Top PDF Estimating Children’s Services spending on vulnerable children : vulnerability technical spend report. July 2019

Estimating Children’s Services spending on vulnerable
children : vulnerability technical spend report. July 2019

Estimating Children’s Services spending on vulnerable children : vulnerability technical spend report. July 2019

A key issue highlighted in the Children’s Commissioner’s Spending on Children in England: 2000 to 2020 IFS report and in the visits to local authorities was the rising financial pressures on the high needs budget to support children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND). This was seen as a result of the rise in pupil numbers at more expensive specialist provision as well as the cost to councils of children with SEND in mainstream schools due to what was widely perceived as a general underfunding of educational support. Other causes referred to by local authorities were the cost of the statutory extension of Education, Health and Care Plans (EHCPs) to 25 years as well as the overall squeeze on local authority budgets limiting their flexibility to respond to unexpectedly high levels of need. Councils identified the lack of funding for home-school transport for SEND children as an additional problem. Figure 14 shows that just under three quarters of children supported with their SEND needs were receiving SEN support (averaged at 8,600 annually). Figure 15 shows that this group received a tenth of SEND spend, at an average of under £5 million annually). On the other hand, the 1% of SEND children who were supported by EHCP specialist provision (an average of 110 children annually) received support accounting for 17% of the cost of supporting SEND, at an average of £8 million annually.
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Trends in childhood vulnerability: Vulnerability technical report 1, July 2019

Trends in childhood vulnerability: Vulnerability technical report 1, July 2019

In this year’s analysis there is a new group – LAC– which necessitates the estimation of additional overlaps. We were unable to find any quantitative evidence on the overlaps between LAC and the other groups in the Type 2 aggregate, so have had to make assumptions. We expect that such overlaps would be quite small for the reason above that the other groups all relate to current household circumstances – it would be safe to assume that the households which LAC are currently placed in should not have significant levels of these vulnerabilities. However, we also chose not to assume that such overlaps would be zero. On balance and as a compromise, we estimated overlaps on a pro rata basis – assuming that the percentage overlap with another vulnerable group matches the percentage prevalence of that group. For example, we estimate that 4% of children are in a family where an adult has a reported alcohol or drug dependency; we therefore assume this to be the case among 4% of LAC too. In other words, we assume that the other vulnerabilities are equally prevalent among LAC as among the wider child population.
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Estimating the prevalence of the ‘toxic trio’ of family issues for each local area in England: Predictions based on spatial microsimulation methods: Vulnerability technical report 2: July 2019

Estimating the prevalence of the ‘toxic trio’ of family issues for each local area in England: Predictions based on spatial microsimulation methods: Vulnerability technical report 2: July 2019

To test the validity of our predictions, we examine whether they correlate as we would expect with other area-level proxy indicators that that were not used in our modelling (because they are not contained in the APMS data). Proxy indicators will generally relate to data on services and service use, which could be rationed and would only relate to the cohort of individuals known to services. As a result, even if the models were ‘perfect’, we would not expect these correlations to be perfect. However we still expect these correlations to be statistically significant and substantial.
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Evaluation of the vulnerable children grant

Evaluation of the vulnerable children grant

Where LEAs were able to make contributions to multi-agency teams or projects (either financially or in ‘human resources’), this was also seen to have had a positive impact in terms of strengthening interagency links and increasing a sense of cooperative and collaborative working. For example, one interviewee gave an example where the VCG had been used to secure ‘matched funding’ from social services, for a joint project, which had consequent positive outcomes in terms of an improved interagency partnership. Following the Green Paper ‘Every Child Matters’ (DfES, 2003), a small number of interviewees also highlighted the value of the VCG in the bringing together of Children’s Trusts, Integrated Children’s Services and local preventative strategies. In this respect, interviewees in five LEAs made comments regarding other funding streams and how they might fit alongside, or work in conjunction with, the VCG. Given the shared aims stemming from the Green Paper (ibid), interviewees recognised the potential for VCG to link up with funding streams such as Children’s Fund or Local Public Service Agreement (LPSA) funding, in jointly financing projects supporting vulnerable children. However, it was also noted that there were ongoing challenges in this type of joined-up working and a need for clarity in terms of shared aims and who is supporting what or whom. As stated by one interviewee: ‘The difficulty we have is there are different funding streams for the same vulnerable children … one of our problems is balancing and juggling all these different funding streams’ (Assistant Director of Operations, County LEA).
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Federal Parity and Spending for Mental Illness

Federal Parity and Spending for Mental Illness

to estimate the effects of MHPAEA on mental health service use and spending among (1) children with mental health conditions and (2) children with high levels of spending on mental health services before MHPAEA’s implementation. Following the approach of Haffajee et al in their evaluation of MHPAEA’s impact on adults, we compare changes in outcomes among children enrolled in large self-insured plans newly subject to parity under MHPAEA to changes in a comparison group of children enrolled in small group plans exempt from parity both pre- and post-MHPAEA (R.L.H., M.M. Mello, F. Zhang, A.B.B. A.M. Zaslavsky, J.F. Wharam, unpublished data).
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Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

Participants appreciated having state inspections of their playground and strict licensing codes, which helped them feel con fi dent about the safety of the equipment, yet several worried that the guidelines had become so strict that they might actually be limiting rather than promoting childrens phys- ical activity. Several participants dis- cussed how overly strict standards had rendered climbers unchallenging and uninteresting to the children, thus hampering childrens physical activity ( { 11, { 12, { 13). The new play equip- ment that was safe per these standards soon became boring to the children ( { 11, { 12) because they quickly mas- tered it. To keep it challenging, teachers noted that children would start to use equipment in (unsafe) ways for which it was not intended ( { 14) (eg, walking up the slide), because participants noted that children were “ wired ” to seek out challenges ( { 15). Some noted that preschool-aged children were drawn to more challenging “ school-aged ” equip- ment that the state had deemed was only appropriate for children over age 8 ( { 16).
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Parity and Out-of-Pocket Spending for Children With High Mental Health or Substance Abuse Expenditures

Parity and Out-of-Pocket Spending for Children With High Mental Health or Substance Abuse Expenditures

agement standards, prescription drug formulary design, standards for pro- vider admission to participate in a net- work, and provider reimbursement. In direct contrast with the Of fi ce of Per- sonnel Management ’ s approach, the intent of the NQTL regulations is to ex- plicitly prohibit health plans from man- aging MH/SUD bene fi ts unless the management strategies used are anal- ogous to those used on the medical side. Both this provision and OON provision of the MHPAEA create the potential for the federal law to produce larger effects on OOP spending than those resulting from the FEHB Program parity policy. There are several important limitations to this study worth noting. First, as is the case with all quasi-experimental stud- ies, there is the concern about equiv- alence of the comparison group. We TABLE 4 Adjusted Changes in Annual Total Spending After Parity Among High MH/SUD Treatment
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2019 annual report on education spending in England

2019 annual report on education spending in England

Resources for higher education increased slightly in real terms, by around 11% between 1997–98 and 2005–06, as the real value of teaching grants per student increased. The increase in the tuition fee cap to £3,000 then led to a large uptick in resources. However, these increases were not enough to keep pace with the growth in primary school spending over this period. In 1997–98, higher education received more than 2.5 times as much funding per pupil as primary schools, but by 2011–12 this had fallen to a little over 1.6 times as much. This is a dramatic shift in the relative priorities of these spending areas. From 2010–11 onwards, early years spending per head continued to rise as the scope of the free entitlement was expanded, first to 15 hours in 2010 and then to 30 hours for working parents in 2017. School spending per pupil was largely protected in real terms up to 2015, before then falling by about 5% in real terms between 2015–16 and 2019–20. There were larger falls in further education spending per student, which fell by 14% in real terms between 2010–11 and 2019–20, leading spending on 16–18 education to fall
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Estimating child mortality through proportion of dead children amongst children ever born to females of a specified    marital duration

Estimating child mortality through proportion of dead children amongst children ever born to females of a specified marital duration

For eloquent the trends of regression lines over three periods of time (NFHS-I, NFHS-II and NFHS-III) we compare the lines obtained for estimating UFCMR on the basis of PCDTCEB of NFHS-III in Figure 1 and in Figure 2 the lines obtained for IMR are compares in same way. From seeing the Figure 1 we may say that over time regression lines are different in slopes and comparing the regression lines of the Figure 2 we interpret it as the slope between NFHS-II and NFHS-III is not much different but NFHS-I regression line is rather different from these two. Similarly PCDTCEB of NFHS-I and NFHS-2 also used to check the trends of regression lines over time. So we may conclude that proposed technique seems good for estimating under five mortality rate and Infant mortality rate.
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Technical Report: Minor Head Injury in Children

Technical Report: Minor Head Injury in Children

Unfortunately, this study could not distinguish whether this effect was the result of the head injury, or associated either with the use of the emergency department or with whatever factors led to the in- jury. A smaller study of children with mild injury including “concussion” found a slight increase in teacher-reported hyperactivity (activity and inatten- tiveness) 10 years after the injury, with no other differences in school performance, cognitive ability, or behavioral symptoms. In this relatively small co- hort, no differences in these outcomes between those patients who had been observed in inpatient or out- patient settings were identified. 27 Two more recent
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Mapping speech pathology services to developmentally vulnerable and at-risk communities using the Australian Early Development Census

Mapping speech pathology services to developmentally vulnerable and at-risk communities using the Australian Early Development Census

In recent years, Australia has seen a growing number of immigrants and refugee families, whose children learn English as a second or other language. Verdon, Mcleod and Winsler (2014) reported that in a nationally representative study of over 5,000 Australian children, 15.3% of Australian children did not speak English as their primary language upon commencing formal schooling. In addition, approximately 3% of the Australian population identify as being Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011). For many young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, English is one of several languages that they may learn simultaneously (McLeod, Verdon & Bennetts Kneebone, 2014). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in remote communities are more likely to speak an Indigenous language (Verdon & McLeod, 2015), and the English that they learn may be a dialect of Standard Australian English, termed Australian Aboriginal English (AAE), which has unique phonetic and linguistic characteristics (Obata & Lee, 2010).
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Impact of scheduling multiple outdoor free-play periods in childcare on child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: a cluster randomised trial

Impact of scheduling multiple outdoor free-play periods in childcare on child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: a cluster randomised trial

All statistical analyses were performed using SAS (version 9.3) statistical software. All statistical tests were two tailed with an alpha value of 0.05. Summary statistics were used to describe all variables of interest. Accelerometer data were cleaned using the Meterplus software. Twenty mi- nutes of consecutive, 0 min were classified as non-wear and eligible data for in-care periods was based on a least 50% of wear time during the school day. Invalid wear days were removed from the analysed dataset. Generalised Lin- ear Mixed Models (GLMM), to take into account the clus- tering of individual children within services, were used for primary and secondary physical activity outcomes. An intention to treat framework was used to test a mean dif- ference between groups after 3 months, while adjusting for baseline assessment of outcomes. Each GLMM also controlled for child age, sex and total outdoor free-play duration at follow-up. Analyses entailed multiple imput- ation for missing data [41] and also performed first using all available (complete case analysis) data without multiple imputation. Pre-specified subgroup analysis for the pri- mary trial outcome was undertaken by child age, sex and baseline activity levels (classified as more or less active based on the median MVPA value of children at baseline). This was undertaken to assess differential changes be- tween groups by introducing a group by subgroup inter- action term into the models.
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An Attempt to explore various challenges or barriers faced by Physically Handicapped and/or Disabled Children in context of Inclusive Education Pedagogy in Asian Countries

An Attempt to explore various challenges or barriers faced by Physically Handicapped and/or Disabled Children in context of Inclusive Education Pedagogy in Asian Countries

d. Vulnerable families (VF) : Child maltreatment in the family is not new but its immense effects have recently been recognized. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect and psychological abuse all can leave the child traumatized and his or her development devastated. e. Children of parents with Psychiatric Disorders/AIDS etc. (CWPD) : Stigma associated with the psychiatric disorders, AIDS, cancer etc. often leaves the family isolated from the society. This also has a huge effect on the children coming from these families. They often feel secluded and teasing and bullying is also accompanied many a times. School refusal is a common result.
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So was it worth it? A commentary on Fricke et al. and Hagen et al. (2017).

So was it worth it? A commentary on Fricke et al. and Hagen et al. (2017).

attempts to explain how clinical trials are set up and to support interpretation of their findings, to make them more palatable and useful to practitioners. This includes explaining the benefits that might reasonably be anticipated from an intervention and the costs of achieving these using metrics interpretable by non-specialists. EEF publish a ‘Teaching and Learning Toolkit’ which relates the costs of an intervention to the amount of additional ‘pupil premium’ money available to English schools for socially deprived children, and translates mean effect sizes into months of child progress (EEF Technical Appendices 2 and 3,
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Technical Report: Lawn Mower-Related Injuries to Children

Technical Report: Lawn Mower-Related Injuries to Children

I n the United States, an estimated 68 000 injuries related to lawn mowers (including hand mowers, walk-behind power mowers, and ride-on power mowers, but excluding garden tractors) were treated annually in hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 1999. Approximately 14% of these in- juries occur to children younger than 18 years, ac- counting for an estimated 9400 injuries annually. 1

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Safe families for children. Evaluation report, July 2017

Safe families for children. Evaluation report, July 2017

Since the evaluation completed its data collection on entrants at the end of March 2016 (we continued to collect follow-up data until the end of September 2016), Safe Families has grown further. Their own data sources suggest that just under 2,000 volunteers have now been approved, including over 600 ready to takein children for overnight stays. The number of families supported per month has risen from 17 to 92, and the number of bed nights offered from 31 to 141. A try, test, learn, and adapt approach has been approved for the task of diversifying volunteer recruitment. Demand for the innovation has spread across England and to other parts of the U.K. Governance arrangements are being tightened and child protection procedures continually improved.
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Technical Report: Reduction of the Influenza Burden in Children

Technical Report: Reduction of the Influenza Burden in Children

Influenza infection can lead to viral pneumonia and to secondary bacterial pneumonia. Typically, the course of influenza pneumonia progresses over a few days with continued fever and new onset of dyspnea and cyanosis. Viral pneumonia is associated with a high mortality rate. In contrast, secondary bacterial pneumonia, usually attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae and occasionally caused by group A ␤-hemolytic streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus, generally develops after a period of improvement of the primary illness with recrudescence of fever asso- ciated with symptoms of pneumonia. Children with a history of stable asthma may experience an acute exacerbation with progression to status asthmaticus. Nonpulmonary complications include myositis with myoglobinuria rarely progressing to renal failure. The development of tenderness in the gastrocnemius or soleus muscles in association with an elevated creatine phosphokinase concentration suggests the possibility of influenza. This is more common after influenza B than after influenza A infection. Myo- carditis and pericarditis also have been described. Central nervous system complications include Guillain-Barre´ syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, postinfectious encephalitis, and encephalopathy. Reye syndrome has become increasingly rare after varicella or influenza infection with recent decreases in aspirin use.
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Institutional Care and Response to Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in India: The Role of Non governmental Organizations & Public Hospitals

Institutional Care and Response to Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in India: The Role of Non governmental Organizations & Public Hospitals

In order to tide over shortfalls in provision of services due to staff feeling overburdened especially with regards to a follow-up of cases, studies have stressed the impetus for an integrated collaborative setup. Experts recommend the creation of multidisciplinary centers in at least one government hospital in every district staffed with trained personnel and equipped to provide integrated, comprehensive, gender-sensitive and child-friendly treatment, forensic examinations, counseling, and rehabilitation for children that suffer sexual abuse (Human Rights Watch, 2013). The Multi-Disciplinary Child Protection Center described earlier in the findings can be touted as one such model. Bhaskaran & Seshadri (2016) propose that it is imperative to work as a part of a multidisciplinary team by ensuring a strong liaison of medical, psychiatric, child protection and legal systems to effectively assess and manage CSA cases. Services aspire to work collaboratively with other organizations, and activities such as signposting, referring to and consulting with other professionals are occurring regularly (Allnock et al, 2012). Assessment, establishment and management of CSA cases are filled with uncertainty. Therefore, in dealing with conflicting needs and goals, the clinician needs to maintain a continuous and unwavering focus on the child. Such a child-centric approach entails at a primary level, understanding the child’s experience, her needs and desires and planning interventions from a right-based perspective. At a deeper level, it entails examining all related decisions and interventions with regard to family, legal and other systems from the perspective of the child’s best interests, namely her safety and protection, and her immediate and future developmental trajectories and goals (Bhaskaran & Seshadri, 2016). Additionally research has shown that high quality facilities for providing medical services to sexual assault victims are characterized by a number of key features, namely, they are accessible, secure, clean and private (WHO, 2003).
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Child Friendly Alice Technical Report: About the children and families of Alice Springs 2019

Child Friendly Alice Technical Report: About the children and families of Alice Springs 2019

Figure 15 shows what children and young people thought was not so good about Alice Springs. While weather and climate were seen as positives of living in Alice Springs, the hot summers were identified as not so good for young people. Drinking, drugs, violence and antisocial behaviour were also seen as problematic, particularly for males. Crime (which mainly refers to property crime) was similarly seen as a problem for children and young people. While recreation opportunities were seen as ‘good’, many young people (more females than males) suggested that there was ‘nothing to do’, there were not enough shops and there was a need for a water park or theme park. Among the other top 10 issues raised were ‘kids walking around at night’, bushfires and cost of living issues. Additional details showing responses by gender, age and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status are shown at Appendix 1 in Table 42, Table 43 and Table 44, starting at page 148.
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Child Friendly Alice Technical Report: About the children and families of Alice Springs 2019

Child Friendly Alice Technical Report: About the children and families of Alice Springs 2019

Most people in the surveys recognised the importance and benefits of a good education. Many young people and children saw schooling as a positive part of life in Alice Springs. Yet there are several indicators that point to educational concerns for children and adults in Alice Springs. School attendance rates tend to be lower than for comparable areas of the Northern Territory; NAPLAN scores are also lower and Year 12 completion rates lag well behind Australia, and this is more marked among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. But there are signs of improvement in some of the early years AEDC data, particularly for communication skills and language and cognitive skills. Digital inclusion for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households, particularly in Town Camps, remains an issue. Many adults surveyed saw education as a vehicle for overcoming the problems they saw for young people and children in Alice Springs.
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