The major population of the world is prone to peptic ulcers, which has become a most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder due to sedentary lifestyle, habituation to junk food, increasing stress, and indiscriminate use of NSAIDS . Peptic ulcer disease occurs due to the alteration of balance between damaging (aggressive) factors such as high acid-pepsin secretion and protective factors (defensive) such as gastromucosal integrity, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion . Helicobacter pylori infection is another major cause of peptic ulcer disease . Many synthetic antiulcer and gastroprotective drugs such as proton- pump inhibitors and H 2 receptor antagonists are available in the market,
The anti-ulcer effect of the methanolic extract was eval- uated using ethanol induced gastric ulcer model. Ethanol induced gastric lesions formed due to interference in gas- tric blood flow which contributes to the development of the hemorrhage and necrotic aspects of tissue injury. Al- cohol swiftly penetrates the gastric mucosa superficially causing cell and plasma membrane damage leading to augmented intracellular membrane permeability to sodium and water. The mammoth buildup of calcium de- scribes a chief step in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury. This sequence leads to the demise of cells and erosion of epithelium’s surface [36, 37].
This study is the first report regarding analgesic activity of EEMT leaves. Anti nociceptive models like acetic acid induced writhing test and radiant heat tail flick method were used to evaluate analgesic activity of EEMTL. The results of the present study shown that EEMTL produced significant analgesic activity against chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice and rats.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of Trianthema triquetra roots ethanolicextract in Wistar albino rats using NSAIDs & Ethanol induced ulcer models. Plant material was collected from Tirupati A.P, during the month of June 2014. The roots were made free from dust and foreign material and dried under shade at room temperature. After a week the roots were powdered and passed through a sieve. The powder was weighed (500 gm) and was extracted by successive solvent extraction process. The yield of ethanolicextract of trianthema triquetra was found to be 7.31% W/W. Phytochemical screening was carried out for the detection of the phytoconstituents by simple qualitative methods. The dosing was designed as per the acute toxicity study reported earlier. The anti-ulceractivity was performed by NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer model at two different doses, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg. Wistar rats weighing(130-150gm) of either sex were used for the study. There was significant reduction of ulcers in the test groups observed in both NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer models. TTEE exhibited anti-ulceractivity in both curative and prophylactic experimental models which provides the evidence of its use as a potent antiulcer drug.
Shetti et al., (2012) 13 evaluated the anti diabetic effect of ethanolic leaf extract of P. amarus in alloxan induced diabetic mice. The present study was carried to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of ethanolicextract of P. amarus in alloxan induced diabetic mice. The leaves of the plant were dried under shade for about 6 days and reduced to powder by using dry grinder. 100gm of the powder was then packed into soxhlet apparatus and extracted using 95% ethanol for about 40hours. The extract was dried at 45ᵒC in hot air oven till a green colored semi solid mass was obtained. It was then stored in a refrigerator at 4ᵒC until further use. The animals were grouped into four groups of 5 mice. Diabetes was induced by i.p administration of alloxan monohydrate 150mg/kg body weight. Group I served as normal healthy mice and given only vehicle, Group II served as control, Group III diabetic mice received a dose of glibenclamide 600µg/kg body weight and Group IV received plant extract 400mg/kg body weight. The results showed significant (p<0.05) reduction on oral administration of P. amarus.
In this method, albino rats were fasted in individual cages for 24 hr. Ethanolicextract of Mangifera indica/standard lansoprazole / Vitamin K/Vitamin C/Zinc sulphate administered 30 min prior to pyloric ligation. Under light ether anesthesia, the abdomen was opened and pylorus was ligated. The abdomen was then sutured. At the end of 6 hours after ligation the animals were sacrificed with excess of anesthetic ether. The stomach was dissected out, gastric juice was collected, were drained into tubes and centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 minutes and the volume was noted. Then the contents were subjected to analysis for free and total acidity. The stomach was then washed with running water to see ulcers in the glandular portion of the stomach. The number of ulcers per stomach was noted and severity of the ulcers scored microscopically with the help of hand lens (10X) and scoring was done as following.
into four groups of six animals each. Animals were fasted for 24 h before the study but had free access to water. The ethanolicextract at 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. were given to the animals. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as a standard. After one hour, the animals were anesthetized using anesthetic ether. The abdomen was opened, and the pyloric portion was ligated. The abdominal wall was closed by sutures. The after four hours the animals were sacrificed the abdomen was opened, and the stomach was dissected out. The stomach juices were collected into a glass tube.
In recent times much attention has been paid to biologically active plants because of their low production cost and fewer adverse effects compared with allopathic drugs and produce a definite physiological action on the human body. Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers and Phyllanthus niruri were used as the traditional medicines in India and other parts of world. Both plants were very useful for various pharmacological and biological activities. However, the use of the herbs is not based on any evidence of their contents. In the present study the effects of 2 types of solvents, water and ethanol were investigated to determine the presence of various phytochemical constituent and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Tephrosia purpurea and Phyllanthus niruri. The reason for selecting in vitro method was to minimize the usage of experimentalanimals. The therapeutic effects of tannins, phenols and flavonoids can be largely recognized to their antioxidant properties. The antioxidant property was determined using DPPH scavenging activity. The study revealed that T. purpurea and P. niruri extract contained proteins, diterpines saponin, phenol, and flavonoid based on phytochemical screening. In DPPH assays ethanolic leave extract of P. niruri possessed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 36.68 μg/ml as compared to other extract. Meanwhile, P. niruri aqueous leave extract showed the activity which was 50.89 μg/ml .Aqueous leave extract of T. purpurea possessed the lowest antioxidant activity 57.49 μg/ml. This study confirmed that P. niruri extract have great potential as a natural antioxidant source as compared to T. purpurea extract.
Albino rats weighing 200 gm were divided in four groups of six animals each. After oral administration of the test and standard compound, the rats were placed vertically in individual restraint cages in water at 22 °C for one hour. Then, they are removed, dried and injected intravenously via the tail vein with 30 mg/kg Evans blue. Ten min later, they were sacrificed in diethyl ether anesthesia and their stomachs were removed. Formol saline (2% v/v) was then injected into the totally ligated stomachs for storage overnight. On the next day, the stomachs were opened along the greatest curvature, washed in warm water, and examined under a 3-fold magnifier. The lengths of the longest diameters of the lesions were measured and summated to give a total lesion score (in mm) for each animal, the mean count for each group being
The elevated plus-maze comprised two open (50 cm×10 cm×25 cm) and two enclosed (50 cm×10 cm×40 cm) arms that radiated from a central platform (10 cm×10 cm) to form a plus sign. The maze was constructed of black painted wood. A slight raised edge on the open arms (0.25 cm) provided additional grip for the animals. The plus- maze was elevated to a height of 50 cm above floor level by a single central support. Four 25W red fluorescent lights arranged as a cross at 100 cm above the maze were used as the source of illumination16. The experiment was conducted during the dark phase of the light cycle (9:00–14:00 h). The trial was started by placing an animal on the central platform of the maze facing an open arm. The number of entries into, each of the two types of arm, were counted during a 10 min test period. The percentage open arm entries used as indices of anxiety. A rat was considered to have entered an arm when all four paws were on the arm. The apparatus was cleaned thoroughly between trials with damp and dry towels. All behavioral recordings were carried out with the observer unaware of the treatment the rat had received (Gerhard Vogel et al., 2002).
Urolithiasis is defined as the presence of one or more calculi in any location within the urinary tract. Urolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary tract, the others being frequently occurring urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The worldwide incidence of urolithiasis is quite high and in spite of tremendous advances in the field of medicine, there is no truly satisfactory drug for the treatment of renal calculi. Most patients still have to undergo surgery to be rid of this painful disease. Hyperoxaluria is the main initiating factor for urolithiasis. Phyllanthusurinaria is said to be useful in the treating urinary calculi. Hence the present study an effort has been made to establish the scientific validity for the anti- urolithiatic activity.
P eptic ulcer disease is a serious gastrointestinal disorder that requires well targeted therapeutic strategy. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but clinical evaluation of these drugs has shown incidence of relapse, side effects and drug interactions. This has been rational for the development of new antiulcer drugs and search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal that offer better protection and relapse. The present study is to evaluate the antiulceractivity by using herbal remedy beta vulgaris. The ethanolicextract of beta vulgaris treated groups shows a significant effect when compared to control group animals which indicating that the plant having the antiulceractivity. And also the results showed that the ethanolicextract of the beta vulgaris having the antioxidant activity. The acute toxicity study conducted for ethanolicextract of beta vulgaris indicates that safe up to 2000mg/kg body weight. Ulcer can minimize by some life style changes like, avoid eating at least two hours before bed time and whatever foods might cause discomfort, such as alcohol, caffeine beverages (coffee and pop), fatty foods, and highly seasoned foods. It is important to try to stop smoking, since smoking has been linked to ulcer formation, reduced healing, and ulcer recurrences. Also try to minimize stress in life. Stress may worsen ulcer symptoms.
Abstract: Osyris quadripartita (OQ) Salzm. ex Decne. has been used to treat peptic ulcer disease in Ethiopian folk medicine, but its efficacy has not been validated. The present study was therefore carried out to evaluate the anti-ulceractivity of 80% methanol leaf extract of OQ in rats. The effect of OQ extract on gastric ulcer in rats in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced models was studied using single dosing (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and repeated dosing (200 mg/kg for 10 and 20 days) approaches. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and sucralfate (100 mg/kg) were used as the standard drugs. Depending on the model, outcome measures were volume and pH of gastric fluid, total acidity, ulcer score, percent inhibition of ulcer score, ulcer index as well as percent inhibition of ulcer index. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, and P<0.05 was considered as statis- tically significant. OQ significantly (P<0.001) reduced gastric ulcer index by 55.82% and 62.11%, respectively, in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced ulcer models at the 400 mg/kg dose, which is comparable to the standard drugs. Ten and 20 days pre-treatment with OQ200 exhibited significant (P<0.001) ulcer inhibition by 66.48% and 68.36% (pylorus ligation-induced model) as well as 71.48% and 85.35% (ethanol-induced model), respectively. OQ possesses both dose-dependent and time-dependent anti-ulcer effect in the two models. The oral median lethal dose (LD 50 ) is estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg for the crude hydroalcoholic extract, and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, and saponins were present. The findings of this study confirmed that OQ has anti-ulcer pharmacologic activity due to one or more of the secondary metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its anti-ulcer use in Ethiopian folk medicine. Further investigations on isolation of specific phytochemicals and elucidating mechanisms of action are needed.
In view of the importance of this herbal plant the present study aims to evaluate the comparative therapeutic effects of Cardiospermum halicacabum against Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rat model which is the best and most widely used experimental model for arthritis with clinical and laboratory features which closely mimic the clinical features of human rheumatoid disease 11,12 .
assay (Example: Vitamin C, Vitamin E), by inhibition of free radical formation (Example: Flavonoids) and by cell damage repair (3) . Sweet cherries are thought to be alleviating the pain associated with gout and arthritis and composition of the fruit varies from one region to another depending upon the climatic condition (4,5) . Ethanolicextract of the plant already shows good amount of anti-microbial and radio protective activity (6) whereas in some cases it has been found as an activator of the human sperm samples
of 0.002% DPPH solution is mixed with 1ml of all the concentrations of both extract and standard separately. These mixtures are kept in dark for about 30min and the optical density was measured at 517nm. 0.002% DPPH and methanol mixture is the blank. Finally the % inhibition of the DPPH activity is calculated using the formula.
Thermal stimuli causes pain by stimulation of nociceptive receptors and transmitted over intact neural pathways. Both tail ﬂick and hot plate tests are selectively used to evaluate centrally acting analgesics . The thermal stimulus is also descri- bed as an acute, non-inﬂammatory nociceptive stimulus as it causes direct stimulation of the nociceptors without causing any inﬂammatory- mediated nociception. In this present study, mice treated with AECC were more tolerant to the thermal stimulus than those receiving normal saline alone. The analgesic activity was comparable to pentazocine, an opioid analgesic whose analgesic activity is mediated through central route. The analgesic eﬀect of opioids arise from their ability to directly inhibit the ascending transmission of nociceptive information from the spinal cord dorsal horn and to activate pain control circuits that descends from the mid brain via the rostral ventro- medial medulla to the spinal cord dorsal horn . Since, AECC could increase the latency period in mice which was comparable to those mice receiving pentazocine, it may explain the possibility of invol-
Opioids have long been used for treating moderate to severe pain, but treatment with these drugs leads to side effects such as analgesic tolerance, physical dependence, emesis, constipation, and drowsiness. The management of pain remains a major clinical problem. Therefore, it is essential to find new strategies for enhancing the analgesic effects of opioids and natural herbs that have analgesic properties without hazardous side effects. Activation of the opioid receptor inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity via inhibitory G-proteins, closing voltage-activated calcium channels and reducing the Ca influx, thus inhibiting neurotransmitter release and attenuating pain sensation. 6 It has been documented that ginger has Ca channel blocking activity. 7-9
extract and loperamide, 5 mg/kg body weight, loperamide appeared to produce a greater inhibition. This may be attributed to the long duration of action of loperamide. The results obtained showed that the extract of Pn has a great potential to reduce the frequency of stool at a dose comparable to that of the conventional drug used as control. In the presence of castor oil in the gut, prostaglandins are secreted, which in turn induces gastrointestinal motility. 20 Hypermotility is one of the different pathophysiological conditions that characterize diarrhea. The charcoal meal test was carried out to determine the effect of Pn extract on gut motility. Loperamide was used as a control as it has been known to inhibit castor oil-induced diarrhea. 21 As shown in Table 4, it was observed that Pn extract reduced the intestinal transit of charcoal meal by 0.14% and 0.15% by 5 and 200 mg/kg of the extract, respectively, as com- pared to an inhibition of 0.12% by 5 mg/kg loperamide. A reduction in intestinal transit time shows that the extract was able to reduce the motility of the gut and thus reduce diarrhea. Normal saline, which was the negative control,