The major population of the world is prone to peptic ulcers, which has become a most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder due to sedentary lifestyle, habituation to junk food, increasing stress, and indiscriminate use of NSAIDS . Peptic ulcer disease occurs due to the alteration of balance between damaging (aggressive) factors such as high acid-pepsin secretion and protective factors (defensive) such as gastromucosal integrity, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion . Helicobacter pylori infection is another major cause of peptic ulcer disease . Many synthetic antiulcer and gastroprotective drugs such as proton- pump inhibitors and H 2 receptor antagonists are available in the market,
Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important and widely used medicinal plant. Though variously used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathy system of medicine in case of ailments like diarrhoea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as antihelminthic, external applications on tumours, etc., the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. This study evaluates the acute anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolicextract of the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.(EECI) in experimentalanimals. Acute toxicity test was done following the OECD guidelines. Following the Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract for specific plant constituents, EECI (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg body weight b.w. p.o) was evaluated for acute anti-inflammatoryactivity against the carrageenan induced rat paw edema and the effects compared with reference drug aspirin (300mg/kg b.w). In acute inflammation, EECI produced significant reduction (p<0.01) at 5th hr in all the doses.This may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and TNF alpha. Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of anti-inflammatory drug should be subjected to further research.
An anti-inflammatoryevaluation of Achyranthes aspera, Calotropis gigantean leaf extracts & their combination were used against carrageenan induced paw edema model. Experimentalanimals were divided into following five groups: All the groups were pretreated according to their treatments, 1 hour before the administration of 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan (suspended in sterile 0.9% normal sterilized saline) in subplanter region of right hind paw of rat. The initial paw volume (IPV) and final paw volume (FPV) was measured after 60,120,180,240 & 300 minutes of carrageenan administration using plethysmometer. The difference initial and final paw volume was used to calculate the percentage inhibition using following equation:-
For the anti-inflammatory paradigms, Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 140–160 g of either sex were used. Five animals were group housed in polypropylene cages (640 x 410 x 250 mm high) and kept at departmental animal house in well cross ventilated room at the same experimental condition explained earlier. They were provided with standard rodent pellet diet (Amrut, India) and tap water ad libitum except the food was withdrawn 18–24 h before the experiment. All the experimental protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC), N. R. Vekaria Institute of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Junagadh (approval number NRVCP/IAEC/07/2k7/01). All the experiments and the care of the laboratory animals were according to current ethical guidelines by the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.
Treatment with ethanolicextract of Asparagus racemosus (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) showed maximum reduction in paw volume as compared to vehicle treated animals in carrageenan induced rat paw edema. A significant increase in body weight, reduction in paw volume of both hind legs and reduction in total arthritic score were observed in FCA induced arthritis in rats. All these results thus envisage that the drug provide pharmacological rationale for the traditional use of the drug against inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
punicalagins), punicic acid,flavonoids,anthocyanidins,anthocyanins,and estrogenic flavonols and flavones.Traditionally,decoction of leaves has been used to treat painful and inflammatory conditions. However,no scientific data is available on this. Hence, the present work was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolicextract of Punica granatum L. on experimental animal models.
Inflammation is a major cause for suffering. The most common method of treatment for inflammation are available in the form of drugs known as NSAID, that is, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting the function of prostaglandin. Prostaglandin is an autocoid that is released extracellularly and initiate pain. Anti- inflammatory agents block this autocoid synthesis by either inhibiting COX enzyme or protecting lysosomal membrane from breakdown. However, the NSAIDs have side effects such as stomach pain, heart attack, ulcers, headaches and dizziness and high blood pressure and also leads to other chronic diseases (Steinmeyer, 2000).
This test procedure is used here because to minimize the number of animals required estimating the acute oral toxicity of chemicals, drugs and also in estimating a median lethal dose. The median lethal dose allows for comparison with historical data. In addition to the observation of mortality, it allows the observation of signs of toxicity.
In this study the anti-inflammatoryactivity of ethanolicextract of Salvia hypoleuca was evaluated. Salvia hypoleuca has a large history of herbal use because of pharmaceutical characteristics and the medicinal values of the Saliva hapoleuca have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders. The effects of ethanolic extracts of Salvia hypoleuca were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. Results of this study indicated that the ethanolicextract decreased the edema induced in hind paw. It has been concluded that ethanolicextract of Salvia hypoleuca (200 mg/kg b.w.) has a good anti-inflammatoryactivity against carrageenan induced paw edema.
Effective therapies for peptic ulcers use alternatives that control acidic hyper secretion and its direct effects on the gastric mucosa. There are two main classes of drugs used to treat acid- related disorders include proton pump inhibitors (PPI) that inhibit the hydrogen pump in the parietal cell directly, independently of any membrane receptor stimulation and histamine type 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), which block the histamine receptor on parietal cells thereby reducing hydrogen ion release.  PPI is among the most prescribed drugs in the world; however, it may lead to the development of parietal cell hyperplasia of the gastric glands.  Long-term use of H2RAs is associated with the development of undesirable effects such as gynecomastia and galactorrhea as well as alteration of the bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract.  In H. pylori colonization, there is increased gastrin responses, the increase in acid can contribute to the erosion of the mucosa and therefore ulcer formation. In Western countries the percentage of people with Helicobacter pylori infections roughly matches age (i.e., 20% at age 20, 30% at age 30, 80% at age 80 etc). 
drugs as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents have not been successful in all cases (2). The study of plants that have been traditionally used as pain killers should still be seen as fruitful and logical research strategy in the search of new analgesic drug and pain mechanism (3).Inflammation is the result of host response to tissue injuries or pathogenic challenges and ultimately leads to the restoration of a normal tissue structure and function. Acute inflammation is a limited beneficial process, particularly in response to infectious pathogens, whereas chronic inflammation is an undesirable persistent phenomenon that can lead to the developments of inflammatory diseases (4). An uncontrolled and persistent inflammation may act as an etiologic factor for many of these chronic illnesses (5). Although it is a defense mechanism, the complex events and mediators involved the inflammatory reaction can induce, maintain or aggravate many diseases (6). Attention is being focused on the investigation of the efficacy of plant- based drugs used in the traditional medicine because they are cheap, have little side effects and according to WHO, about 80% of the world population still rely mainly on herbal remedies (7).
Inflammation or phlogosis is a pathophysiological response of mammalian tissues to a variety of hostile agents including infectious organisms, toxic chemical substances, physical injury or tumor growth leading to local accumulation of plasmic fluid and blood cells (Sobota et al., 2000). Although inflammation is a defense mechanism, the complex events and mediators involved in the inflammatory reaction can induce, maintain and aggravate many disorders. Hence, the employment of anti-inflammatory agents may be helpful in the therapeutic treatment of those pathologies associated with inflammatory reactions (Sosa et al., 2002). The clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases is dependent on drugs which belong either to the non-steroidal or steroidal chemical therapeutics. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, indomethacin and ibuprofen inhibit early steps in the biosynthesis pathway of prostaglandins by inhibition of COX enzymes and are the main drugs used to reduce the untoward consequences of inflammation (Albert et al., 2002). However, the side effects of the currently available anti-inflammatory drugs pose a major problem in their clinical use. For instance, NSAIDs cause several serious adverse effects like gastric injury and ulceration, renal damage, and bronchospasm due to their non-selective inhibition of both isoforms of the COX enzyme (Tapiero et al., 2002). The use of steroidal drugs as anti-inflammatory agents is also becoming highly controversial due to their multiple side effects (Van den Worm et al., 2001). Therefore, a need arises for the development of newer anti-inflammatory agents from natural sources with more powerful activity and with lesser side effects as substitutes for chemical therapeutics.
The polyherbal formulation of Seenthil churanam is composition of whole plant extracts of Eclipta prostata, Tinospora cordifolia and the dried powder form of Earthworm used in folk medicine. The study was conducted to evaluate the scientific figures for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolicextract of Seenthil churanam by acetic acid induced writhing test and eddy’s hot plate method, and carrageenan induced paw edema method. There was significant response in analgesic and inflammatoryactivity at high dose (400 mg/kg) compared to low dose 200 mg/kg against the standards Analgin (500 mg/kg), Aspirin (100 mg/kg) and Diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg) body weight of mice and rats. The results of this study show that the chronic oral administration of an ethanolicextract of Seenthil churanam at a 400 mg/kg body weight dosage be a good alternative natural medicine for analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug without side effects.
and as controls. Under ether anesthesia a midline abdominal incision is made. The pylorus was ligated, then the abdominal wall was closed by sutures. The test compounds were given orally, and then the animals were placed for 19 h in plastic cages. Afterwards, the animals were sacrificed in diethyl ether anesthesia.Then the abdomen was opened and a ligature was placed around the esophagus close to the diaphragm. The stomach was removed, and the contents were drained in a centrifuge tube. Along the greater curvature the stomach was opened and pinned on a cork plate. The mucosa was examined
Effect of the EEOO on Xylene induced ear oedema in mice: The effect of the EEOO on xylene induced ear oedema in mice is recapitulated in Table No 2. Application of xylene induces acute neurogenous edema which is associated with Substance P, which when released from the sensory neurons in the periphery causes plasma extravasations and vasodilatation which leads to swelling of the ear, suggesting the role of xylene in neurogenous inflammation. Administration of the plant extracts (100, 200 and 400mg/kg), 1 h after xylene application, significantly (P<0.01) inhibited the development of ear oedema in mice in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition produced by 400 mg/kg of the extract was similar to that produced by dexamethasone. The inhibition may reduce the release of substance P or other inflammatory mediators such as histamine, kinin and fibrinolysin or antagonize the actions.
in B. diffusa . The alkaloids namely, punarnavine and punernavoside constitute 0.04 % major among the total alkaloids present in this particular plant. Hence, the name “punarnava” has been given to this plant in Ayurvedic system of medicine. An oily substance of potassium nitrate and ursolic acid constitute about 6% in its total phytoconstituents . In addition, the plant was practiced in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, hepatitis, gall bladder abnormalities, and urinary disorders [8, 9]. Flowers and seeds are used as contraceptive and the roots were reported to use for treatment of asthma and hepatitis [10, 11]. B. diffusa has been scientifically proven to possess antispasmodic, anticonvulsant and pain-relieving efficacy . Previous studies reported, B. diffusa aqueous extract was reported to possess anti-inflammatoryactivity in rats as well as no mortality within the experimental period at the tested doses ranging from 40 to 320 mg/kg.BW . The present study aimed to evaluate the in-vivo anti- inflammatoryactivity of B.diffusa leaves on carrageenan induced- and cotton pellet induced paw edema in murine models. Further, in-vitro anti- inflammatory potential was assessed by radical scavenging activity, protein denaturation inhibition assay and proteinase inhibitory action.
A large number of herbal drugs are reputed to have excellent medicinal value, and are in use for the treatment of several ailments. In folk medicine, various indigenous drugs are used, in single and/or in combined forms, for treating different types of inflammatory and arthritic conditions, with considerable success. Although the use of these drugs has a sound tradition, and their medicinal uses and general safety are well known to native people, their use has yet to be rationalized in therapeutics, using the current methodology. Scientific studies are therefore required to assess their safety and efficacy. Inflammation is associated with various clinical conditions like arthritis, cancer and vascular diseases. Anti- inflammatory drugs, presently available for the treatment of inflammation of various kinds, have undesirable side effects such as causing peptic ulcers. Therefore efforts are focused on obtaining plant derived anti-inflammatory agents, which are as potent as the currently available NSAID’s. An attempt was made in our laboratory to evaluate anti-inflammatoryactivity of extracts of stems, roots and leaves of Mimosa hamata (Willd.).
Barleria Cristata Linn (family Acanthaceae) has been used traditionally in the treatment of anemia, toothache and inflammatory disorders. Aim of the present study was to investigate the antiinflammatoryactivity of fractions of the methanol extract of Barleria Cristata leaves in acute and chronic models of inflammation. Anti-inflammatoryactivity of pet ether, chloroform and methanol fractions of Barleria Cristata extract were studied by carrageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma method at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Results of the study showed that chloroform fraction has moderate anti-inflammatoryactivity where as methanol fraction showed significant and dose dependent anti-inflammatoryactivity in both the models studied. Methanol fraction at dose of 200 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited (65.21% and 69.07 respectively) rat paw edema at the end of 4 h after carrageenan injection. In the cotton pellet induced granuloma method all the three fractions and indomethacin showed significant (P<0.05) activity when compared with control group. Methanol fraction (200 mg/kg) showed maximum inhibition of 62.37 % (wet cotton) and 53.84 % (dry cotton) where as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed 68.04 % (wet cotton) and 59.61 % (dry cotton) inhibition of cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats. Results were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test P<0.05 and considered significant as compared to control. It is concluded that methanol fraction of Barleria Cristata Linn leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatoryactivity.
The freshly collected leaves was shade dried and coarsely powdered. The powder was defatted with petroleum ether (60-90 o c) then successively extracted with ethanol and distilled water with using soxhlet extractor. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts were dried under reduced pressure using a rotary vacuum evaporator (Buchi US). The percentage yield was found to be about 9% w/w for ethanolicextract and 12% w/w for aqueous extract.