenecks for these farms are the high price of feed, the lack of fingerlings and qualified employees. Also a major bottleneck occurs in the southern part of Lake Volta and specifically in shallow side channels, due to a lack of oxygen during February and July, August and September. These farms experience another bottleneck in getting permission to access sites with more favourable conditions. In Ghana only the local Akosombo strain of Tilapia can legally be cultivated. An opportunity is another more performant Tilapia strain. The Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) is already present at CSIR only for research purposes but has not been released for culture yet. Most respondents are in favour of the introduction of GIFT due to strong indications of about 50% faster growth (specific growth rate) than the Akosombo strain. An environmental risk assessment has not been completed. This results in a bottleneck in decision-making with governmental agencies, which cannot be completed.
The empirical result from this study provides evidence of the existence of the EKC for West African Countries as a group. The income turning point is estimated to range between US$4,240.83 and US$4,698.91. This shows that West African Countries are still on the upward sloping region of the EKC. Hence carbon emission is still on the increase. The per capita income of Countries in West Africa is still far below this estimated income turning point and as such economic growth is still generally seen as the dominant policy objective in the region. This trend may continue until per capita income reaches a high level sufficient enough to induce development or procurement pollution abatement technology in production. It is important however, to advise at the juncture that developing countries in general should not wait until they reach this high income turning point to reconcile economic growth and environmental improvement. For any given pollutant, an EKC will only exist when policy measures are taken. The pollution income relation will be monotonically rising if the government remains inactive. The strongest link between income and pollution is via the induced policy response.
115 Similarly, when the DWASA was set up in 1963, as a public sector utility to cater for potable water, sewerage and storm water drainage for the city, it prepared a Sewerage Master Plan on the basis of maximum of 2-story housing which became irrelevant with time and rapid rate of rise of population. In the late nineties DWASA carried out a number of feasibility studies to look into ways of improving the sewage management in the city and based on the results has subsequently launched a number of augmentation projects, both for increasing the sewer network and also for treatment of sewage at new sewage treatment plants to be set up. As part of these efforts to augment the sewer system in the city, five new sewage treatment plants (Diabari, Tongi, Uttarakhan, Baderteik and Kamrangir Char) along with pipelines and ancillary structures are planned to be developed. An initiative has also been undertaken to promote integrated water pollution management in the watershed of the DMDP region. Recently two initiatives namely Dhaka-Chittagong Water Supply & Sanitation Project and Dhaka Integrated Environmental Water Resources Management Project (DIEWRM) are being undertaken with assistance from the World Bank. Under these projects the sewage master plan would be updated along with improvement and rehabilitation of the sewage system in Dhaka along with construction of new sewer lines and treatment plants. A number of other activities would also be undertaken for improvement of the storm water drainage and treatment of industrial effluent under these two funding initiatives.
As more and more acres of forest and farmland are con- verted to impervious surfaces (roads, parking lots, roofs, etc.), rain and snow melt is much more likely to pick up contaminants and transport them directly to streams, rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Conventional development practices and patterns have increased the volume and pol- lution load of stormwater runoff in Piscataqua Region wa- tersheds. As the population of the watershed has grown dramatically in the last 20 years, development has created new impervious surfaces at an average rate of nearly 1,500 acres per year. Many stormwater management systems designed to control some runoff are not always able to handle the large storm events that New Hampshire has experienced over the last several years and communities are facing increasing costs from failures of these systems (e.g. culverts, bridges, swales, etc.)
Aquaculture in the Black Sea Region is initiated in inland water with rainbow trout in 1972. Sea cage farms in the region are founded in 1990’s years purposed to grow out of rainbow trout, sea bass and sea bream. Recently sea trout and turbot are lunched to sector. Mussel, brown meagre, sturgeon and mullet species are considering as potential species. In this study, foundation and development of all fish farms in the region were evaluated and investigated historical development thoroughly. Also a future projection was made for region. Data utilized in this study are derived from records of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair and collected field study. There are 10 sea cage farms in the Black Sea Region and their trout production capacity is total 3500 tons/year and sea bass production capacity is total 750 tons/year. The number of inland farms is about 500 with 12000 tons /year overall capacity. Somewhat apart, carp is produced in 8 farms with about overall 40 tons/year. Even thought small fluctuation has been observed year by year, it is estimated that aquaculture production of Black Sea region will be reach about 29000 tons/year in 2030. Recent years, willing of new farms construction and increase of the present farms capacities with 35 years aquaculture production experience, development of aquaculture sector with environmental friendly will increase the productivity and diversity of sources of income, and additionally economic and social development in the region.
3. Risk assessment approaches for shipwrecks
In Paper I, Evaluating the needs of risk assessment methods of potentially polluting shipwrecks, six methods and approaches for risk assessment of shipwrecks were analysed in order to evaluate if they could provide relevant decision support in this area. The identified methods were compared to, in the case for shipwrecks, relevant parts of the ISO standard for risk assessment, ISO 31000, Risk management – Principles and guidelines (ISO, 2009), see Section 2.1 for further details of the standard. More explicitly, parts assumed to be relevant correspond to the necessary steps for a comprehensive environmental risk assessment of shipwrecks and are presented in Table 2. Since publication, three further works present approaches for risk assessment of shipwrecks, NOAA (2013), Ventikos et al. (2013) and Ventikos et al. (2016). Some of the authors of the first publication authored the publication of the WORP project (NOAA, 2009) presented below as approach A. The latter publications share authors with the publication by Louzis et al. (2009), presented below as method F, but there is no clear reference between the earlier and latter works. These more recent methods are added to the original comparison and a summary is presented in Table 2. The full comparison is appended to Paper I as supplementary information.
The questionnaire Residential Environment and Coronary Disease (RECORD) was developed recently by Basile Chaix in France and assessed aspects of physical activity and of the related residential environment. The question- naire also includes specific aspects of the social environ- ment but has not yet been assessed for its metrics. Criteria for perceived environmental measure for Europe The ideal European perceived environmental measure should be able: (1) to be applicable to the European con- text across wide range of different environmental contexts and behaviour patterns; (2) to be comparable across Euro- pean data sets; (3) to have clearly defined neighbourhood and area properties, cogent with resident's definitions; (4) to be comparable with objective measures of the environ- ment as related to physical activity; (5) to have established metric properties (temporality, face validity, repeatabil- ity); (6) to relate specific environmental items to specific physical activities, particularly walking and cycling for lei- sure and transport; (7) to be easy to administer by mail, telephone or face to face.
19. The TT reviews the borrower's Project Implementation Plan to ensure that it incorporates EA findings and recommendations, including any EMP. In preparing the loan package for submission to the Board, the TT summarizes in the Project Appraisal Document (PAD) the reasons for the project classification; the findings and recommendations of the EA, including the justification for the recommended emission levels and approach to pollution prevention and abatement; and any issues related to the country's obligations under relevant international environmental treaties and agreements to which it is a party (see OP 4.01, para. 3). For a Category A project, the TT summarizes the EA report in an annex to the PAD, including such key elements as the procedures used to prepare the report; environmental baseline conditions; the alternatives considered; the predicted impacts of the chosen alternative; a summary of the EMP, covering the areas outlined in OP 4.01, Annex C; and the borrower's consultations with affected groups and local NGOs, including the issues raised and how they have been taken into account. The annex also describes negotiated environment-related loan conditionalities and covenants; when necessary, documentation of the government's intention to grant appropriate permits; and environmental supervision arrangements. For sector investment and financial intermediary loans, the documents include appropriate measures and conditions for subproject EA work. The TT and LEG ensure that loan conditions include an obligation to carry out the EMP and include as additional conditions specific measures under the EMP, as appropriate for facilitating effective supervision and monitoring of EMP implementation.
considered to have a positive impact, given production near the base of the trophic chain (e.g. Naylor et al., 2000 ) and potential enhancements both of primary production and biodiversity ( Gibbs, 2004; McKindsey et al., 2006 ). However, the environmental role of shellfish farms with respect to the control of nutrient emissions has not to our knowledge been quantitatively addressed. To assess the role of cultured shellfish on nutrient removal by means of a mass balance, FARM was run for bottom culture of oysters over a 180 day period. Fig. 6 displays the results for nitrogen, which show a net removal of about 10.7 tons y − 1 . A similar calculation can be carried out for phosphorus. The filtration and hence removal of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and other organic matter by shellfish is offset by additions due to ammonia excretion and faeces. Pseudofaeces have not been included in this balance because they are rejected prior to ingestion of phytoplankton and detritus. Whilst phytoplankton primary production directly removes dissolved available inorganic nitrogen (DAIN) from the water column, the PON present in suspended particulates may originate from a variety of sources: these include DAIN incorporated in plant detritus, PON from land dis- charges, faecal material, carcasses etc. (e.g. Canuel and Zimmerman, 1999; Goñi et al., 2003 ).
Also we consider it appropriate to classify the regions of the Russian Federation by the level of environmental safety through the use of the original data set. For the classification of regions cluster analysis and typological grouping for determination stable groups were used. This classification identifies environmentally unsafe and safe territories. The rating of regions according to environmental safety level is necessary as it enables to develop complex management programs of environmental safety factors. The method of typological groups with an artificial division into three classes gave the most accurate classification of regions. The results of determination of groups by the level of environmental safety are presented in Table 5.
Poverty mapping is a relatively new tool that aims to provide accurate spatial environmental (ecological, social, and economic) information to researchers and policy makers. This information can be used to select areas (i.e. neighborhoods, districts, countries, regions) to be targeted for development projects, direct funding, food programs or other types of poverty alleviation solutions.
An impact matrix covering the above mentioned 22 general and detailed criteria as well as 22 measures under four axis was elaborated. Using the matrix, the relationship degree, if any, between the criteria and measures was assessed, qualifying whether they are positive or negative from the point of view of preparing the assessment, i.e. impact on the environment, its quality and efficiency of resource management. The level of this relation was rated on a three-point scale. In total, 484 boxes of the matrix were analysed. The assessment was carried out separately by seven members of the team performing the Assessment for all boxes of the matrix. Having gathered together the findings of the assessment, a collective matrix was prepared. The boxes characterised with large dependence power were highlighted (the boxes selected had an average of experts’ grades of more than 2). Another type of boxes highlighted was boxes with large discrepancies between dependence grades given by different experts. As a result of brainstorming with some additionally invited consultants (specialising in fields such as: water management, forest management and biodiversity), the second half of boxes was verified and selected boxes were added to boxes with big dependence power. In total, nearly 40% of boxes were considered to have large dependence. This allowed for focusing during assessment performance only on these dependencies between criteria and measures which are significant from the point of view of RDP's impact on the environment, as well as the possibility of implementation of sustainable development principles.
The total land area of proposed expansion of Institutional Buildings complex is 5,03,914.56 Sqm (124.51 acres). Project consists of institutional buildings for Medical College & Hospital, Engineering College, College of Engineering & Technology, School of Architecture and other related facilities planned for the development include Sewage Treatment Plant, power, captive power generation (DG back up) and landscapes. The Area split up and space utilization details for the existing and proposed developments are given in the following sections.