Gastriculcer is an etiological disease in which several factors such as stress, trauma, sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, burns, Helicobacter pylori, steroidal and non-steroidal drugs [1,2,3,4,5] play significant roles. Regardless of great advances in the field of medical science and understanding of the peptic ulcer illness, gastric ulcers aetiology is still not completely understood. Many of these anti- ulcer drugs in use have been found to have adverse effects and there is recurrent infection after a few weeks . Stress as one of the most commonly used methods to produce ulcer models and an aggressive factor in peptic ulcer formation, underlies other diseases such as depression [7,8]. Depression, accompanied by psychotic and somatic symptoms has been reported to be present in most patients with gastrointestinal ulcers . An increased depression  and anxiety  has been reported to parallel with ulcer development in experimental animals and this holds true in humans [12, 13]. Some anti-psychotic drugs such as perospirone  and risperidone  have already been reported to have anti-ulceractivity. The successful treatment of gastric lesion depends on augmentation of the defensive factors of the gastric mucosa and blockage of acid secretion . This study was carried out to evaluate further the gastroprotection activity of risperidone where information on these areas are still scarty has not been documented in male Wister rats.
DISCUSSION: The evaluation of the Anti-Ulcer and Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic leaves and fruit extract of Smilax peroliata in albino rats was conducted by means of pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers model and by DPPH free radical scavenging antioxidant method. The phytochemical evaluations of the leaves and fruit extract obtained showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins and amino acids. Literature survey suggests that Smilax perfoliata is reported for its antidiabetic 8 , antiepileptic 9 , and hepatoprotective
Aqueous extract of Tiliacora acuminata of antiulcer genic activity of APTA was studied in aspirin induced gastric mucosal damage model in Swiss albino rats. This model was chosen because NSAID abuse is the main exogenous cause of refractory peptic ulcer constituting 39% of the cases of peptic ulcer. NSAIDs produce a spectrum of injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa, from hemorrhages and petechial to erosions and ulcers. Aspirin is known to inhibit PG cyclooxygenase, leading to reduced production of PGE and endothelial PGI. This causes vasoconstriction, inhibition of platelet aggregation (enhanced bleeding) and contributes to the enhanced acid secretion. It can also cause mast cell degranulation resulting in the release of histamine. Tissue damaging free radicals which are produced from the conversion of hydroperoxy to hydroxy fatty acids further contribute to cell destruction. In our study Aqueous extract of Tiliacora acuminata.significantly reduced the ulcers induced by aspirin and results were comparable with omeprazole.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Oecophylla smaradina (Formicidae) is an ant evaluated for its variety of medicinal uses. The objective of this study to evaluate the anti-ulceractivity using albino rats. Methods: The albino rats of either sex were divided into four groups. Ethanolic extract of Oecophylla smaradina (EEOS) was tested in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. respectively against by pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in albino rats. Results: Both the concentration (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) of extract have provided significant activity but EEOS 200 mg/kg, p.o, extracts were less effective when compared to EEOS 400 mg/kg, p.o. The antiulcer activity was accessed by evaluate the ulcer index in the test and standard drug treated group and also estimated the gastric volume, total acid, and free acid in the pylorus-ligated rats. Conclusion: The present study was revealed that ethanolic extract of Oecophylla smaradina have antiulcer activity.
Merremia emarginata whole plant was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation and was found that it possess alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. The extracts prepared by using polar solvents have demonstrated the dose dependent antiulcer activity. The Methanolic extract of Merremia emarginata whole plant has shown anti-ulcer potential in various screening models of anti-ulceractivity. It has demonstrated the gastro protective /anti-ulceractivity which was evident by decrease in the ulcer index.Our study has justified the claim of native herbal practitioners that the plant extract is useful in treating the gastric disorders.
Nelumbo nucifera has long been used as a folk medicine in treatment of diarrhoea, fevers, bleeding and other inflammatory conditions. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antiulcer effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera. The hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera was subjected to phytochemical screening which confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phytosterols and saponins. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation technique and by subjecting the animals to cold restraint stress. The extract was administered in three different doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally in all the experiments. The dose was calculated based upon acute toxicity studies. Ranitidine and Misoprostol were used as the standard drugs. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index of the test group with that of the vehicle control group and standard group. The antiulcer potency was evaluated by determining and comparing the ulcer idex of the test group with that of the vehicle control group and standard group. The antiulcer activity was however less than the standard drugs. The above may be due to the presence of flavonoids, tannins and other phytoconstituents in the plant extract.
below the xiphoid process. Pyloric portion of the stomach was slightly lifted out and ligated. This was performed with caution to avoid traction to the pylorus or damage to its blood supply. The stomach was replaced carefully, and the abdominal wall was closed by interrupted sutures. Rats were sacrificed by an overdose of anesthetic ether after 6 hours of pyloric ligation. The abdomen was opened, cardiac end of the stomach was dissected out, and the contents were drained into a glass tube. The volume of the gastric juice was measured after centrifugation (Eppendorf AG-5703DQ713856) at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes. From the supernatant, aliquots (25 of 1 ml each) were taken for the determination of pH and total acidity. Each stomach was examined for lesions in the forestomach portion and indexed according to severity.
Pluchea indica (L.) Less (PIL) also known as ‘beluntas’ is one of indigenous plant that is readily available and has been traditionally used to improve gastrointestinal disorder. In the present study, the ethanolic extract of Pluchea indica leaves (PIL) was investigated for its in vivo anti-ulceractivity in various experimental ulcer models; i.e 30 mg/kg indomethacin, 80% ethanol, 25% NaCl, 0.6M HCL, 0.2M NaOH and pyloric ligation model. The extract in dose of 40 and 160 mg/kg body weight had a signiﬁcant anti-ulcerogenic activity against gastriculcer induced by NaOH and indomethacin. At lower dose, the extract also signiﬁcantly increased the gastric wall mucous content in pyloric ligated rats. The results were substantiated with histopathological ﬁndings. Evaluation agreed with the folkloric use of Pluchea indica as anti-ulcer tool.
Gastriculcer (GU) is a severe gastrointestinal illness. The incidence and prevalence of GU are increasing globally. This work aimed to evaluate the potential gastro-protective effects of olive leaves extract (OLE), a natural antioxidant, in experimental rats of gastric mucosal damage induced by indomethacin (IND). The rats (n=40) were assigned into 4 groups including: control, ulcer (IND), and two protective OLE groups at two doses of low 300 and high 450 mg/kg b.wt (OLE 300 mg + IND and OLE 450 mg +IND). Each dose of OLE was orally given daily for 14 days. Then, the rats were sacrificed 4 h post IND given. The blood samples and gastric tissues were collected for biochemical analysis, calculation of ulcer index and histopathological examination. The results showed that OLE pretreatment and pre-induction of ulcer decline ulceration of gastric preserved the normal structure of gastric mucosa. There were significant decline in ulcer index, and total gastric acidity with significant increase of gastric pH level compared with IND group. The pretreatment with OLE significantly decreased the gastric tissue oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS)) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a significant elevation in gastric antioxidant enzymes activities compared with IND ingested rats. The high dose of OLE (450 mg/kg) showed a better protective capacity compared with the low dose of OLE (300 mg/kg). The results showed that OLE had a potent gastroprotective activity on IND induced GU, which could be explained by its effect as an anti- inflammatory and antioxidant agent.
The aggressive and protective factors in the stomach are acid pepsin secretion, mucosal barrier, blood flow, cellular regeneration, prostaglandins and epidermal growth factors. Factors such as stress, smoking, nutritional deficiency and ingestion of NSAID’S all can increase the incidence of gastric ulcers. It is reported that prolonged anxiety, emotional stress, haemorrhagic surgical shock, burns and trauma are known to cause severe gastric irritation . Agents that are currently available for the treatment of gastric ulcers act by either reducing gastric acid secretion (H 2 blockers,
Wistar albino malerats weighing 225 ± 25 g were di- vided into three groups (n = 10) and fasted for 2 days with free access to water. On the third day, the animals were deprived of water for a further 24 h and then un- derwent surgical operation after general anesthesia with Ketamine/diazepam “according to the rules of the Ani- mal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) of the Alexandria University”, Animals in group one served as a standard ulcerative control group with their pylorus ligated and had only vehicle. The animals in the second group were given curcumin at a dose of 80 mg/kg (dissolved in 0.9% NaCl) after pyloric ligation. In the ulcerated omepra- zole-treated therapeutic control group, omeprazole dis- solved in DMSO as a single dose was administrated subcutaneously 1 hr before surgery and after pyloric liga- tion at 20 mg/kg. The dose of omeprazole and admini- stration was carried out according to Warzecha et al. (2001) and Rodriguez et al. (2002), because of the im- practicality of its intragastric installation. Since, PPIs are unstable at a low pH; therefore, the oral dosage forms (“delayed release”) are supplied as enteric-coated gran- ules or tablets that dissolve only at the alkaline proximal small intestinal pH to prevent degradation by acid in the oesophagus and stomach.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the antiulcerogenic property of Tinospora cordifolia Miers in aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulceration models in albino rats and to compare its efficacy with the standard drug ranitidine. 48 albino rats of either sex, weighing 130-200g were selected and divided into groups of 6 animals of either sex randomly. Aspirin, suspended in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose in water was administered in a dose of 500mg/kg orally, ethanol (99.9%) was administered in a dose of 1ml and ranitidine was given in the dose of 20mg/kg. The test compound – Tinospora cordifolia was suspended in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose in water (1ml = 100mg) and was given in the doses of 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg. In each group the total score, mean score, standard deviation, standard error of mean, P Value, ulcer index and ulcer incidence were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student ‘t’ test and Wilcoxan rank test . On evaluation, Tinospora cordifolia was found to possess statistically significant (p<0.05) antiulcerogenic effect in both aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulceration models. But, when compared to standard control (ranitidine) statistical significant difference was not seen in case of aspirin induced gastric ulceration. In case of ethanol model, when compared with ranitidine group, Tinospora cordifolia in the dose of 400mg/kg did not show any significant difference, but in the dose of 600mg/kg showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) better protection. Hence, it can be concluded that Tinospora cordifolia pretreatment has provided significant protection against both aspirin and ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions. At the dose of 600mg/kg, its antiulcerogenic effect was found to be better than ranidine against ethanol induced gastric lesions.
Due to the mounting concentration in the alternative therapies in current years, herbal products have become popular [6, 7]. P. niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), leaves extract is one such herbal drug currently undertaken in this study primarily to explore its anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic potential in animal model. P. niruri can be found in the tropical regions of Asia and America. The common names of the plant are stonebreaker or seed-under-leaf. P. niruri is a chief plant in the Ayurvedic tradition to treat stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney and spleen conditions. The medicinal use of the plant in disorders includes dysentery, influenza, vaginitis, tumors, diabetes, jaundice, dyspepsia etc. The various extracts of the plant also proved to act as antiviral and antibacterial agent [8–10]. Indigenous women have also used the plant for menstruation and uterus problems . Many active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignin, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins have been recognized from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many preclinical studies. Phyllanthus niruri has been reported to be an effective anti- inflammatory , analgesic , gastroprotective , anti-diabetic , hepatoproctive [16–18], anti-malarial [19, 14] and antispasmodic . In Bangladesh, P. niruri grows all over the country. According to a previous study, the aerial part of this plant has been reported for its anti- inflammatory activity . Besides, it has been stated that the leaves of P. niruri contain profound amount of flavo- noids and polyphenolics  which possess significant
Ulcer formation is currently viewed as an interactive process resulting from an imbalance of aggressive acid-pepsin and defensive mucosal factors causing a break in the line of gastrointestinal mucosa. Because of multifactorial etiopathogenesis of mucosal damage and there is now an evidence that the gastric mucosa can increase its resistance to injury when challenged repeatedly with many agents, including ethanol, acid, alkali, hyperosmolar solution, bile acids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and over a periods of time ranging from a few minutes to several weeks. Various factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers are an increase in gastric acid secretion, pepsin activity and oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa, and decrease in mucous and bicarbonate secretion (Wallace et al., 1996, Granger et al., 1986, Tandon et al., 2004,Hung CR, 2005). The polyherbal formulation ROI2 is composed of extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra , Citrus aurantifolia, Aegles marmelos, Elleteria cardamom, Rosa damacena. Of these Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia , Aegles marmelos have been shown to exhibit antiulcer properties (Bafna et al., 2005, Maleev et al. 1972, Shenoy et al. 2012. The antioxidant properties of Elleteria cardamom and Glycyrrhiza glabra (De B et al., 1997) were investigated and found to possess free radical properties. Some of these ingredients have shown to produce considerable increase in levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.
Pithecellobium dulce has been reported to exert several pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, activities. Despite claim of its potential in the treatment of gastriculcer, this plant so for not been screened for anti-ulcer potential activity. Thus, we take this opportunity to report the preliminary findings on antiulcer potential of Pithecellobiumdulce seed extracts for the first time here. The present study demonstrated the potential of EEPD and AEPD to significantly reduced gastric ulceration as indicated by the reduction in ulcer index in the pylorus induced assays. Based on further findings using the PL assay, the extracts was suggested to act by reducing the volume of gastric juice secreted, gastric free and total acidities. These results suggested that EEPD and AEPD possess anti-secretory potency as well s acid neutralizing effect. It is also possible to suggest that the observed antiulcer activity associated with P.dulce is the ability to exhibit antioxidant activity cited above. Oxidative stress, resulting from the increase production of oxygen derived free radicals (e.g. superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals), has been known to take part in the pathogenesis of various diseases including gastriculcer and antioxidants help to protect cells from damage elicited by oxidative stress while enhancing the body ’ s defence systems against degenerative diseases.
The histopathological evaluations were made under the microscope for histopathological changes such as oedema, inflammation, infiltration and erosion and photographs were taken. The rats in the control treated group showed loss of gland architecture with erosion of the epithelial layer and evident oedema and infiltration by inflammatory cell. Prototypes (20 mg/kg) treated rats showed no or less ulceration but intactness of gastric epithelium was not completely restored. Minimal oedema and infiltration was seen in the lower half of the mucosa. Prototypes (40 mg/kg) treated rats showed no ulceration in the mucosa. Glands are regular with complete restoration of gastric epithelium. Ranitidine treated groups showed no ulceration in gastric mucosa, glands were regular and no inflammation was observed.
dismutase, catalase are the first line of defence against reactive oxygen species. The experimental data stated that the cold-resistant stress aggravated the ulcer severity and lipid peroxidation as compared to unstressed rats. After pre-treatment of MDFE 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses, the LPO, SOD levels fell significantly (P<0.05) and SOD levels showed decreasing trend at 100, 200, 400 (P<0.05) mg/kg dose levels as compared with CRS-induced group, On contrary CAT values showed gradual, significant increase at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dose levels (Table 1). These data satisfying the efficacy of MDFE in this model shows potent antioxidant activity by virtue of which it decreased the susceptibility of gastric mucosal damage through its the free radical scavenging capacity.
The plant used for the present study is Cicer arietinum belongs to family Fabaceae commonly called as chick peas which is widely distributed throughout India and frequently used in traditional medicines. It is commonly known as Sanagalu in Telugu and its juice is used for application in cuts, wounds, dropsy, antidiabetic & antihyperglycaemic 6 , Leaves juice is stomachic, laxative, chronic diarrhoea, skin disease, weight control & obesity, antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic and rheumatic affections 6 . However till date there is no systemic and scientific study were carried out on seeds of Cicer arietinum to assess the aphrodisiac activity in rats. Hence, the present study was designed for screening of aphrodisiac activity on extract of C.Arietinum seeds. The seeds of Cicer arietinum contains carbohydrates(55-62%), proteins (25- 29%),saponins 27 , alkaloids 27 , tannins 26 , steroids 26 , flavonoids 26 , phenolic compounds 26 .
The science of life—Ayurveda is practiced in India since time immemorial. Besides being cheap and easily available Ayurvedic drugs are considered safe. Moreover, there is surge in the interest in Ayurveda due to quest of alternative medicines. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Polyherbal formulations were frequently used to enhance the activity or counteract the toxic effect of compounds, from other plants but may also act synergistically with other constituents from the same plants. Polyherbal formulations (PHF) consist of seven known herbs namely, Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascena, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. The gastrointestinal prokinetics effect of PHF in various dose levels (100mg, 200mg and 400 mg/kg) was studied by charcoal meal gastrointestinal transit and laxative effect in mice. Carbachol (1 mg/kg) and Sennoside B (50 mg/kg) were used as reference drug. The test drugs were administered orally by suspending in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose solution. The results illustrate, PHF at 200mg and 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) enhanced the gastrointestinal transit. PHF at 400 mg/kg (p<0.01) significantly enhanced the purging index which is the measure of laxative activity. PHF at 200 mg/kg (p<0.05) less significantly enhanced the purging index. From the above findings we conclude that PHF may be used as gastrointestinal prokinetics.
roots 13 . This pharmacologically- active compound has been reported to have strong antioxidant 14 , anti lipid peroxidation, radioprotective 15 , immunomodulation 16 , anti-allergic 17 , anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive 18 , antitumour 19 , antidiabetic 20 , antidegenerative, wound healing, hypotensive, cardiotonic, lipolytic 21 , antibone resorption 22 , antiviral 23 , antibacterial 24 , antifungal 25 , antiparasitic 26 , monoamine oxidase-inhibiting activity 27 , hepatoprotective 28 and gastroprotective 29 activities. Various parts of the plant are used as a dentifrice, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, laxative and diuretic and to treat diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, hypertension, insomnia, rheumatism, toothache, leucorrhea, haemorrhage and piles. All parts are used to treat abscesses, broken horn, rabid dog or jackal bite, tumour, snakebite, stings, datura poisoning, heat stroke, miscarriage, anthrax, blisters, wounds in the mouth, tympanitis, colic, diarrhea, glossitis, indigestion, bacillosis, bloody dysentery, liver disorders, excessive urination and tetanus. Traditionally the plant is reported to have antiulcer activity 30 . In the present study, an effort has been made to establish the scientific validity to the antiulcer property of the leaves extracts of M. indica in aspirin induced ulcer in male albino rats.