4.6 E-Application Process
If the e-application process is delayed, slow or lengthy, pooling right candidates will be difficult or impossible. Literatures assert that Bank of Ireland has evaluated their approach to e-recruitment, largely based upon cost effectiveness, speed to hire and consistency of decision making. Following the implementation of the online system an evaluation found the amount of time saved in term of capturing candidate information was approximately 20 working days, while the time saving of not having to manually score CVs was over 62 working days (Niall & Martina, 2006). Delays in the application process may cause the loss of the applicants interest or could signal lacking competence of the company (Rynes, 1991). And if the screening process is not well done, the quantity of applications/résumés logged-on can in fact, lengthen the short-listing process (Margaret et al., 2012). It is a suggestion to Saudicompanies to check e-application process as in most cases candidate are required to register sign up first and then fill long online form. Creating favourable candidate perceptions via their online experience at the outset was considered vital, and they made the decision not to introduce automatic screening or “knock out” questions to reduce volumes of applications, and therefore to avoid the risk of jeopardising long term relationships with candidate (Niall & Martina, 2006). A example of Merrill Lynch will be helpful as they require all applications to complete a brief online application form in addition to attaching their CV. Research carried out by the organisation indicated that application forms should take less than 2 minutes to complete or risks “putting off” candidates. Moreover, E-application long filling process can be substitute by submitting short CV video of 3-5 minute covering main aspect of experience, skills and qualification.
Mostly third-party e-recruitment web sites have integrated some kind of electronic sifting systems but commonly rely on the university teacher job searchers’ input of their qualifications and their expertise in the database. However, using e-sifting may be very fast, but not necessary any more accurate (Lima, 2016). Future progress of this e-shifting system should consider this problem to construct the system more effective. Feedback on the system accuracy from university teacher job seekers and clients is endorsed (Melanthiou, Pavlou, & Constantinou, 2015). E-recruiters should also contemplate current improvement on the web site privacy protection, mainly shielding their members’ personal information and resume’s from being noticed by their employers. This development is possible if the system is intended to allow university teacher job seekers to make their own company from observing their applications. With the current rising costs in third-party e-recruitment, many corporatecompanies are now integrating their web sites for e-recruitment ( Ahmed, Tahir, & Warsi, 2015 ). Therefore, further study should focus on comparison of the third-party effectiveness and corporate’s e-recruitment approaches to recruit endowment employees with gender and race as moderating variables. The study of the threats among non-profit organizations, corporatecompanies, newspapers, and executive examine e-recruitment to third-party e-recruiters is also suggested.
The objective of this paper is to examine the determinants of environmental sustainability disclosure of Saudi listed companies. Two main dimensions of the factors influencing sustainability disclosure were investigated: company characteristics (size, age, profitability, type of industry and leverage) and board of directors’ characteristics (size, independence and annual number of meetings). This research study utilized the content analysis approach in order to collect data from annual reports of non-financial companies listed in the Saudi stock market between 2015 and 2017. The total number of annual reports that were covered in this research is 357, which pertain to 119 non-financial companies that were listed during the study period. The study focused on disclosure of environmental sustainability, which is one of the three branches of sustainability (social, economic and environmental). The Global Initiative Reports GRI (G4) issued by the United Nations in 2013 was used to examine these annual reports with respect to the disclosure of environmental sustainability. The findings of this paper reveal that the type of industry, company’s profits, company size and company age are important determinants when it comes to the disclosure of environmental sustainability for Saudi non-financial companies listed in the period of 2015–2017. The elements of corporate governance except for board independence are not important factors, which might be due to the voluntary nature of disclosure of sustainability information. These results suggest that factors related to the identity of a group of companies might influence the disclosure for such type of companies, particularly when the disclosure is voluntary in nature. Therefore, the explanation provided by legitimacy theory with regards to voluntary disclosure is more influenced by bounded factors that reflect upon a group of companies. The results of this paper should help in evaluating the overall contribution of Saudicompanies toward the achievement of Saudi Vision 2030, which intends to enhance the quality of life in Saudi society.
internet. The first references to onlinerecruitment Appeared in articles of the mid- 1980s. onlinerecruitment can be divided into two types of uses: corporate web site for recruitment and commercial jobs boards (such as monster.com) for posting job advertisements. Corporate websites are a company‟s own website with a link for job posting/career options where candidates can log into for current openings. If the company advertises its vacant positions on other website that specialize in recruitment such as - naukri.com, timesjob.com, monster.com, etc., the companies would be adopting commercial job boards for recruitment. Companies and recruitment agents have moved much of their recruitment process online so as to improve the speed by which candidates can be matched with live vacancies. Using database technologies, and online job advertising boards and search engines, employers can now fill posts in a fraction of the time previously possible. Using an onlineRecruitment system may potentially save the employer time as usually they can rate the Candidate and several persons in HR independently review Candidates. Recruitment agencies also use a method of
A corporate governance disclosure index is developed to analyse the content of every company's website to identify whether corporate governance information is disclosed or not. We found that the majority of Saudi listed companies use the Internet to communicate with their stakeholders. Our findings also suggest that the level of online reporting of corporate governance varies between sectors. In particular, we found that the banking sector has the highest level of corporate governance disclosure compared with other sectors. On the other side, companies in the industry and service sectors provide very little information about corporate governance on their websites. The results suggest that the nature of control over the sector, the involvement of government in the ownership and management of businesses, and some social assumptions could have an impact on companies' attitude to disclose online information about their corporate governance in developing countries.
In recent years, many companies have paid considerable attention to the usage of the Internet by considering the online business reporting as a significant part of their investor relations activities (Lymer and Tallberg, 1997; Deller et al., 1999; Protogeros, 2002). Nevertheless, there are no unified guidelines or generally accepted principles have been issued yet to govern or to homogenize the CIR practices at any level (Ashbaugh et al., 1999; Craven and Marston, 1999; Debreceny et al., 2001). There is also no unified definition or concept commonly used to refer to these practices. Some researchers focus solely on accounting and financial information provided on the corporate website. This trend was followed by many researchers and thus known as the Internet Financial Reporting (IFR). Another scholars focused on describing more contents such as corporate governance along with the financial information (Abdelsalam and Street, 2007; Kelton and Yang, 2008). Those who merged between these two types of information termed the online business disclosure practices as Corporate Internet Reporting. The researcher suggest that using this comprehensive term of Corporate Internet Reporting (CIR) Practices will take into consideration all types of business information or reports which are normally disclosed on the Internet. Moreover, the researcher suggests expressing CIR practices as a process that includes many activities and seeks to attain many benefits such as improving corporate image/reputation, improving accountability and decision making to the investors and enabling investors to accurately assess their investment risks (Craven and Marston, 1999). Hence, to define CIR as a process, the researcher needs to illustrate the nature; objective and main components constitute this process. First of all, in respect of the nature of CIR, the online business reporting practices are globally heterogamous (Robbins and Stylianou, 2003) especially in respect to the contents (Ashbaugh et al., 1999; Geerings et al., 2003; Bonsón and Escobar, 2006; Mohamed and Oyelere, 2008; Trabelsi et al., 2008; Cormier et al., 2009). Besides, in most cases, senior management is the dominant party committed to these practices (Doherty et al., 2003); even if the design and update of the CIR have been outsourced.
On the other hand, the researcher was lucky as he had 17 years‟ experience in private sectors. This experience created a strong relationship and networking between the researcher and MNEs‟ managers and DEs‟ managers in Saudi Arabia. For example, the researcher worked with seven international enterprises Lucent firm (USA), Huawei (China), Science (Germany), Alcatel (Franc), Nokia (Finland), Nera (Norway) and Harris (USA) to which he can get easy access to MNEs. Recently, the researcher has been working at the Ericsson Swedish Company. This relationship has supported the researcher in gaining smooth access to firms. The searchers with high experience can motivate participants to reveal data (Morse, 2000; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). A number of limitations were identified in the methodology, such as some data not meeting the normality, and the linear regression and t-test were not used in this data for analysis. The alternative test used is that of the LOG test. Additionally, the t- test was not used in a comparison between the two types. The chi-square test was used to find proportion between the two binary outcomes in appraisal.
rules and controlling methods of insurance companies’ operations. The Law on Companies regulates the general issues of structure and modifications of the Instrument of Incorporation and the Articles of Associ- ation as well as the nullity of the Articles of Association. However, the structure of these documents is de- fined by individual insurance companies which is why the structure is usually very similar to the aforementioned though the contents differ depending on the insurer. In the field of corporate governance, the Articles of Association usually define the rules and procedures relating to the representation and repre- sentatives, proxy i.e., business procurement, internal monitoring, internal audit, persons having special du- ties and their duties and governing with special and detailed elaboration of issues relating to particular governing bodies including the Shareholders’ Assembly (its constitution, participation in operations, com- petence, voting, method for establishment of quorum, decision making and the like), the Supervisory Au- thority (constitution, appointment of members, a member’s term, method for establishment of the quorum, competence and the like.), the method of the Audit Committee operation and other Committees a company has a right to establish according to the Law on Companies, the Executive Board (competence and re- sponsibilities, members’ term, method of operation and the like), the General Manager and the Company Secretary. Finally, the document which directly and to a large extent relates to the issue of corporate gov- ernance is the Corporate Governance Code which usually and to a large extent regulates the issues of mu- tual relations of specific governing bodies in insurance companies and the transparency and publicity of their work. It is about a document which directs the activities of governance and control but which is to a large extent based on the Articles of Association of a specific company and the Corporate Governance Code is- sued by the Serbian Chamber of Commerce. This document elaborates the goals and basic principles of business, governing bodies and specifics concerning their work in a particular insurance company, the dis- closure, issues regarding the auditing and the relation towards the stakeholders of a company, though it may as well include issues of managing and the method of acquisition of own shares and managing of classi- fied information.
One of the most widely talked about concept in the management research today is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) (Geva, A; 2008). In spite of the havelange of literature on this subject, there is a clear absence on consensus on its definition. Some authors are even of the opinion that there exists no definition for CSR (Jackson & Hawker, 2001), an assertion with which many other authors disagree. Some author prefer to use the term ‘Social Responsibility’ to clarify that related issues are not restricted to profit making organisations (Heath & Ni, 2008). Others use the term ‘corporate societal responsibility, corporate social responsiveness, corporate social performance, corporate citizenship, business citizenship, stake holding company, business ethics, sustainable company etc (Valor, 2005). Dahlsrud (2006) believes CSR is a social construction and as such, it is difficult to develop an unbiased definition. However, for the purpose of this paper we will define Corporate Social Responsibility as ways in which organisations achieve commercial success using methods that honour ethical values, respect people and communities and the natural environment (Business for Social Responsibility, 2003). This definition covers five key dimensions of CSR: stakeholders, economic, social, voluntariness and environmental dimensions thus incorporating most of the divergent views of the meaning of CSR (Dahlsrud, 2006).
In all branches and regions of Russia there is a considerable deficit of qualified managers. The biggest part of intellectual potential, leading business-schools, progressive experience is concentrated in Moscow- one of the most expensive cities of the world. Companies when sending their employees for training are to bear serious expenses connected with
manufacturers not only consists of products but also consist of integrated sets of products and services. In 2011, 30% of manufacturers globally were classified as servitized (Neely, Benedetinni, & Visnjic, 2011). In the United States, the country with the highest level of servitized manufacturers, 55% were servitized (Neely, Benedetinni, & Visnjic, 2011). China, the country with the biggest notable shift in level of servitization reached a level of 19% (Neely, Benedetinni, & Visnjic, 2011). Servitized manufacturers develop and offer integrated sets of products and services in order to sustain, differentiate and compete and is often driven by fierce competition from low cost countries, emerging economies and high mature markets. However, servitization is not only externally driven. Servitization includes offering the product as a service and by doing so it generates revenue streams through the entire product’s lifecycle. This results in predictable and continuous revenue streams throughout the lifecycle and stability of income. Continuous improvements in technology, especially in ICT, enabled companies to offer more advanced and sophisticated offerings. These services are supporting and focusing at the customer rather than services focused on maintenance of the product’s condition. It also enabled the manufacturer to have a closer look at a
The Consumers’ behavior depends on several factors that influence purchasing decisions. Moreover, these factors are different from country to country. This study aims to examine Saudi consumers’ purchasing behavior, to identify the impact of brand name on their purchase decisions. Brand knowledge and how consumers view brands is vital to understand because the more consumers become aware of the brand and have knowledge of its price and quality, the more they will be attracted to that brand. This study indicates that consumers are affected by a number of other factors during their purchase decisions, including: brand perception, purchase stimuli, quality of the branded products and local brands. The results show that brand name influences the consumers’ choice in the purchasing process and that consumers are influenced by the quality of a product before making the selection decision. Moreover, the results indicate that consumers are more attached to the internationally branded products than to the local branded products.
La contestualizzazione di questo modello ai sistemi di reclutamento online porta a ritenere che il livello di fiduciadi chi cerca lavoro sviluppato nei confronti del sito web dedicato al recruiting,, possa andare a influenzare l’intenzione di sottoporre il proprio CV per un lavoro, tramite tale portale. D’altronde queste sono operazioni molto delicate poiché non solo richiedono l’invio di dati personali da parte del candidato,ma possono anche creare importanti occasioni di lavoro e quindi di realizzazione personale: per questo risulta particolarmente interessante applicare il costrutto di fiducia proprio a tecnologie come i sistemi di reclutamento online.
2. when seeking to retrieve lost knowledge, eg when employees leave the organisation, activities and technologies can be identifies to capture and manage their knowledge by making it explicit. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are often a fertile environment for knowledge creation and transfer and hence innovation. Companies who have effective ways to manage their knowledge are much better prepared to face any changes in new economy, and thereby be innovative (Harari, 1994; Nonaka, 1994; West, 1992) and better decide how to invest and to compete (Carneir 2000). SMEs are then suitable sites for the study, and adoption, of KM.
Utopia is an internet portal that offers consumers information on the topic of strategic consumption and sustainable lifestyles. For the most part, the portal is based on information that has been made available by registered users. The registration is available for free to everyone. For about a year, private people have been able to design individual profiles in the Utopia community, get in contact with each other and build networks. Since November 2008, companies have also been invited to document their paths towards sustainability in their Utopia-profile – with descriptions of their commitments on their Sedcard, with Blog entries, pictures and video clips, as well as with open dialogue with stakeholders or other companies. For their part, the registered users of the portal, the so-called Utopisten (Utopians), are able to comment on the companies’ entries and to get in contact with corporate representatives.
Taking all of the above factors together, an atmosphere of distrust arose against Western civilisation and its culture and generated resistance among Sharia scholars towards foreign legislation and any modernising projects proposed by their countries’ leaders as well. 234 This information can be used to understand the Saudi context as it contains the most holy sites of Muslims; its population and other Muslims also consider Saudi Arabia as the ideal Islamic country. Therefore, the usage of Shari'ah provisions in the conflicts between politicians and Islamic scholars is most visible in Saudi context. As a result of this confliction, some strange provisions have emerged, which have never belonged to Shari'ah or are consistent with its principles, for example, the prohibition on the usage of the term "law", forbidding benefiting from Western laws at all even when their rules are compatible with Shari'ah, 235 as well as banning women from driving. This resistance comes from people who think that these provisions will protect the supremacy of Shari'ah and protect women from the bad decision to remove Hijabs, for instance, which has already happened elsewhere. Such provisions are not fair and should not be attributed to Shari'ah.
(207,258), while in the health sector, for example, they rated less than (7%) compared to other sectors (Alzamhary, 2009).
Studies such as Lakati, Binns, and Stevenson (2002), Seguino (2003), and Hein (2005) showed that the family responsibilities of the woman are a significant obstacle to the official involvement of the woman in the labor market, affecting her decision on accepting or refusing a position. Malhotra, Schuler, and Boender (2002), Kabeer (2009), Gupta and Yesudian (2002), and Golla et al. (2011) concluded that woman qualification and empowerment ensure active participation, reflected in the daily life and community and to equally participate like the men in the desired change. Regarding the Saudi woman, Abunafesa (2012) affirmed activating their leading role and energy by sensitizing them about the importance of their role in accelerating economy and development, acquiring creative lifestyles, finding new work opportunities, and eliminating unemployment.
A number of studies, using the signalling theory, have examined the association between disclosure levels and liquidity. For example, Abd El Salam (1999) argues that firms will disclose more information if their liquidity ratio is high. She justifies her argument by stating that firms with high liquidity ratio need to distinguish themselves from those with low liquidity ratios. This is done by increasing levels of voluntary disclosure. On the other hand, agency theory suggests that companies with low liquidity ratios are more likely to provide more information to satisfy the information requirements of shareholders and creditors. A number of studies have examined the association between liquidity and the levels of corporate disclosure. However, the findings are mixed. For example, Oyeler, Laswad and Fisher (2003) find a positive relationship between the two variables, while Wallace et al. (1994) find a negative association. In a meta-analysis study, Ahmed and Courtis (1999) did not find any association between disclosure and liquidity. Based on these discussions, we formulate our fourth hypothesis as follows: