Assessment of the project vicinity for the proposed hydroelectricproject on RuthCreek revealed many environmental concerns that were difficult to overlook in exchange for 2.5MW of power. The local soils are typically sandy loams which can exhibit firm structure and strength when accompanied by extensive root systems, but due to the need to remove native species for construction purposes, the soil may be destabilized and may increase susceptibility for sloughing. Risk of erosion was also high, which could lead to siltation and sedimentation of RuthCreek and the North Fork Nooksack River; this can trigger a domino effect, increasing water turbidity, decreasing light needed for aquatic species and lowering dissolved oxygen levels. Though only one of the three fish species known to inhabit this tributary is native to the area, the cutthroat trout, preserving these existing populations may become more difficult if the proposed actions were to take place. Furthermore, the entirety of the project area resides within Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, and is home to historic tree stands dating back to 1301 (MBSNF, 2011). Although it was indeterminate if any local plant species were endangered or at risk, this drainage has experienced relatively minimal forestry practices and is instead popular for its recreational activities. The proximity of the Goat Mountain Trail and Mount Bake Wilderness further reinforces this point, along with noted fly fishing and white water rafting/kayaking in RuthCreek. Overall, the likely impacts from the proposed action will have a notable effect on this minimally impacted landscape.
Colorado law requires that anyone who engages in any type of excavation must provide advance notice to the underground utility owners in order to minimize the risk of damaging any type of underground utility. The notice must be at least 3 business days prior to any excavation (UNCC 2012). Therefore, the City of Aurora would need to contact the Utility Notification Center of Colorado (UNCC) at least 3 days prior to any excavation activities associated with this alternative. Additionally, caution should be used during construction to avoid contact with overhead utility lines. With the use of utility location, the Proposed Action would not be expected to have any impact on public services and utilities in the project area during the construction phase. Interruption of service that is required to complete the project would be short-term and minor. Affected users would be notified prior to the interruption.
The Indian Himalayan region is earmarked for widespread dam building, but aggregate effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems are unknown. Disturbance due to dam construction would likely reduce free species richness by 35% Tree density by 42% and tree basal cover by 30% in dense forests. It is projected for 2025, the SAR model (ref. 7). These results combined with relatively weak national environmentalimpactassessment and implementation, points towards significant loss of species of all proposed dams in the Indian Himalayas are constructed. There is need of cumulative environmentalimpactassessment EIA fails to consider whether investment in improving the efficiency of a new power plant.
In the literature different Environmentalimpactassessment methods, strategies are there EnvironmentalImpact of water resource project .1st ed CRC Press. Taylor and Francis, New York. 1985.The affected environment was divided into thirteen components, such as Ecology, Surface water, Air quality, etc. Peter Watten (Eds.) 2 - `EnvironmentalImpactAssessment Theory and Practice', Unwin Hyman, London ( 1988). This comprehensive treatment of environmentalimpactassessment (EIA) provides an authoritative contemporary review of theory and practice over the past ten years. EIA is viewed as both science and art, reflecting the concern both with technical aspects of appraisal and the effects of EIA on the decision-making process. Government of IndiaCoastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011 4 the land area from High Tide Line to 500mts on the landward side along the sea front. CRZ shall apply to the land area between HTL to 100 mts or width of the creek whichever is less on the landward side along the tidal influenced water bodies that are connected to the sea The land area falling between the hazard line and 500mts from HTL on the landward sideAll mangrove areas shall be mapped and notified as protected forest and necessary protection and conservation measures for the identified mangrove areas shall be initiated. Five times the number of mangroves destroyed/cut during the construction process shall be replanted.
Illegal Wildlife Trade: Many Hydropower projects are located either within 10 km from wildlife park/protected areas, in the core area or inside the protected area or in the buffer zone which are home for the snow leopard, brown bear, musk deer and many other threatened species. Due to these project activities, the forests area is fragmented and the wildlife movement in this area increases the risk of poaching. During the construction phase, the hydropower projects and approach road heightened the risk of poaching of wild animals for consumption and for trading through smugglers, thus increases the illegal wildlife trade. This impact further increases due to aggregation of labour population. 42,29
Historically, the ponderosa pine plant associations ( 73% of the project area) were part of a large, essentially unfragmented, landscape patch that was dominated by medium/large tree (21”+ diameter) ponderosa pine habitats that were primarily single-stratum late and old structure. Historically, the mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests were strongly influenced by frequent fire disturbances that maintained open under stories and a dominance of long-lived, fire adapted species such as ponderosa pine. All of these processes, in turn, helped reduce competition for water and nutrients, prevented large scale effects from insect and disease cycles, and maintained vigor in the dominant tree species. Over the past 100 years, human caused changes (fire exclusion, timber harvesting, road construction, etc.) have occurred in the Whychus watershed and in the Glaze Meadow project area (USDA, 1998). Perhaps the greatest impacts on ecosystem stability have been the exclusion of fire and the removal of the medium/large tree component through timber harvest. Both of these practices have resulted in significant changes in forest densities, species composition and structure. Years of fire exclusion has resulted in increased numbers of small trees and allowed the establishment of fire intolerant species such as western juniper in the ponderosa pine plant associations and white fir, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine in the mixed conifer and riparian plant associations. Timber harvest up until the early to mid 1990’s removed a significant portion of the medium/large tree component, thus contributing to a significant change in stand structure from medium/large tree dominated stands to small tree dominated stands.
Section 2.03. EHDC shall carry out the obligations set forth in Sections 9.04, 9.05, 9.06, 9.07, 9.08 and 9.09 of the General Conditions (relating to insurance, use of goods and services, plans and schedules, records and reports, maintenance and land acquisition, respectively) in respect of the Project Agreement.
This study explores the impact of the Adopt-a-CreekProject as one of the corporate social responsibly programs of Dole Philippines in Malagos, Davao City, Philippines in the context of environmental changes and the participation of the locals living beside the Cogan creek. This study aims to determine the level of participation of the residents in the Cogan creek in the Adopt-a-CreekProject of a multinational company. The study also seeks to understand the lived experiences of the locals living in the banks of the Cogan creek since the establishment of the banana plantations in their community by Dole Philippines. Results of the study show that most of the participants are not aware of the project and have not participated on its different activities. Based on the shared lived experiences of the participants, the project was mostly participated by the employees of the plantation of Dole Philippines, Barangay officials, and some students. The locals experience negative impacts of the company’s banana plantation such as the distinctive odor of the chemicals used as pesticide and also suffered surface runoff due to the plantation’s modification of natural waterways for the latter’s drainage system. The tree planting activity of the project only utilized one variety of plant disregarding other varieties that could promote a dynamic ecosystem in the area. This study argues that the Adopt-a-CreekProject of Dole Philippines should involve the full participation of the locals in its different activities at the same time maximizing their capabilities and their roles in the sustainability, protection, and conservation of their environment.
The EIA study must describe general and specific measures that are technically and economically feasible for the proponent to implement, to optimize any positive environmental effects and mitigate any negative effects resulting or potentially resulting from the proposed project and any associated infrastructure (i.e., maximize positive effects, and eliminate, prevent, avoid or minimize adverse effects). This must include a description of contingency measures (including emergency response plans) that have been designed to address potential accidents and malfunctions that could result in spills or unplanned releases of contaminants or products to the environment. Contingency plans must address worst-case scenarios and reflect a consideration of local conditions and sensitivities. Specific circumstances under which mitigative measures will be implemented must be clearly defined by the proponent including how scenarios would be reported, acted upon, and monitored. Mitigation options must be considered in a hierarchical manner with a clear priority placed on proactive measures for impact avoidance and pollution prevention opportunities. Opportunities to contribute to a regional approach to management of cumulative environmental effects must also be identified (refer to Section 2.4 above).
a) define and provide the rationale for the spatial and temporal boundaries for the Study Area(s) used for the assessment. The spatial boundaries shall include all areas where measurable changes in the environment may be caused by the proposed Project regardless of any political boundaries. At and beyond the boundary of the EIA spatial Study Area(s) the anticipated environmental conditions should be similar with and without the proposed Project. The temporal boundary for the EIA Study Area(s) should extend from the pre-development baseline conditions through the construction, operational and reclamation/decommissioning phases of the proposed Project. If historical information or future information is inadequate to apply the full scope of temporal boundaries the EIA report shall identify the boundaries used and provide a rationale for the boundaries selected; and b) provide maps of suitable scale that include legal land descriptions, topographical and other natural
In Berkeley v Secretary of State for the Environment 2000, the House of Lords ruled that EIA could no longer be inferred. In short this means that planning authorities can no longer say that while they have not carried out an explicit EIA, their determination process amounts to an EIA by addressing key environmental impacts. This was often used as a defence by local authorities who had not required EIA. The Lords ruled that EIA was a distinct set of methods which must be applied coherently and in their entirety. In effect local authorities are now under more pressure to get their decisions about whether to require an EIA right in the first instance.
Waste leachate yield is mainly affected by composition, water content and storage days of waste transported to the plant; its yield is also related to the region and season etc. Water content of Municipal Solid Wastes is high in general; water content of waste in coastal developed cities is even higher in particular; as a result, a large amount of leachate will be produced in the waste bunker. Waste leachate yield of the proposed project is calculated as 18% of total incineration amount, 360t/d leachate is produced (including flushing water of waste tipping hall). Therefore the designed disposal capacity of the waste leachate treatment system of the proposed project is defined as 500t/d.
Abstract: The problem of piracy in Sundarbans has been shown as one of the main problems hindering development work therein. In relation to development work of the forest most of the total respondents assigned at various important management positions of the Forest Department (57.14 % of the officials) mentioned that improving the development work should include measures to protect of Sundarbans from any sort of piracy or robbery. Another problem that chokes the development work of Sundarbans is the inability of the management to forecast properly the weather or other radical environmental phenomenon causing disaster of Sundarbans. After a long survey and study, some logical suggestions have also been made. To protect Sundarbans, all management work should be taken for development and preservation. To do this first of all we need to protect the management staffs that are engaged in the protection of Sundarbans. Then it is expected that the condition of the forest will be improved. Proper community involvement should be made in order to eradicate piracy and other activities detrimental to the Sundarbans, such as indiscriminate felling of trees, and killing of tigers, deer’s, and other animals including water resources.
The above studies adopt different evaluation methods to analyze the project safety, but there is no evaluation from a holistic perspective; all the methods have some deficiencies. Application of Analytic Network Process (ANP) in the project construction for safety assessment is a hotspot; this is a method based on Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP). ANP method considers interrelationship among all factors in the same level and adjacent levels, uses supermatrix to comprehensively analyze the factors affecting each other, and obtains the ultimate hybrid weight. In dealing with complex problems that elements connected with and influenced each other, ANP method is proved to be effective and reasonable by the global studies. In [ 20 ], fuzzy ANP method was adopted to evaluate the operation system’s risk factors, but the correlations among the factors are simply used by the experts’ estimation, which may induce expert’s bias. In [ 21 ], the “3P + I” model was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of safety management system, AHP and factor analysis were used to identify the key indicators impacting the construction and eventually the questionnaire and expert scoring method were adopted to determine the weight. In [ 22 ] the hydroelectricproject risk factors were studied to establish the index system based on the ANP, and five main classes of risk factors were identified: organization and management of risks, technolog- ical risks, natural risks, social risk, and economic risk and actually a hydroelectricproject was assessed. In contrast with the above studies, there is a little research on hydroelectricproject construction, or it only uses a single method to qualitatively analyze correlation coefficient and may cause subjective influence. In [ 23 ], it was noted noted that the ANP method has some limitations, cannot exclude the bias of the experts, the model’s output depends on the given value of expert and cause inconsistencies in the pairwise comparison process. Therefore, it was mentioned that knowledge should be incorporated. In [ 24 ], it was pointed out should make use of statistical methods for the analysis of accident statistics, so as to more accurately determine dependency relationship between elements, which avoid the comparison between factors given by experts with prejudice or inconsistency problem.
We confirm earlier conclusions about mobility, shelter and food being the most important consumption categories (Hertwich and Peters 2009). Though their environmental relevance varies across footprint indicators, the three categories consistently make up between 55% and 65% of the total impacts. Food has the highest land, material and water multipliers, hence, switching a EUR of expenditure from food to clothing in the EU, for example, results in a reduction of 5.1 m 2 of land resources, 1.0 kg of extracted materials and 0.1 m 3 of fresh water. At the same time, any redirecting expenditure from the food category to any other but services would cause increases in GHG emissions. This brings attention to an important implication for any policy targeting reductions of household footprints in absolute terms, particularly, what is the environmental opportunity cost of reducing impacts in a certain category. Conversely, a redirection of household expenditure towards less resource intensive services is more straightforward as it results in impact reduction across all footprint indicators. Nevertheless, one should always regard a certain degree of non-substitutability of consumption items and categories in the re-design of household expenditure patterns.
This ESIA summary is for the Menengai Geothermal Power Project. The project is verified as category 1 in terms of AfDB’s ESAP. The Bank’s role is to provide a loan of UAC 80 million. The project proponent is the Geothermal Development Company Limited (GDC). GDC is a 100% government owned State Corporation operating under the Ministry of Energy. It was created as a special purpose company to accelerate the development of geothermal resources in Kenya. Its core activities include exploration, drilling, assessing and development of geothermal resources for power generation and other alternative uses. Prior to the establishment of GDC, the government of Kenya undertook surface scientific geothermal studies in Menengai area. Kenya’s power industry generation and transmission system planning is undertaken on the basis of a 20 year rolling Least Cost Power Development Plan (LCPDP) updated every year. According to the latest LCPDP, the country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1,424 MW and a reliable capacity of 1,397MW under average hydrological conditions. The unsuppressed peak demand stands at 1,146MW. This leaves no reserve margin to allow for reduced hydro generation as is being experienced currently due to droughts and plant breakdowns. Geothermal power generation has a potential estimated at around 7,000 MW, is the choice of the Government of Kenya (GoK) for the future. The Menengai field alone (prospects have demonstrated that it is the best site for Kenya) could potentially produce up to 1,650 MW of power. It is against this background that the GoK officially requested the Bank on March 23 rd 2011 to consider financing this Project, which involves the development of the Menengai geothermal field for up to 200 MW power as a first phase. For the remaining potential of 1450 MW in the Menengai site, GDC is discussing with the Chinese and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for possible financing in the tune of US$ 166 and 200 million respectively.
(b) Subject to preparation and/or adoption by an authority or prepared by an authority for adoption, through a formal procedure, by a parliament or a government. 6. “Strategic environmentalassessment” means the evaluation of the likely environmental, including health, effects, which comprises the determination of the scope of an environmental report and its preparation, the carrying- out of public participation and consultations, and the taking into account of the environmental report and the results of the public participation and consultations in a plan or programme.