I, hereby, acknowledge that I have been supplied with the Academic Rules and Regulations for Post Graduate, Universiti Teknologi MARA, regulating the conduct of my study and research.
Name of Student : RajaAmirah Binti RajaRazlan Student I.D. No. : 2014178315
Hence the swivel task was to use the novel optical/IR approach based on the triangular method proposed by Gruhier et al. (2008) . Land-sat data appear to be fine for mon- itoring the soil water content over large area. Various method- ologies are used for determination of soilmoistureusing remote sensing, which includes, thermal inertia method, nor- malized vegetation index approach, crop water stress index method, crop water deficit index model. In this study the renowned temperature vegetation dryness index method which is derived from satellite data is used to estimate soilmoisture content ( Iqbal and Khan, 2014; Chen et al., 2011; Sandholt et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2004 ). In the last decade, a number of researchers have studied the relationship between vegetation indices and land surface temperature. This method was based on the Ts/NDVI triangulation. The interpretation of trapezoid relationship between (NDVI) and LST will help out in the cal- culation of TVDI/soilmoisture content ( Ismail and Yacoub, 2012; Atchley and Maxwell, 2011; Dall’Amico et al., 2013; Fan and van den Dool, 2011; Hejazi and Woodbury, 2011; Holzman et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2012; Lopes et al., 2011; Mei and Wang, 2011; Ridler et al., 2012; Song et al., 2014; Srivastava et al., 2013; Sun et al., 2012; Tennant and Beare, 2014;Wu et al., 2011; Zhao and Li, 2013 ). Moran et al. (1994) described a method based on the Ts/NDVI trapezoid. The TVDI is calculated based on the interpretation of the rela- tionship between vegetation indices (NDVI) and LST (TS).
The triangle method is based on an interpretation of the pixel distribution in the LST/NDVI feature space. LST is affected by many factors such as surface thermal properties, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and vegetation coverage, hence there is no direct relationship between LST and soil water content. However, soilmoisture is an important factor controlling vegetation canopy temperature and under certain vegetation coverage soilmoisture can indirectly affect canopy temperature. The LST/NDVI feature space (shown in Figure 2.1) is used to illustrate the relationship among LST, soilmoisture and vegetation coverage. A scatterplot of remotely sensed surface temperature and a vegetation index often results in a triangular shape (Price, 1990; Carlson et al., 1994), or a trapezoid shape (Moran, Clarke, Inoue, et al., 1994) if a full range of fractional vegetation cover and soilmoisture contents is present in the data. Previous studies (Prihodko and Goward 1997; Moran et al. 1994; Carlson et al. 1995; Gillies et al. 1997; Sandholt et al. 2002) have shown that the triangular feature space consists of a family of soilmoisture isolines, which are also TVDI isolines, representing different degrees of aridity, and isolines closer to the upper boundary of the feature space represent pixels with low soilmoisture. The horizontal line at the low limit in the LST/NDVI feature space is called the wet edge (unlimited water availability) while the sloping line is called the dry edge (maximum evapotranspiration and limited water access). There are three assumptions behind the triangle method and the use of TVDI, which are 1) The feature space of land surface temperature (LST) and NDVI results in a triangular shape given a large number of pixels reflecting a full range of soilsurfacewetness and vegetation coverage. The boundaries of the triangle reflect real physical limits: day bare soil, full vegetated surface, wet bare soil, and driest condition in the frame; 2) The LST/NDVI feature space consists of many soilmoisture isolines which are also TVDI isolines; 3) The upper boundary of the triangle represents the driest condition in the frame, and the lower limit reflects soil with unlimited water availability (at field capacity or above). A dryness index is proposed from the LST/NDVI feature space to describe the relationship among the three and it is calculated as the ratio of A to B for point C in the feature space:
The soilwetness and soil type has a considerable role in studying the agricultural droughts. The amount of moisture actually present in the soil reflects the antecedent meteorological conditions; soil characteristics and the level of agronomic techniques at any given instant of time are in use in the region (Kulik, 1958). Taking soilmoisture content as a criterion Rodda (1965, 1969) made a study of droughts in southeast England. He calculated soilmoisture, drought index as a deviation value of available soilmoisture and the amounts of runoff and percolation.
Land use mapping is based on a decision tree, using three types of satellite data: four SPOT images, SRTM data and finally two radar images. We established eight classes of land use: non-irrigated olive trees, irrigated olive trees, ir- rigated winter vegetables, irrigated summer vegetables, bare soils, urban areas, mountainous areas, water cover and ar- eas of coastal salt flats “sebkhas”. In the case of vegetables, as previously mentioned, we considered two classes, one for winter and the other for summer. We used empirical NDVI thresholds with the images acquired at the end of Decem- ber 2008 (NDVI > 0.4) and during July 2009 (NDVI > 0.3). In fact, during these two periods, only irrigated vegetables presented a high NDVI. For the wheat classes (irrigated or non-irrigated), we made our analysis on two different dates, the first at the beginning of the cycle (in December 2008), and the second at the end of the vegetation development pe- riod (April 2009). The distinction between irrigated and non- irrigated wheat is based on a NDVI threshold equal to 0.5, since the irrigated class has a higher NDVI. Irrigated and non-irrigated olive trees are separated using a K-mean ap- proach, based on a single optical SPOT image. The DTM provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, http://srtm.usgs.gov/) allowed certain zones to be eliminated from our land use analysis. We excluded mountainous areas with an altitude greater than 300 m. We also identified water cover and urban classes. Validation of these remotely sensed classifications, based on ground verification over more than 100 fields with different types of land uses, reveals an ac- curacy of around 94%. Figure 3 illustrates the results of our land use mapping for the 2008–2009 season. The non- irrigated olive tree class covers 43% of the studied site, and the wheat class corresponds to 12% of the surface area of the studied site.
Fig. 3 The architecture of the applied method.
Fig. 4 The results of pre-satellite image processing with radiometric correction techniques.
III. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSIONS
Based on the research that has been done, new maps for NDMI, NDVI, and LST for each month are obtained. Fig. 5 shows that cluster 1 has the lowest NDMI value compared to other clusters, while cluster 3 has the highest NDMI value. On the other hand, Fig. 6 shows that the relationship between NDMI and NDVI generally is directly proportional, namely the higher the vegetation, the higher the humidity, but not vice versa. In addition to NDMI and NDVI, new maps of LST are also obtained for each month. Based on the research that has been done, NDVI and LST are always directly proportional. However, LST, compared to NDMI, is not always directly proportional.
Africa that scans the full Earth disk every 15 min. This high temporal resolution is a major advantage
since it allows estimates of soil thermal inertia (morning rise temperature;; dTS) (Stisen et al. 2008)
Abstract. Estimating soilmoisture typically involves cali- brating models to sparse networks of in situ sensors, which introduces considerable error in locations where sensors are not available. We address this issue by calibrating parame- ters of a parsimonious soilmoisture model, which requires only antecedent precipitation information, at gauged loca- tions and then extrapolating these values to ungauged loca- tions via a hydroclimatic classification system. Fifteen sites within the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) contain- ing multiyear time series data for precipitation and soil mois- ture are used to calibrate the model. By calibrating at 1 of these 15 sites and validating at another, we observe that the best results are obtained where calibration and valida- tion occur within the same hydroclimatic class. Additionally, soil texture data are tested for their importance in improv- ing predictions between calibration and validation sites. Re- sults have the largest errors when calibration–validation pairs differ hydroclimatically and edaphically, improve when one of these two characteristics are aligned, and are strongest when the calibration and validation sites are hydroclimati- cally and edaphically similar. These findings indicate con- siderable promise for improving soilmoistureestimation in ungauged locations by considering these similarities.
Abstract. Currently, no extensive, near real time, global soilmoisture observation network exists. Therefore, the Met Of- fice global soilmoisture analysis scheme has instead used observations of screen temperature and humidity. A num- ber of new space-borne remote sensing systems, operating at microwave frequencies, have been developed that pro- vide a more direct retrieval of surfacesoilmoisture. These systems are attractive since they provide global data cover- age and the horizontal resolution is similar to weather fore- casting models. Several studies show that measurements of normalised backscatter (surfacesoilwetness) from the Ad- vanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on the meteorological oper- ational (MetOp) satellite contain good quality information about surfacesoilmoisture. This study describes methods to convert ASCAT surfacesoilwetness measurements to volumetric surfacesoilmoisture together with bias correc- tion and quality control. A computationally efficient nudg- ing scheme is used to assimilate the ASCAT volumetric sur- face soilmoisture data into the Met Office global soil mois- ture analysis. This ASCAT nudging scheme works along- side a soilmoisture nudging scheme that uses observations of screen temperature and humidity. Trials, using the Met Office global Unified Model, of the ASCAT nudging scheme show a positive impact on forecasts of screen temperature and humidity for the tropics, North America and Australia. A comparison with in-situ soilmoisture measurements from the US also indicates that assimilation of ASCAT surfacesoilwetness improves the soilmoisture analysis. Assimilation of ASCAT surfacesoilwetness measurements became opera- tional during July 2010.
Over the years, firms have been pressured by various stakeholders to be transparent about how they operate. In this regard, good corporate governance should ensure timely and accurate disclosure is made on a firm’s financial, risk management and internal control. Hence, the purpose of this study is to construct an index for risk management and internal control. This index used to assess the extents of Malaysian listed firms’ compliance of the risk management and internal control guidelines created for directors of listed issuers. The index was developed based on the requirements, under Paragraph 15.26(b) of Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad’s Main Market Listing Requirements (‘Listing Requirements’), as guided by the ‘Statement on Risk Management and Internal Control: Guidelines for Directors of Listed Issuers’. This guideline , which was released on 31 December 2012, incorporates the revision made to the Statement on Risk Management & Internal Control: Guidelines for Directors of Listed Issuers (issued in 2000). The findings of this study reveal that the compliance score by the sample firms reach about 70 per cent. The result is beneficial to the industry led Task Force to ascertain how the revised guidelines were incorporated into corporate governance dislosure. The findings of this study could also be useful for firms to determine the adequacy of their risk management and internal control practices and ensure that these guidelines are communicated appropriately and effectively. This, in turn, will assist firms to achieve their corporate objectives and match stakeholders’ expectations within an ethical and healthy corporate culture.
attached with discoid holdfast, main axis cylindrical and rough due to the presence of numerous outgrowth, supporting alternately arranged branches bearing blade and vesicles. In young thalli, blades are longer and broader measuring 13-42 mm long including the stipe and 2.5 – 11.5 mm wide, blades are generally oblong slightly tapered, retuse (slightly rounded) or emarginated at the tip finally serrated throughout the margin, mature thalli fewer leaves smaller. Cryptostomates are scattered on the surface of the blade (Mattio & Payri, 2009). This macroalgae has secondary holdfast that is transformed
As per ascorbic acid content in green fruits of various chilli genotypes under study revealed that Dr. PDKV chilli genotype Jayanti Selection was recorded highest ascorbic acid content (121.77 mg 100 g -1 ) in green fruits among all genotypes. Similar results were reported by Datta and Jana (2011) while testing of different chilli genotypes with respect to their stability at terai zone of west Bengal. Furthermore, higher recovery of the ascorbic acid may be due to the drying of green chillies of all genotypes under study by using Dr. PDKV- Processing technology under controlled temperature and pressure as the ascorbic acid was degraded by higher temperatures and the drying temperature of the said method was 60ºC. Significantly, highest capsaicin 0.83% content in green fruits powder was recorded in
On 7 th May Mohan Prasad gave a bond to prosecute Nand Kumar in the Supreme
Court. On the basis of it the trial bagan before the Chief Justice, Elijah Impey and three other puisne judges, Robert Chambers, John Hyde and Le Maistre alongwith a twelve member jury of which two were Eurasians and the rest were Europeans. Durham was engaged as the counsel for Mohan Prasad and Alexander Elliot as the interpreter of the court. Thomas Farrer was appointed as the defence counsel for Raja Nandkumar. The trial continued for a period of eight days without any adjournment. On 16 th June 1775, Chief Justice Impey summed up the whole case. The judges gave the unanimous verdict of “guilty” and the jury also declared their verdict of “guilty”. Rejecting all defence pleas the Chief Justice passed the sentence of death on Nand Kumar under an Act of British Parliament, which was passed in 1729.
Bill. The President has no option but to assent. This must be passed by each House by special majority prescribed by Article 368. There is no provision for joint sitting.
D. Union Judiciary
In our country, we have a single system of Judiciary. We do not have two types as in the case of United States of America; one for the Center and other for the States. Hence, the Supreme Court of our country is the highest Apex Court and its verdicts are final in the constitutional matters, customs and tradition and earlier decisions of the various courts. The judicial system of a country takes up disputes and gives judgment based on the laws. Both the judiciary and the laws play an important role in the society. The courts of law perform the important task of protecting the life, property, dignity and the rights of the citizens. They are not controlled by either the Legislature or the Executive. They are expected to function impartially and independently. Thus, in any country, judiciary plays the important role of interpreting and applying laws and adjudicating upon controversies between one citizen and another citizen / State – to maintain Rule of Law and to assure that the government runs according to law – in a country with a written Constitution. Judiciary is having additional function of safeguarding the supremacy of the Constitution by interpreting and applying its provisions and keeps all authorities within the constitutional framework.
To develop tourism sustainably in an emerging tourism destination especially Raja Ampat, there is a need to manage regional identity and develop governance arrangements that bond tourism development and community together. The government as a key initiator of community empowerment, needs to ensure its governance arrangements are efficient. This paper develops a framework to measure the effectiveness of regional governance for sustainable tourism development based on two main elements: sustainable development plus and tourism governance. Sustainable development plus consists of two core named internal and external layers. The tourism governance is then measured by data triangulation, and analysis. The result of the analysis is articulated into tourism governance index and management strategy based on Boston Consulting Group Matrix. This framework which later transformed into governance matrix can be used to set up governance index to help the government improve the governance performance. The android based app open access is also developed to bring policy making process closer to the community and global sphere. Keywords: Sustainable Development Plus, Measuring Tourism Governance, Open Access Android Based App, Raja Ampat, Papua.
Segments of morphogenic callus were fixed in FAA (Formalin: Acetic Acid: Alcohol) for 48h. Customary paraffin technique was followed for histological studies. Microtome sections of about 15-18μm thickness were taken and stained with Haidenhain’s haemotoxylin and counter stained with Orange-G/Eosin. Photomicrographs of sections were taken with Nikon binocular microscope using Cannon camera.