http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/ Citation (please note it is advisable to refer to the publisher’s version if you intend to cite from this work)
Dhandapani, S, Ritz, K, Evers, SL and Sjogersten, S (2019) Environmentalimpacts as affected by differentoilpalmcroppingsystems in tropicalpeatlands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 276. pp. 8-20. ISSN 0167-8809
Oilpalm cultivation has drastically increased in the last decades and has become a key crop to meet the global vegetable oil demand, while raising environmental issues linked to deforestation, fertiliser or pesticide uses. Guidelines on best practices have been developed to limit these environmentalimpacts. However, there is little evidence on the field reality of concrete declination of these general guidelines and on the room for improvement of practices in light of the local diversity of oilpalmsystems. This study aimed to investigate in the field the actual practices in two contrasted areas in Indonesia, the first global palmoil producer. We carried out field surveys in Riau and Jambi provinces and collected data on annual applications of two synthetic mineral fertilisers, two herbicides and yields. We char- acterised the croppingsystems of 88 smallholders ’ and 45 industrial plantation units includ- ing potential practice drivers. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses showed contrasted practices across growers. Fertiliser rates were variable across all grower types, while pesticide rates especially distinguished between industrial and smallholders ’ practices. Practices and performances were particularly variable amongst smallholders, and significantly different in Jambi compared to Riau. This study highlighted the great diversity of practices and potential environmentalimpacts. It stresses the need for a more systematic accounting of the local specificities of the croppingsystems and their rationales in order to promote more adapted and efficient best practices recommendations.
This significant change in bulk density may both influence, and be influenced by, other defining peat characteristics such as organic matter content and moisture retention. The loss of organic matter content due to increased decomposition over time, along with mechanical compaction in agriculture peatlands, results in reduced porosity and denser peat, showing a strong correlation between loss of organic matter content and increased bulk density ( Tonks et al., 2017 ). Not surprisingly, second generation monocropping had decreased organic content and greatest bulk density among studied croppingsystems. First generation plantations have similar level of organic matter content as secondary peat forest ( Tonks et al., 2017; Dhandapani et al., 2019c ). However, that dramatically changes when the monocropping is continued to 2nd generation (see example data in Table 1). This may be due to the increased drainage in monocropping possibly leading to peat subsidence, without any addition of peat forming organic material which would normally occur within a peat swamp forest ( Yule and Gomez, 2009 ). Monthly monitoring of 2 oilpalm and pineapple intercropping systems and 3 oilpalm monocropping systems in the same peat dome from August 2018 to September 2019, show average water table for intercropping systems to be 50.6 ± 5.6 and for monocropping systems to be 69.1 ± 5.4 (Dhandapani and Evers, Unpublished). During the same monitoring period one of the other intercropping systems was converted to monocropping, with additional drainage ditches dug within the plantation during the conversion (Dhandapani et al. Unpublished). As a general practice in the Selangor region, intercropping do not contain additional ditches running within the plantations, unlike monocropping systems (see Dhandapani et al., 2019a,b ) (Dhandapani, Pers. Obs.). Thus the practice of this less severe drainage in intercropping systems has the potential to mitigate some of the longer-term impacts ( Dhandapani et al., 2019a ). Whereas, owing to possible increased peat subsidence and the reduced, homogenous and easily degradable C input to soil from monocropping ( Guillaume et al., 2016; Kerdraon et al., 2020 ), organic matter content in the second generation oilpalm intercropping was ∼54%, which does not meet the required 65% defined by the regional government organizations and followed by the Roundtable on Sustainable PalmOil (RSPO) ( Firdaus et al., 2010; RSPO, 2019 ). It also barely passes some other published definitions that describe 45% organic content requirement for tropicalpeatlands ( Osaki et al., 2016 ). This specific property effectively declassifies the studied 2nd generation monocropping
crops, and income is earned regularly. The price smallholders receive for their fruit is set nationally and is linked directly to the world market price, unlike crops such as cocoa, copra and coffee, where middlemen have a large influence on the price received by the grower. The income from oilpalm has led to considerable benefits for rural communities, but also problems, such as immigration of people to oilpalm areas and resulting population pressure and social discord. Another feature of the crop is that it does not need a high level of management to achieve reasonable productivity, unlike crops such as cocoa, which require intensive management. An important advantage of this is that growers can attend to other activities, and when they return to harvesting their oilpalm it is still producing.
Saponification value (SV) is an indication of the molecular weights of triglycerides of oils. High saponification value indicates high proportion of low fatty acids since saponification value is inversely proportional to the average molecular weight or length of The saponification values obtained ranged from 192.49 mg to 202.73mg. Palmoil from Aradhe had the lowest value of saponification while palmoil from Ellu had the highest value. These values are within the recommended range of 195-205 mg KOH/g for palmoil (SON, 2000; NIS, 1992). These values are close to the 222.90 mg KOH/g reported by Akinyeye et al. (2011) but higher than the 140.00 mg KOH/g reported by Birnin-Yauri et al. (2011). These values are indication that the oils are well suited for soap making (Agbaire, 2012).
The GHG emissions were measured in only two fallow management practices (CHEM and GRAZ) with all cropping sequences in 2010 and 2011 due to resource constraints. Green- house gas sampling and analysis were followed using vented, stat- ic chambers as described by Hutchinson and Mosier (1981). The chamber was made from a nonreactive polyvinyl chloride pipe (1 cm thick) and Plexiglas material (1 cm thick) and consisted of two parts: an anchor (22.5 cm tall by 20 cm in diameter) and a lid (10 cm tall by 20 cm in diameter). The anchor was inserted into the soil to a depth of 15 cm, leaving 7.5 cm above the sur- face. One end of the lid was sealed with Plexiglas using perma- nent glue and tape and contained ports for ventilation and gas sampling. The outer edge of the other end of the lid was attached with a soft rubber sheet that was lowered to seal the anchor dur- ing gas sampling so that no exchange of gases occurred between the inside and the outside of the chamber. Anchors were re- moved during planting and fertilization and reinstalled near the original place in leveled areas covering crop rows and interrows in each treatment and year. A carpenter’s level was used to level the anchor in the north–south and east–west directions. A 24-h equilibration period after anchor installation was allowed before gas sampling to avoid errors due to soil disturbance. Two cham- bers were installed per plot to reduce spatial variability in GHG measurement, and the average value was used for each treatment for data analysis. The total headspace volume of the chamber was determined by adding the inside volumes of the anchor above the soil surface and the lid.
With the rapidly growing world population, the demand for palmoil is increasing. Among the 17 world major oils and fats, palmoil has made impressive and sustained growth in the global market. In 2008, palmoil accounted for 54% of the world’s production of oils and fats; it is projected that palmoil will become the leading oil in the world around year 2016 (Oil World 2009). Malaysia is the world’s second largest producer and exporter of palmoil after Indonesia; in 2007 it produced about 15.8 million tons of palmoil. In year 2020, production is forecast to increase to 18.5 million tons (Oil World 2009). Key challenges to the palmoil industry include misconceptions on palmoil sustainability and awareness of its potential in the global vegetable oil market, consumer demands for certification of products and processes and the competitiveness on the triple bottom line performances as uncertainties to the supply network. Sustainability of palmoil is important if this versatile crop is to become the leading vegetable oil in the world. This multipurpose vegetable oil needs to be cultivated to ensure sustainable development from the environmental, social and economic aspects. With the world’s population expected to increase to 8 billion in 2028, palmoil has the potential to be the source of fats and vegetable oil to feed the people around the globe (Basiron 2006; Basiron 2009). As high demand of cheap and quality vegetable oil is needed to feed the world’s growing population, building a tool to improve the performance of sustainability of the palmoil supply chain network involving real-time data is necessary in order to achieve sustainable production. In this context, all parties involved with palmoil like plantation owners, financial institutions and banks, manufacturers of palmoil products and governments play an active role to realise this win-win situation for all. Hence, the time has come for all parties to co-operate and realise a sustainable production and development of palmoil. Ideas and efforts will become futile if all parties do not take an active and responsible role towards this aim as sustainable development of palmoil requires collaboration and initiative among the stakeholders.
This is especially prevalent in discursive struggles over the environment in the global South, where powerful interests often use discourse to influence access to land and natural resources (Bryant, 1979). They are powerful in terms of being able to create, legitimise and disseminate perspectives on topics in individual ways, and manage to get other groups (in this case, the Malaysian media) to adopt and contribute to the reproduction of their discourses (Svarstad et al., 2018). It is in this context that our analysis highlights the appeal of Dr Melling’s multi-scalar arguments as well as her modes of expression. Far from environmental disaster, palmoil production is linked to a triple agenda of meeting challenges that are global (climate stabilisation), national (prosperity) and regional/local (poverty alleviation in Sarawak). The overarching vision is thus of a universal and irresistible benefit. Furthermore, the potency of colourful expression and mastery of double meanings are not to be discounted. As a calculated mode of scientific communication, designed to heighten the mass appeal of peat soil research, they attract popular media attention to messages.
of time following contamination. Following initial abiotic weathering, biodegradation occurs slowly and fate depends on the particular eco- system that is contaminated. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in the Arctic is limited mainly by poor availability of nutrients, and, to a lesser extent, by low temperatures. The major difference between petroleum biodegradation in the Arctic and in temperate regions ap- pears to be a reduction in total amounts of oil components in both areas but no alteration in relative percentages of oil components in the Arctic. Seasonal changes in certain physical parameters such as temperature or ice-cover may also influence the impact of an oil spill in Arctic environments. Oil spilled under ice or transported there by currents does not weather appreciably and thus remains toxic for extended periods of time (Percy 1975) and ice coverage can greatly restrict the losses of light hydrocarbons by evaporation. Extruded brine, generated during sea ice formation in nearshore arctic waters, will sink to the bottom and can form a stable bottom boundary layer. This layer can persist for periods of 4-6 months and limited quantities of dissolved hydrocarbons resulting from a spill of crude oil or re- fined petroleum distillation products during periods of ice growth can be transported as conservative components to the benthos with the sinking brine. Once incorporated into the stable bottom boundary layer, these components are no longer subject to loss by evaporative processes, and they can only be diluted by mixing with unpolluted water masses, a process that proceeds slowly throughout the ice- covered period (Payne et al. 1991). These implications are pertinent to shallow nearshore oil and gas exploration, development, production, and transportation activities in high-latitude marine systems. Oil contamination of Arctic sediments will result in alterations of the benthic community and exhibits differential toxicity to benthic in- vertebrates. In a study
Figure 4: The difference in (a) 3340/1630 ratio or carbohydrate/aromatic ratio; and (b) 1710/1630 or
carboxyl/aromatic ratio between secondary peat swamp forests, drained peat swamp forests, cleared peat swamp forests, and mature oilpalm plantations in surface peat. Average values for land conversion classes and standard error bars are shown: (a) F (3,16) =5.64, P=0.008; (b) F (3,16) =5.62, P=0.008.
In this study, ISO LCA method (ISO, 2006) was applied for production of irrigated and rainfed wheat in an Iranian farmer cooperative, located in the center of Iran, based on the first phases of life cycle (i.e. from tillage to harvest), with the aim to evaluate their energy flow, environmental performance and the hotspots in the production chains. This area is very important for wheat production in Isfahan province. Considering the mechanization development plans and the necessity of integrating the farms in Iran and also growing concerns about environmental and economic issues, the present study aimed to investigate the relation between farm size and environmentalimpacts, identify hotspots in the production chains and evaluate energy flow. Actually, it is worthy to be known that, how farm size affects the environmentalimpacts. So, in the present study, farm size was investigated from environmental point of view in three categories. Also considering the lack of freshwater resources and efforts to find the deeper wells, present study makes an accurate assessment of energy amount for wheat production in this plain and provide solutions to this problem. Some recent researches evaluated the energy consumption in Isfahan province (Khoshnevisan et al, 2013a,b,c) but in this study only Mahyar plain, located in Shahreza city will be evaluated. So the purpose of this study is to accurately assess the amount of energy and its pollution effects for wheat production in this plain and finally provide some solutions for this problem.
The research aims to investigate the effects of silica (Si) as an ameliorant on the proline compound concentration and the growth response of oilpalm exposed to aluminum toxicity. The research was arranged in a complete randomized block design with 8 blocks as replications. The first factor was Al toxicity which consisted of two levels as without and with Al toxicity. Al toxicity treatment was applied by giving 300 ppm of Al concentrate along with watering activity regularly. The second factor was the application of silica which consisted of four levels as 0, 32, 64 g/plant. Proline and growth activities of leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight were observed in the research. The data subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% test level. If the result of ANOVA showed significant differences among treatments, then the data would have been analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% test level. The results of the research provide information that Al toxicity increases proline compound in the plant tissues and decreases leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight of OilPalm. Applying Si at the level of 64 g/plant could increase proline concentrate and dry weight of oilpalm exposed to A1 toxicity. Proline compound in the plant tissues did not have any correlation with the growth of oilpalm. Thus, this case indicated that proline was a product and not a plant tolerant mechanism of Al toxicity.
et al. 2011).
Erosion carries down surface soil layers which are generally fertile and rich in organic matter and nutrients, causing the loss of plant nutrients. In the process of erosion, fine soil fraction is taken away first, than more coarse fraction, so that clay content in sediment is higher than in the soils. This is related to carry- ing capacity of surface runoff to soil grains with different weights. The removal of fine particles by erosion leads to an increased percentage of sand and gravel on the ground, and, at the same time, reduced percentage of silt and clay (Blan- co and Lal 2008). Thus, the soil that has been eroded has coarser texture com- pared to the one that has not been eroded. Furthermore, erosion causes a decline in soil fertility owing to the loss of essential nutrients and soil organic matter.
Figure 3.2 Canada temperature map during (a) summer and (b) winter (Environment Canada)
Lastly, to review the last criterion, the subsurface temperatures were examined to ensure the cities were suitable for geothermal applications. Majorowicz et al. (2009) compiled temperature maps across Canada based on well temperature-depth logs. Theses maps are illustrated for depths of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 m BGS (Figure 3.3). According to these maps, most of northern areas of Canada has a sub-zero temperature resulting in permafrost development which limits the usage of shallow geothermal systems in these areas. Majorowicz et al. (2009) used a 5°C temperature isoline to select zones that are suitable for shallow geothermal system installation. Based on this selection, southern Canada is the best area for shallow geothermal systems which justifies the selection of Toronto, Vancouver and Windsor as the three cities for this study.
The conversion of peat swamp forest to oilpalm plantation involves a sequence of major disturbances, principally in the form of deforestation and drainage to optimise soil moisture conditions for cultivation (Hooijer et al., 2010; Page et al., 2011b; Schrier-Uijl et al., 2013). Prior to planting, peat sur- faces are typically compacted using caterpillar-tracked vehi- cles in order to improve the rooting stability of the palms and to help with subsequent machinery movement during harvesting (Melling and Henson, 2011). These processes al- ter the peat’s natural hydrological and biogeochemical func- tions, resulting in increased peat decomposition, loss of wa- ter storage and long-term subsidence (Hooijer et al., 2010; Tonks et al., 2017). This can give rise to oxidation of soil organic matter accumulated over millennia and to significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Couwenberg et al., 2010; Hirano et al., 2012). The result is often a reversal of the peat- land carbon balance: from a net sink for atmospheric car- bon to a net source (Miettinen et al., 2017). Managed land- use types now contribute to approximately 78 % of South- east Asia’s total GHG emissions related to peat oxidation (146 Mt C yr −1 ; Miettinen et al., 2017).
Previous attempts to quantify fluvial carbon losses from tropicalpeatlands include Moore et al. (2013), Gandois et al. (2013), Wit et al. (2015), Rixen et al. (2016), and Yupi et al. (2016). Moore et al. (2013) reported that losses of DOC from disturbed tropicalpeatlands in Indonesia were around 50 % greater than those from an adjacent intact peat swamp forest. However, this research was based on a limited num- ber of field sites (three intact sites and five degraded sites, all of which had unregulated drainage). Additional data are needed to better understand the dynamics of DOC in more intensively managed peatland environments with controlled drainage systems. This includes tropical peatland oilpalm plantations where fluvial carbon losses remain unquantified. In addition, existing data demonstrate that the radiocarbon content of exported DOC (DO 14 C) from intact tropical peat swamp forests is consistently modern (Moore et al., 2013; Gandois et al., 2013; Müller et al., 2015). DO 14 C data for degraded tropicalpeatlands are more limited, particularly for peatland oilpalm plantations. Moore et al. (2013) re- ported DO 14 C data from five channels in drained and de- forested peatlands in Indonesia, with mean ages of 92 to 2260 years BP, and two measurements from oilpalm planta- tions in Peninsular Malaysia which had mean ages of around 3200 and 4200 years BP. These limited data clearly suggest that tropical peatland drainage releases DOC from long-term carbon stores but are insufficient to determine whether differ- ent forms of post drainage land use (e.g. oilpalm cultivation versus abandonment) or hydrological management (e.g. reg- ulated versus unregulated drainage) lead to different rates or age of DOC export. There is a particular need to acquire ad- ditional data from oilpalm plantations as the most extensive, but currently under-represented, post-clearance land use on tropical peat.
Permintaan Crude PalmOil (CPO) dunia pada dasarnya mengalami peaingkatan secara konsisten, namun pasar CPO cenderung mengalami kelesuan yang diduga sangat berkaitan dengan sertifikasi Roundtable on Sustainable PalmOil (RSPO). Sistem perdagangan internasional mengharuskan produsen CPO untuk memiliki sertifikat RSPO sebelum memasarkan produk ke luar negeri. Dapat diduga bahwa kewajiban memiliki sertifikat RSPO tidak akan hanya terbatas kepada pengusaha perkebunan besar, namun lambat laun akan juga diwajibkan untuk dimiliki oleh setiap pengusaha kebun kelapa sawit termasuk petani rakyat swadaya. Tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis manfaat sertifikasi RSPO terhadap peningkatan kesejahteraan petani kelapa sawit swadaya di Provinsi Jambi. Data dalam penelitian ini dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode deskriptif dan statistik nonparametrik. Sertifikasi RSPO dalam beberapa aspek telah dapat dirasakan berkontribusi terhadap peningkatan kesejahteraan petani khususnya dalam hal ketersediaan input produksi secara tepat waktu, peningkatan produktivitas, pengolahan hasil dan pemasaran, serta dukungan dana CSR dari perusahaan inti. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit cenderung memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan transaksi kepada kelompok tani yang sudah memiliki sertifikat RSPO.
Tropicalpeatlands are a globally important source of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Vegetation is critical in regulating fluxes, providing a conduit for emissions and regular carbon inputs.
However, plant roots also release oxygen, which might mitigate methane efflux through oxidation prior to emission from the peat surface. Here we show, using in situ mesocosms, that root exclusion can reduce methane fluxes by a maximum of 92% depending on species, likely driven by the significant decrease in root inputs of oxygen and changes in the balance of methane transport pathways. Methanotroph abundance decreased with reduced oxygen input, demonstrating a likely mechanism for the observed response. These first methane oxidation estimates for a tropical peatland demonstrate that although plants provide an important pathway for methane loss, this can be balanced by the influence of root oxygen inputs that mitigate peat surface methane emissions.