The experiential learning approach helped to demonstrate to the participating companies that collaboration can be a powerful tool, that there is much to learn from the practices of other companies, and that there is much to learn from the feedback of other companies. UKCES hoped that the links that were starting to forge through the projects will continue beyond PC4 and assist in promoting the skills for innovation agenda in the sector. However, due to the short lifetime of the Challenge, evidence to this regard is limited at this stage. Related to experiential learning, another method that appeared to be effective was peer- to-peer learning. This involved pairs or groups of companies (through the representatives who participated in the project) coming together to learn in depth from each other’s experience of implementing existing and new manufacturing processes. The purpose of the peer-to-peer approach was to demonstrate to companies that are at the same stage of looking to change and transform their business, how other companies might deal with similar issues through different approaches, with both companies in the pair learning from each other. The difference between experiential learning and peer-to-peer learning was that peer learning tended to happen in pairs rather than groups and was structured around a dialogue between the two engaged companies, while experiential learning took place through activities targeted at the larger group of participants, for example through site visits to large organisation or research centres.
The other programme of activities funded by PC3 was led by a sector charity, working with four national employers in the hospitality industry to develop a model that could be used by businesses in the sector to benchmark themselves against, with the aim of improving staff retention and career progression. The data for the project's model was collected from a range of activities that took place within each of the participating businesses, including work around apprenticeships, recruitment of young people, development of progression pathways and the use of multiskilling to redesign staff roles. Towards the end of the project, the lead organisation collated the data from the different strands to develop the model and disseminate the learning to other businesses across the sector. The various strands of the project have now been completed, with positive impacts reported across all project partners. The benchmarking tool has now been developed and the findings of the project have been disseminated.
Whether projects were delivering training or undertaking engagement activities a consistent message was that small businesses welcomed the opportunity to develop peer-to-peer relationships. A good programme had time and space for businesses to do this. These relationships built trust and confidence amongst the small firms in the project, once developed they enabled open conversations about issues and concerns to take place. One project had a residential element, whereas other projects allowed time during group sessions for conversations to take place. There was no evidence to suggest specific conditions were needed for these relationships to develop, rather small businesses just needed to be given the opportunity to meet one another. Feedback from end users to projects suggests that these relationships will continue beyond the UKFP.
Offsite construction, as one of a number of modern methods of construction, has the potential to change the way the construction industry builds and operates. It could also address some of the UK industry’s most pressing challenges (e.g. the need for new homes an the low-carbon agenda). If the UK construction industry is to exploit the potential of offsite construction, multi-skilling, interdisciplinary collaboration and greater flexibility within a number of job roles is crucial. If the demand for offsite increases, there is a very real chance skills shortages will damage profitability and competitiveness. The current training and qualification offer for offsite construction is considered to be largely inadequate by employers. The sector itself is also fragmented in terms of employers joining together to identify common skills challenges and working with education and training providers to create courses that meet their needs. Hence provision is fragmented and companies generally create their own, bespoke, in-house training 3 . As such, offsite construction
control on the factors that can introduce inconsistency in test scores varies between assessments / subjects. As tests and examinations normally sample contents and skills from the entire curricula, different areas will be covered in different tests or examinations. Assessments use tasks of different formats to assess different types of knowledge and skills to ensure validity, and some tasks can be marked more consistently than others. Although awarding organisations try to improve assessment reliability as much as they can (for example through improving quality of question papers and marker training), there are however certain limitations on what can be done to improve reliability. It is certainly important to continue to explore ways of improving test reliability but this must be done with regard to other important factors such as validity and manageability.
At the time of our review, however, many of the commercial disciplines needed for AMT Ireland to operate efficiently were weak. The bulk of our recommendations dealt with ways to improve these disciplines, and during the year following the evaluation needed improvements were put into place. AMT Ireland was thereafter able to increase its revenues significantly and to move towards the cost-recovery goals laid down for it by the Department of Enterprise and Employment.
As we aim to investigate the effects of innovation on productivity of firms our main variable of interest is total factor productivity (TFP), which is measured by Levinshon and Petrin’s (2003) semi-parametric approach. Griliches and Mairesse (1995) criticize the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of production functions as firms’ input demands might be correlated with unobserved productivity shocks. That is profit-maximizing firms adjust their input demands each time they face these shocks. Thus, treating inputs as exogenous variables might create simultaneity bias in the OLS estimation of production functions while the unobserved shocks will be captured in the error term. Another problem that may arise by OLS estimation of the production functions is selection bias as capital stock responds to productivity shocks in lagged periods. Firms with larger amounts of capital stock would expect higher future returns for any given productivity level and, hence, they will continue to operate even if they observe low levels of productivity for the next period (Olley and Pakes, 1996). However, firms with smaller amounts of capital stock may have to exit the market in such conditions. While several theoretical models predict that the growth and exit patterns of firms are motivated to a large extent by productivity differences (conditional on the existence in the data), if firms prior to their exit know the productivity level, a correlation between productivity and capital stock would exist. Thus a negative correlation between the disturbance term and capital stock is expected in OLS estimations, i.e. the resulting capital coefficients an underestimate of the true coefficient.
Key activities undertaken by employers engaged in EOP projects were designing and developing new qualifications, engaging other organisations to support the delivery of training, expanding or updating current qualifications, developing work experience/pre- apprenticeship training and undertaking outreach activities. Examples were found in depth interviews of employers who saw no difference in the training accessed when compared to other training their learners had undertaken. In a minority of cases employers had been able to bolt on additional training elements (to these standard courses) through the EOP funding to improve the relevance to their business. Where tailored sector specific training was designed employers generally felt more in control through being able to specify course content enabling them to expand the knowledge a learner was receiving. These employers believed this approach had enabled them to develop a more suitable training programme that could accelerate the learning of their employees. A minority of employers felt this process has served them well in gearing up for the development of their respective apprenticeship trailblazers. In other cases, however, EOP provided the means (principally access to finance) to purchase already available training for their staff highlighting little innovation. Alongside this only half of all employers surveyed stated EOP training was better than training they did in the past for the same occupations.
It was evident that, in some local authorities, the financial framework had influenced decisions about the number of families that were worked with during the first (and second) year of the programme in order to be able to draw down more of the lucrative attachment fee element of the funding. Consequently, this behaviour meant that they were also able to maximise the outcomes that could be achieved for families during the programme period and therefore increased the likelihood of receiving the results payment. These behaviours were entirely consistent with the intended purpose of the framework. The pressure of meeting targets also had some drawbacks, however, and some local authorities reported that the front-loading had resulted in higher than optimal caseload sizes. In rarer cases, local authorities who found themselves adrift from their target number of families sought to compensate by identifying families for whom the required outcomes had been achieved by other services and programmes. For some areas at least, therefore, there were families for whom outcomes were attributed retrospectively, who may not have been part of the original cohort. Nevertheless, the objective of working with families ‘at scale’ was keenly felt at a local level and it is clear that the PbR framework was a factor in keeping this objective in sight.
The approach to this research question therefore develops the analysis to examine the interrelationships between skills in employment and the other innovation inputs and outcomes. The further analysis includes the responses of innovation to skills, conditional upon the other innovation factors, such as activities and information flows. We proceed through modelling the relationship between innovation indicators, notably goods, services and process innovation as well as wider or organizational innovation and the employment of specialised skills, though regression models that relate indicators to inputs, including skills. The dependent and explanatory variables are all taken from UKIS2011, that is, they are observed over the same three-year period. There is, therefore, no implication of a causal relationship, but rather the equations represent patterns of linked resources and conditioning factors associated with innovations. This analysis puts the human capital element in the context of other determinants of innovation propensity and intensity. Here, propensity is a binary variable represented by whether or not firms have introduced a new good, service or process, and the relationship controlling for other innovation relevant variables is estimated using probit models. Intensity is measured by the degree of novelty of these innovations, also using probit models and, further, for product innovations, by the share of new and improved products (goods or services) in turnover. Here the statistical technique is ordinary least squares.
Information on the labour market interventions taken after the initial assessment was extracted from the DWP’s LMS opportunities data. All record interventions that took place during the period the Pilot operated. These data recorded a range of activities, referred to as opportunities, and in Table 4.4 they are grouped under 2 headings: those associated with skills conditionality (the process of Jobcentre Plus referring claimants to a skills training provider, Further Education College or National Careers Service adviser with potential benefit sanctions for non-participation) and those linked to gaining labour market experience, e.g. work experience. The analysis in Table 4.2 excluded the assessment itself as an intervention. Not surprisingly it demonstrates that much higher proportions of young people in the pure online and blended groups received at least 1 opportunity in ‘other training’ (47-48%) or ‘basic skills training’ (34-36%) categories – both of which codes were used for Pilot provision – than people in the BAU group, who had 1 of these interventions (19% in ‘other training’ and 2% in ‘basic skills training’).
In small and medium-sized enterprises of Kazakhstan, not enough attention has been paid to the relationship between innovation and enterprise productivity, as well as the measurement of the existing relationship. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to study the impact of innovations (productive or process, organisational, marketing) on the productivity of small and medium-sized enterprises of Kazakhstan. The data used in the research were obtained from the review conducted by the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. Besides, the results of the survey among small and medium-sized enterprises of Kazakhstan conducted in 2012-2014 were considered as well. Based on the survey results, descriptive statistics and correlation and regression analysis were conducted. According to the results of the study and econometric analysis, model creation and evaluation, the positive impact of innovation, investment and R&D on the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in Kazakhstan was established. In conclusion, it can be stated that in order to increase the level of innovative activity, enterprises must focus their activities on expanding the production of new or improved products, be competitive in the market due to the application of new technologies and improve the quality of products.
engineering, motor industry, business administration and sport sectors achieved significantly more points in their total point scores and eight highest grades achieved than learners who did not participate in the YA programme but were similar in other respects, such as prior attainment. Three of these four sectors were offered in the first cohort of the YA programme, and the fourth was introduced in the second cohort, suggesting that these differences may be related to how well-established the sector was within the programme. However, it is worth noting that a ‘typical’ learner who had been engaged with health and social care (introduced in cohort 1) or construction (introduced in cohort 2) attained fewer points. Therefore the difference by sector may be related to something other than how established the sector is within the programme, such as differences between partnerships or delivery models. As discussed in Sections 2.1 and 2.3, young people who were engaged in YA in the hospitality sector were less likely to have achieved the qualification they took through the YA programme and five GCSEs at grades A* to C. It appears that this lower achievement at the end of Year 11 is related to factors other than the YA programme, such as their prior attainment. The multi-level model analysis, which takes account of this, revealed that young people in the hospitality sector did not gain significantly more or less points at key stage 4 than would be expected given their prior attainment. This suggests that they achieved in line with expectations given their prior attainment.
The FMD provides a national level dataset about ‘troubled families’ based on standardised data provided by local authorities. By collecting information on family composition, profile, types and range of problems experienced by families and how those problems change throughout the duration of the intervention, it is possible to build a rich and detailed picture of those being helped through the programme.
6.10 In large part, this ambition was not tested through the Pilot. However, the Pilot did provide limited evidence on the effectiveness of different approaches. The original basis for the SAESP Pilot was the integration of GW2 and SWW, thereby decentralising management and delivery of the programme from the national to the regional level. In practice, the scale of the merger between GW2 and SWW was much smaller than originally anticipated. GW2 participants that did transfer over achieved slightly better employment outcomes than would have been expected through GW2, but were less likely to achieve qualifications or other positive outcomes.
describe the benefits that accrued to the chapter and how the project reduced or eliminated the problem(s) the chapter sought to address. Provide information on how the project added value for ACHE affiliates and what groups of affiliates benefited. If appropriate, describe what goals or objectives the project did not accomplish and why. Provide data and statistics relevant to the project including the number of attendees/participants, sites, participant evaluation results and/or other information relevant to the project.
Information technology is more a capability and enabling technology than a product market. There are generally low barriers to entry. Firms have modest capital requirements while they are establishing in New Zealand, though capital needs are much greater if they seek to internationalise. 86 These technologies also support higher productivity in other NZ firms. 87 International: Traditional toy sales declining, digital games growing, particularly multi-player. New games targeting older men, market growing for women‟s games. Manufacturers collaborating.
• in total, tenants paid 97.9 per cent of the rent due from the fourth rent payment period onwards (including those who subsequently switched back). Overall arrears therefore reduce from 4.5 per cent to 2.1 per cent if the irst three payment periods are removed from the analysis, demonstrating that the irst three months are critical for direct payment. It is important to note that although much of the impact of direct payment on landlord income can be attributed to the irst few payment periods, the policy did continue to have an impact in the longer term. For example, in payment periods 1 to 3 statistical modelling revealed that tenants on direct payment paid 15.7 percentage points less rent in a given payment period than they would have done had their HB been paid direct to their landlord. By payment periods 16 to 18 the impact had lessened dramatically but tenants were still estimated to be paying 2.1 percentage points less rent than they would have done under the old system. The arrears spike in rent payment periods 1 to 3 suggests that the shift from one system of HB to another may be a critical point for tenants and landlords. However, it was not clear from these results alone whether the trajectory relected inherent challenges associated with moving tenants onto the new system and so is a pattern likely to persist, or relected the infancy of direct payment as a policy in the irst few months of the DPDP, when most tenants were transferred onto direct payment, and the experimental nature of early implementation. We can cast further light on this issue by comparing the payment rates of tenants who transferred onto direct payment early in the DPDP with those who went onto direct payment later in the programme, when lessons had been learnt and systems and processes had adapted accordingly. This is achieved in two ways:
Assessment of the potential wider indirect impacts of the programme (addressed in section 8) requires comparison of situations with and without the subsidy. A Local Economy Wide Impact Evaluation (LEWIE) model, a novel form of CGE modelling, investigating this suggests that there are significant spillover local growth effects from the subsidy as a result of both its injection of cash into the economy and of the increase in real incomes caused by its raising land and labour productivity. However real wage rates fell during 2012/13 as a result of rising maize prices, which, as mentioned above, have been affected by the devaluation of the Malawi Kwacha and consequent export and inflationary pressures. It is not possible to estimate possible effects of FISP in reducing the extent of the fall in wages. These wider influences on maize prices pose a major challenge to the welfare of poor Malawians and to the Malawian economy, with or without the FISP. Policies that address this and promote low and stable domestic maize prices are essential for FISP to deliver improved food security and the wider growth benefits outlined above – and some specific options are suggested. The overall benefit cost ratio (BCR) for the FISP is estimated at 1.7taking account of only direct impacts, and at1.8if wider indirect impacts are also included. Fiscal efficiency (the ratio of net economic benefits to government expenditure) is estimated at 0.75for direct impacts and 1.04 including indirect impacts. Analysis of national food security scenarios with and without the FISP suggests that in the last 6 years it may have led to average annual savings of maize imports of some 385,000MT, directly offsetting up to between 85 and 110% of programme costs. Benefit cost ratio estimates are however sensitive to some of the parameters used in their calculation, notably maize prices, incremental maize productivity, and fertiliser costs. The Fiscal Efficiency of the programme and its overall cost are also affected by likely high rates of input leakage and of displacement of unsubsidised farmer purchases by subsidised inputs, and by the subsidy rate and low farmer contributions. The importance of low and stable maize prices for programme benefits has been discussed above. More attention to these issues in the implementation of the programme could lead to substantial increases in the effectiveness and efficiency of the programme with increased benefits and/or reduced costs.