2011, Smita et al., 2012, Ging et al., 2014, Yang and Westerhoff, 2014, Song et al., 2017). LCA has been utilized to quantify the cumulative energy and ecotoxicity impacts ENMs including fullerenes, nano-silver, and carbon nanotubes (Anctil et al., 2011, Eckelman et al., 2012, Pourzahedi and Eckelman 2015, Hicks et al., 2017), demonstrating the need to account for upstream emissions from embodied energy as well as direct impacts such as release in aquatic ecosystems. Further, MCDA and ERA studies (Linkov et al., 2007, Hassellöv et al., 2008, Coll et al., 2015) have provided insights for ENM characterization and have highlighted the importance of accounting for variability and uncertainty of potential concentrations and experimental data. Much of the ENM assessment literature has applied average values to capture national and global impacts. While these data choices are necessary due to lack of more disaggregated information, they may lead to three key challenges: 1) limits to our understanding of risks for a specific area, 2) potential underestimates of life cycle release risks, and 3) lack of modeling that considers accumulation within a spatial and time boundary. Spatial tools have helped to advance various disciplines including green infrastructure design (Snäll et al. 2015), urban planning (Daniel et al. 2018), biofuels (Sharma et al. 2017), drug delivery (Winner et al. 2016), and yet have been less frequently used in Industrial Ecology (Wu et al. 2017). Broader literature has acknowledged the utility of joining traditional risk assessment tools with geospatial modeling (Guinee et al. 2011, Xu et al. 2015), as spatial tools can account for regional differences in biophysical land
This critique was noted previously by Betancourt (p.953) 20 , and variants are also found in arguments made by Knobeloch and Anderson 19 and Howard and Widdowson 21 , among others. In our view, this critique reflects a skepticism regarding the importance of place, of community participation and local knowledge and values, in understanding and supporting individual and community health 13,22 . This skepticism seems blind to the repeated failure of state-based approaches to environmental risk management to effect outcomes that pass the test of environmental justice 12,23 . Here, environmental justice is used to describe a goal of redressing inequities in the distribution of risks, impacts, and benefits of environmental development, management, and policies, which are often affected by race, ethnicity, culture, or socioeconomic status or station 24,25 . While it is true that place-based approaches require attention to quality control and assurance, cross- cultural dynamics, and issues of power 26 , this is not any more or less true for any kind of science, regardless of the training or station of the practitioner 27 . Only the indigenous or place-based methodologies, however, are those that have to justify their validity, while the positions and recommendations of federal or other cultural majorities are implemented without question.
The idea of being “smart” has been drawing attention from both government and industry in recent years. This concept “encapsulates ideals of efficiency, security and utilitarian control in a technologically mediated and enabled environment” (Strengers, 2013, p.1). The “smart” tag has been added to different industries, including the smart energy sector. One of the most critical components of an energy system is the energy grid. Using advanced information communication technologies in multiple segments of the energy grid results in a Smart Grid (SG). The European Commission defined SG as “an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it generators, consumers and those that do both in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economical and secure electricity supplies” (Jenkins, Long, & Wu, 2015). In comparison with the traditional energy grids designed mainly for fossil fuels, SG has a greater interest in renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy to help environmental efforts (Moretti et al., 2017).
The continuous application of mosquito coils has, therefore, raised serious environmental health concerns. For instance, exposure to the smoke produced from burning of mosquito coils has been implicated in lung cancer [9, 10]. Shu-Chen et al. found out that almost 50% of lung cancer deaths in Taiwan were not associated to cigarette smoking, but suspected that environmental exposure to the smoke from mosquito coil burning may play a role in the development of the disease. Taiwanese households normally burn coils at home to repel mosqui- toes and the risk of getting lung cancer was considerably higher in regular burners of mosquito coils (thrice per week) as compared to those who did not burn any mos- quito coil. In Ghana, the use of mosquito coils was asso- ciated with self-reported incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) . The burning of mosquito coil report- edly produced high levels of indoor PM 2.5 and CO, which
A number of local councils in rural and regional Victoria have expressed interest in developing TWtE power/recycling plants in their areas, but need financial assistance to complete proper feasibility and business case development studies. Victorian based companies such as EcoEnergy Ventures have the potential to develop and build these systems with local labour. These projects are relatively small and scalable, at around 2MW for an average sized plant, which means that they can be built quickly and provide not only clean “baseload” energy for the local area (improving reliability of local electricity supply) but can be financed by avoided landfill levies and revenue for electricity generation.
Jersey) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, and in addition to the Committees on Energy and Commerce, Science, Space, and Technology, and Transportation and In- frastructure, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the juris- diction of the committee concerned
CHP requires a significant capital investment and the equipment has a long life – 20+ years. It can be challenging to make investment decisions in a rapidly changing policy and economic environment. Uncertain factors affecting project economics include: fuel and electricity prices, regional/national economic conditions, market sector growth, utility and power market regulation, and environmental policy. Sizing the CHP system to maximize efficiency in many industrial facilities (i.e., thermal match) often produces power in excess of the host site’s needs, introducing the added market risk of power pricing to a consumer usually in a different core business. In addition, CHP may increase emissions on-site while reducing emissions regionally; CHP projects benefit from policies that recognize and account for these savings 29 .
The environmental and economic benefits of renewable energy may not be sufficiently limited in their geographic scope to provide the degree of appropriability that would allow renewables innovators to reap the full reward of their efforts. The local character of these benefits is, however, significant enough to add a cautionary note to the free-rider narrative commonly cited in favor of federal rather than state-level support for renewable energy. Citizens of a state may initially be reluctant to finance climate change mitigation benefits for their out-of-state neighbors or the world at large. Yet, their payments also deliver a cornucopia of local benefits, such as improvements in air quality, conservation of precious water resources, protection of local ecosystems from harmful fossil fuel extraction, and the creation of employment opportunities. If today’s widespread state-level policy experimentation with RPS and FIT programs for renewables is any indication, these local benefits appear valuable enough to justify in-state support for low-carbon, renewable energytechnologies—even if the associated climate benefits entail giving a free ride to out-of-state neighbors. Regardless of whether public policy support assumes the form of an RPS or FIT program, the diverse environmental and other benefits of renewable energy can support the case for policy implementation at both the federal and state levels.
Primaquine is a very valuable anti-malarial drug, which is under-used. Concerns over potentially dangerous haemolytic toxicity along with the general unavailability of a simple test to identify patients at risk have substan- tially limited its deployment, and continue to do so. All patients with malaria haemolyse and all G6PD-deficient patients haemolyse additionally with primaquine treat- ment. The extent of haemolysis depends on the dose, duration and severity of deficiency. Whereas a single low dose is very likely to be safe, daily primaquine dosing for the radical cure of vivax malaria in a patient with severe deficiency risks potentially life-threatening haemolysis. Yet only 12 deaths from severe haemolysis have been documented over the past 60 years . More may have gone unreported, although millions of people, many thousands of whom must have had severe variants of G6PD deficiency, received such regimens in MDAs with- out reported loss of life. The most likely explanation is
Finally, and as briefly mentioned in the introduction, the two market structures considered here can be motivated by numerous studies. For example, Crampes and Moreaux (2001) underlined that transmission and distribution of electricity have common features of nat- ural monopoly while competition may work for generation. This observation is consistent with the empirical results of Christensen and Greene (1976) who found that the U.S. electric power generation sector was governed by scale economies in 1955 while almost all firms were operating in 1970 in the flat area of the average cost curve and a non trivial amount of electricity was generated by a firm with diseconomies of scale. However, in a recent study Hisnanick and Kymn (1999) reached a different conclusion: for them, increasing re- turns to scale are prevailing in US electric power companies for the period 1957-1987. In the case of Japan, Hosoe (2006) observed that natural monopoly prevails in the electricity industry except the generation sector where there is no definite (or very weak) evidence of scale economy. Burns and Weyman-Jones (1998) found that gas marketing and customer service costs of the British gas sector represent a constant returns to scale when domestic and non-domestic outputs (in terms of British Gas regions) rise by the same proportion. There were however economies of scale when one output is held fixed and the other is kept expending. Isoard and Soria (2001) found that the European emerging renewable energy sector (namely photovoltaic and wind technologies) has a decreasing returns to scale pro- duction (the coefficient of returns to scale ranged from 0.8 to 1) in the short run but would not diverge from a constant returns to scale production in the long run.
Abstract: Nowadays, there is special need hiding the Aircraft from the enemies so, this technology will do it for us. This modern technology will change the world, as we are moving beyond our boundaries there is need of this technology when we were facing alien from other world. This NanoEnabled Coating makes Aircraft invisible to RADAR. This coating of titanium dioxide absorbs the RADAR waves. Nano-particles have a large surface area-to- volume ratio and high surface energy which is utilized to hide Aircraft from RADAR. As it also absorbs the light waves Aircraft seems partially invisible to naked eyes.
Alternative energytechnologies have advanced significantly in recent years, leading to an explosion of new markets, jobs, and local energy sources. Due to these and other advances, Hawaii is currently ahead of its timeline in reaching its goal of becoming forty per cent renewable by 2030. The Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO) works to make sustainability a reality for Hawaii and drives energy innovation by aligning policies among government agencies and the private sector. HSEO also provides a policy framework and tools to attract energy developers and potential investors and assists with the creation of the necessary conditions to position and attract meaningful test-bed investments. It is also retooling its energy transportation road map, which is vitally important given that two-thirds of Hawaii’s energy mix is associated with transportation.
C L oud computing technologies have enabled rapid provisioning and release of server utilities (CPU, storage, bandwidth) to users anywhere, anytime. To ex- ploit the diversity of electricity costs and to provide ser- vice proximity to users in different geographic regions, a cloud service often spans multiple data centers over the globe, e.g., Amazon CloudFront , Microsoft Azure , Google App Engine . The elastic and on-demand na- ture of resource provisioning has made cloud computing attractive to providers of various applications. More and more new applications are being created on the cloud platform , while many existing applications are also considering the cloud-ward move , including content distribution applications .
The considered environmental impacts include the energy consumption and GWP impact associated with Portland cement production in four processes: (i) conventional Portland cement; (ii) using low carbon fuels; (iii) increasing of alternative fuels to fossil fuels ratios; and (iv) blended cement. The results show that the production of clinker exhibits the highest contribution to the total energy used and GWP impact, which are in the range of 81 – 85% and 88 92% of all scenarios studied, respectively (see Figs. 2(a) and 3(a)). This is mainly due to the use of fossil fuels which gave 82 86% of the total energy for Portland cement one ton (see Fig. 2(b)). This result was similar to the observation of previous works , . The decomposition of CaCO 3 to form clinker and the combustion of fossil fuels used attributed to approximately 9293% of the
Dosi and Moretto (1997) studied the regulation of a firm which can switch to a clean technology by incurring an irreversible investment cost. This technological switch is expected to provide benefits surrounded, however, by a certain degree of uncertainty. To bridge the gap between the private and the policy2maker’s desired timing of innovation, they recommended that the regulator stimulate the innovation by subsidies and by reducing the uncertainty surrounding the profitability of the clean technology through appropriate announcements. Dosi and Moretto (2010) extended the previous study to an oligopolistic industry and studied the incentives of not being the first firm adopting the clean technology.
The conclusions reached by each of these studies are limited since they used an ecologic measure of fluoride exposure. The associations found in studies using aggregate level data may differ from the associations measured with individual level data are collected. Even when the residential history is determined for each subject, the measurement of the fluoride exposure may be biased since fluoridation of the public water supplies does not necessary mean that all residents are equally exposed and individual variations in water intake can be such that residents of different communities have similar fluoride intakes. In addition, ecological studies do not allow for the control of potential confounders and effect modifers. In the studies with a hybrid design this has been overcome to some degree by collecting data on variables known to be cofounders on the individual level. Therefore, the association observed in an ecological study is always tenuous. Nevertheless consistency of evidence across studies should enhance the overall credibility of risks or benefits suggested by ecological data. Since the results of the ecologic studies on water fluoridation and hip fracture have been far from consistent, the possibility of a cause-effect relationship cannot be established. Consequently, the studies conducted to date do not provide systematic and compelling evidence of an adverse effect on bone.