Aquaculture is growing more rapidly than any other segment of the animal farming industry 1 . In India, the annual fisheries and aquaculture production increased from 0.75 million tonnes in 1950-1951 to 9.6 million tonnes in 2013-2014 2 . Expansion of aquaculture is due to potentially high commercial returns and the ability to produce export earnings. The coastal belt of Nagapattinam is one such locale where aquaculture activity is expanding owing to the availability of land and water resources which are conductive for aquaculture development. These locations cannot be utilized for agriculture. Remotesensing has emerged as the most suitable tool for quantitatively measuring land-cover changes at the landscape scale 3 . Satellite images provide a synoptic coverage of the earth’s surface in spatial and temporal scale and help us to understand how the changes have happened in various parts of the environment including coastal waters 4,5 . An integrated Geographical Information System (GIS) and remotesensing technique deals with the spatiotemporal information of land use and land cover (LULC) features that are well recognized for decision making in the scientiﬁc realm 6,7 . GIS and remotesensing combines the multiple spatial
Recently the Aqaba Region Authority (2003) proposed the southern coast of Aqaba to be a major coastal resort town.The site extends between the container port and the industrial zone just to the north of the Jordan–Saudi international borders. The proposed master plan showed a remarkable lack of understanding regarding the geomorphic characteristics of the area and the associated environmental hazards. Geomorphological evaluation has been conducted for an extremely rugged and arid granite mountains and alluvial piedmont overlooking the Gulf of Aqaba using air photos, SPOT images, field work, remotesensing and GIS. Different terrain units, surface materials, abundant ephemeral wadi channels, and geomorphic problems/hazards were recognized. The presence of high density gullies and ravines, and polished granite boulders suggests that fluvial erosion is a significant agent both past and present. Sharp parallel and elongated ridges are the dominant morphological pattern in the area. The lower parts of the drainage networks are characterized by braided and changing wadi channels which indicate fluvial activity in such a hyper-arid environment. In the light of heavy dissection and active gullying, flat and semi-flat land suitable for urban development and infrastructure construction are not abundant. Available flat and undulating terrain are restricted to a narrow strip (2.5-5 km) of land close to the beach, and are occasionally occupied by large wadi beds with changing channels. 80% of the area is exposed to flood hazards, sediments supply, direct talus and boulder supply from the piedmont and granite mountains watersheds. Following the geomorphological survey, alternative solutions to existing problems are recommended. Keywords: Jordan, Coastal Aqaba, Alluvial Piedmont, Geomorphological Evaluation, Urban Development. 1. Introduction
Landsat 8 satellite image (path 176, row 39) was acquired on 21-04-2016. The ENVI 5.1 software (ITT, 2014) was used for digital image processing. The image was geometrically corrected and rectification method (image for map) was followed. The geometric model used in the rectification process was second order polynomial, and the resampling method is the nearest neighbor method. The image was stretched, smoothly filtered, and its histograms were matched for its rectification and restoration according to Lillesand and Kiefer (2007). A digital elevation model (DEM), acquired from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) on 21-4-2016, was used as the source data for elevation heights of the study area (Fig. 2). The geomorphologic map was produced using the processed Landsat 8 image and the DEM. GIS works were performed to produce base, geomorphic, capability and suitability maps of the studied area using Arc GIS 10.2.2 software (ESRI, 2014).
Land and water resources are generally depleting due to rapid increase in population, urbanization and industrialization. The demand has increased tremendously for these resources; hence optimal utilization of them is essential for sustain- able development. In the present study, detailed morphometric parameters of the Banas river basin has been carried out. The river Banas originating from the Khamnor hills of the Aravalli ranges (about 5 kms from Kumbalgarh) is one of the major rivers of the state which, in its entire course, flows through Rajasthan. It flows from Kumbalgarh towards the south upto Gogunda plateau and after cutting the Aravalli ranges at right angles, it flows through Nathdwara, Ra- jsamand and Railmagra. The total area of the Banas river basin is 702.55 km 2 . Detailed drainage map was prepared from SOI (Survey of India) toposheets (45h/5 and 45h/9) and was updated using IRS-P6, LISS-III (Precision geocoded) data of 7 th May, 2010 using ARC GIS software. For detailed study, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was used for delineating watershed boundary using SAGA GIS software. GIS techniques has been used for assessing vari- ous morphometric characteristics of the drainage basin, as they provide a flexible environment and a powerful tool for the manipulation and analysis of spatial information particularly for the feature identification and extraction of informa- tion for better understanding. In the present study, the GIS analysis techniques were used to evaluate linear and areal morphometric parameters of the basin. Drainage patterns are mainly dendritic to sub-dendritic with fifth order drainage. Banas river basin possess high drainage density which is indicative of less permeable material, sparse vegetative cover and moderate to high relief.
Ground water is the source of water for most of anthropogenic activities in the recent times because of the limited availability of surface water and depletion of the same due to the failures in monsoon and over exploitation. It is essential to study the status of ground water in micro or watershed level for the optimum utilization and preserve the same for the future and to improve the quality it both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study an attempt is made to assess the ground water potential of Nallatangaal Odai of Amaravathi basin using Geoinformatics techniques. Data collected from various sources importantly the remotesensing data. The methodology and technique adopted to achieve the task is weighted overlay analysis technique in Geographic Information System. The parameters that influence the ground water potential is analyzed in detail namely geology, lineament density, geomorphology, slope, soil texture, land use land cover, rainfall and stream density. Understanding the influence of the specific parameters in ground water potential each thematic layers are assigned weightage and spatial overlay technique is carried out to obtain the intended result. The resultant groundwater zones are classified into four class very high, high, moderate and low. The knowledge on strength of ground water based on ground water zones help in management and development of the groundwater in the study area.
four segments A, B, C and D for the better understanding of the river course change detection during the study period.
3. Methods and methodology
Geographical Information System (GIS) software was used to visualize the change of channel pattern of Ramganga River ( Nath et al., 2013 ; Pan, 2013 ). ArcGIS 10.1 (Esri, Redlands, California, United States) and ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 (Hexagon Geospatial, GA USA) were used to analyze the collected image. First of all, images are mosaic through ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 and AOI (Ramganga) is extracted from the images and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is calculated for the study area and from study area using
An integrated approach where remotesensing and GIS techniques have been utilized for evaluation of catchment characteristics such as geomorphology, slope, aspect, landuse etc. Quantitative analysis of geomorphological parameters of the Devak catchment is carried out and various geomorphological parameters, which are important from the viewpoint of the hydrological studies, have been evaluated. The linking of the geomorphological parameters with the hydrological characteristics of the catchment provides a simple way to understand the hydrologic behavior of the different catchments.
M. Bagyaraj and B. Gurugnanam , have attempted significance of morphometry, integrating RemoteSensing data and techniques in addition to the conventional methods in a GIS platform. The Western Ghats are amongst the eighteen biodiversity hot-spots recognized globally (WCMC, 1992) and are known for their high levels of endemism. Kodaikkanal Hills are parts of Palani hills of Western Ghats. The study has demonstrated the potential use of remotely sensed data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in evaluation of linear, relief and areal morphometric parameters and to analyze their influence on the genesis and processes of landforms and characteristics of soil parameters like texture, drainage and land erosion conditions. Visual interpretation of satellite data in analysis of geological, landforms and land erosion characteristics in conjunction with drainage pattern facilitates effective delineation of distinct features to evaluate the influence of drainage morphometry.
Abstract: Located in the urban area, the cliff of Sidi Bouzid and Amouni shows slope instabilities due to falls and collapse blocks and rotational block gliding. These phenomena form a risk to the economic, social, cultural and environmental issues. Geomorphologic, lithologic and tectonic conditions (ie surfaces of discontinuities such as fractures) combined with the influence of marine abrasion explain the increased instability of this part of the Sahel - Safi. This ongoing slope failure is a handicap for coastal development projects. The activity of these phenomena -more or less remarkable- is monitored by the GIS integrated observation and evaluation of field, aerial and satellite data, allowing to establish synthesis maps that give a risk assessment in this sector. Digital Elevation Model (ASTER_GDEM2) is used for the morphometric analysis of this area and as a base for the weighted overlay of causal / preparatory morphometric factors influencing the slope stability.
An attempt was made to conduct spatial assessment of the pattern and extent of damage to coastalaquacultureponds along the east coast of Aceh province in Sumatra, Indonesia, resulting from the tsunami event of 26 December 2004. High-resolution satellite imagery, i.e., SPOT-5 multispectral scenes covering the 700 km stretch of the coast, acquired before and after the tsunami, were digitally enhanced and visually interpreted to delineate pockets of aquacultureponds that were discerned to be damaged and relatively intact. Field checks were conducted at 87 sites in the four eastern coastal districts. The results indicate that SPOT-5 multispectral imagery was minimally sufﬁcient to detect areas of damaged and relatively intact aquacultureponds, but the 10-m spatial resolution poses limitations to evaluating the extent of pond damage. Nevertheless, the 60 km swath of the imagery makes it reasonably affordable for large-area assessment to identify pockets of severe damage for targeting more detailed assessments. The image maps produced from a mosaic of the SPOT-5 scenes can also serve as base maps for spatial planning in the challenging task of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the disrupted livelihoods of the coastal communities.
Aquaculture has been a fast-growing industry because of significant increases in demand for fish and seafood throughout the world. It is growing more rapidly than any other segment of the animal culture industry (Gang et al. 2005). Aquaculture in India has a long history; there are references to fish culture in Kautilya's Arthashastra (321–300 B.C.) and King Someswara's Manasoltara (1127 A.D.). The traditional practice of fish culture in small ponds in eastern India is known to have existed for hundreds of years; significant advances were made in the state of West Bengal in the early nineteenth century with the controlled breeding of carpin bundhs (tanks or impoundments where river conditions are simulated). Fish culture received notable attention in Tamil Nadu (formerly the state of Madras) as early as 1911,subsequently, states such as Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Baroda, Mysore and Hyderabad initiated fish culture through the establishment of Fisheries Departments. Aquaculture plays a significant role in the development of the country economy as well as state economy. So from the past two decades aquaculture has been fast growth in the study area. Since the 1990s, under the reform policies of Central and
Gujarat has two types of boundaries. : (1) Inland Boundaries (2) Coastal Boundaries. Gujarat state has inland boundaries with the neighboring states. on the northern side of Gujarat state we have Rajasthan, on the eastern side we have Madhya Pradesh and on the southern side lies Maharashtra state. The inland boundaries of Gujarat also include union territory of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. On the north-western boundary Pakistan is located.
Land is the most important natural resource; Land-use refers to the way in which land has been used by human’s habitat and for their economic activities. Land-cover refers to the physical characteristics of earth’s surface, captured in the distribution of soil, vegetation, water, and other physical features of the land, including those created solely by human activities e.g., Built-up land, Agricultural, Aquaculture, Industry, etc. It is the intended employment of management strategy placed on the land-cover type by human managers. The growing of the population is increasing the demand for food. Therefore, to meet this pressure and human activities, on the limited land resources, both for agricultural aquaculture and other land uses. Moreover, the spatial distribution of Land use / Land cover data are needed in the analysis of environmental process and problems and also for the planning, utilization and management of land resources of the study area. This area is known for extensive aquaculture activity in recent times. The present study, through visual interpretation, aims to obtain the information of the “Impacts of Aquaculture on Existing Land Use / Land Cover of Coastal area of Krishna district using with RemoteSensing and GIS Techniques” at various levels on the Land use/Land Cover pattern in the study area. This work is taken up to better understand this aspect and for best management.
Coastal zone resources are important for the development of any country. Wetlands are defined as those areas where uplands and water areas overlap to create unique Environment. These are generally concentred in some coastal areas. These are a specific type of ecosystems ecosystems and transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems. Coastal wetlands are tidally flooded and drained by ocean water. These have three characteristic namely 1) hydrological conditions 2) Hydrologic soil and 3) hydro physics and 4) vegetation. The mangrove habitat map has been used for three general management applications; resources inventory of aquaculture sites. By the Remotesensing data processing techniques that have been used are reviewed in light of the descriptive resolution and accuracy achieved. The paper provides an overview of the use of the remotesensing in coastal wetlands resources included mangrove resources and management. The techniques that have been used for the mapping of change diction of coastal wetland of vedaranniyam coastal sector, southern coast of TamilNadu.
57 The soil classification guidelines originally provided by Boyd (1990) suggest a relatively high clay content is desirable in order for ponds to have good water retention properties. This view has been supported by a number of subsequent authors who have applied it in a range of site selection studies (see Table 3-1 for references). It is worth noting however that in Boyd et al. (2002) the authors suggests that previous recommendations (e.g. Boyd and J.R., 1997, Hajek and Boyd, 1994) for the use of soils with a high clay content should be reconsidered and potentially disregarded. It is suggested that heavy clay soils can be difficult to work with from an engineering point of view, proving difficult to spread in layers and compact, and may result in erodible and potentially unstable embankments with poor load bearing capacity. Boyd et al. (2002) cites McCarty (1998) who suggests that provided a good mixture of particle sizes are present then soils with a clay content of 5 to 10% may be preferable to high clay content soils when constructing embankments. Tucker and Hargreaves (2008) suggest that high clay content soils may be difficult to work and that a clay content of 15% is preferable with a content as low as 5-10% being suitable for embankments if soil is well graded. New (2002) suggests that soils that consist of silt or clay have good water retention properties although soil with clay content higher than 60% is prone to cracking when dried. It is also possible that priorities will vary between aquaculture systems in relation to size, construction methods and water supply. For example it seems likely that a large scale aquaculture development with access to a permanent water supply may have different priorities to smaller scale ponds that are dependent on more intermittent water supplies or rainfall. The current study aims to be relevant to as broad a range of pond culture scenarios as possible. That said, the requirements of smaller scale producers with limited capital investment and perhaps greater dependence on rainfall and / or intermittent water sources are considered here as especially relevant in terms of potential susceptibility to climate related changes. With all of the above in mind it was decided to assign highest suitability to soils with moderate clay content while those very high or low values were considered less suitable.
for different rainfall stations was calculated using monthly rainfall information, Only for season cultivation (June – October). To interpolate the SPI values, the reverse distance weighted (IDW) technique was used. IDW interpolated explicitly assumes that things closer to each other are more alike than those performed that are more distant from each other. Thus, the interpolated maps are reclassified into various groups of severity of drought. Interpolated September month maps have been selected it moves to be reclassified as month SPI normal i.e. July. The key months for significant kharif plants in the region are must know. 2.3.6 Rainfall Anomaly
Morphometry study constitutes measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth‟s surface and the shape and dimensions of its landforms . GIS techniques are used to compute and measure the morphometric parameters (Table 2 and 3) includes bifurcation ratio, stream length, form factor, circulatory ratio and drainage density etc.
Land Use / Land Cover is a result of classifying satellite data into different categories based on satellite data. Landuse/Landcover information important for the estimation of rainfall runoff as well as soil loss. Landuse/Landcover Map is prepared by using Visual Interpretation Techniques and Digital Interpretation Techniques by using IRS LISS data under GIS Environment. Landuse/ Landover gives a very important method for shaping the extent of a variety of landuse /Land cover types viz. shrub land, agriculture etc. The land use/Landcover of Maheswaram watershed is shown in the Figure 6
The proposed approach of usingremotesensing and GIS applying the CN method for runoff coeffecient estimation has many advantages over other ap- proaches. Firstly, it uses one software to perform all procedure steps. Secondly, only satellite image, soil maps and DEM are needed to calculate the runoff pa- rameters. Thirdly, all needed calculations are done within the GIS environment using field calculation. Fourthly, it can be modeled using model builder so, ru- noff parameters estimation process can be efficient, faster, and easily performed for several return period scenarios and for any regions.
The thematic maps are converted to digital mode using automated digitization process. These maps are prepared to a certain scale and show the attributes of entities by different symbols or coloring. The location of entities on the earth’s surface is then specified by means of an agreed co-ordinate system (Burrough, 1983). It is mandatory that all spatial data in a GIS are located with respect to a frame of reference (Aronoff, Stan.1989). For most GIS, the common frame of reference co-ordinate system is that of plane, Orthogonal Cartesian co-ordinates oriented conventionally North-South and East-West. This entire process is called geo-referencing (Mark et al, 1994). The same procedure is also applied on remotesensing data before it is used to prepare thematic maps from satellite data. This digitized data is then exported to ARC/INFO, Arc View, and ARC/GIS to create digital database for subsequent data analysis