Currently, various steroidal and non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are being used to treat inflammatory diseases. Gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration are the most recurrent and formidable prob- lems linked with NSAID . Because of these side effects, researchers are in dire need to develop safer compounds. The gastric mucosal lesions caused by ethanol, were reported as by prying with the gastric de- fensive mechanisms . While there are many products used against gastric ulcers, most of these drugs generate several adverse reactions . To study the effects of drugs on the acute phase of inflammation, models were designed to induce inflammation in rat paws by injecting pro-inflammatory agents such as carrageenan, dextran, formaldehyde etc. . Carrageenan-induced paw edema animal model is usually used to assess the contribution of natural products in weathering the biochemical changes associated with acute inflammation. While the carrageenan model is typically associated with activation of the cyclooxygenase pathway and is delicate to gluco- corticoids and prostaglandin synthesis antagonists, the early phase of the carrageenan reaction is due to the release of serotonin and histamine .
protection showed by phyllanthusniruri extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity is mediated through its potent antioxidant effect. A relation between oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity has been well demonstrated in many experimental animal models.In these studies both the agents prevented gentamicin induced lipid peroxidation. Gentamicin treated group showing diffuse glomerular congestion, Tubular casts, Peritubular congestion, epithelial desquamation, Blood vessel congestion. While treatment group shows Focal glomerular congestion, Peritubular congestion, Focal hydrophic degeneration of tubular epithelial cells and treatment group shows only some of the blood vessels are dilated and congested within the interstitium. Also few scattered mononuclear inflammatory infiltration is seen within the interstitium. From histopathological results we can conclude that Phyllanthusniruri have protective effect on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.The findings suggest the potential use of methanol extract of Phyllanthus nirurii a therapeutically useful nephroprotective agent. Therefore further studies to explain their mechanisms of action should be conducted to aid the discovery of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of renal diseases.
Pluchea indica (L.) Less (PIL) also known as ‘beluntas’ is one of indigenous plant that is readily available and has been traditionally used to improve gastrointestinal disorder. In the present study, the ethanolic extract of Pluchea indica leaves (PIL) was investigated for its in vivo anti-ulceractivity in various experimentalulcer models; i.e 30 mg/kg indomethacin, 80% ethanol, 25% NaCl, 0.6M HCL, 0.2M NaOH and pyloric ligation model. The extract in dose of 40 and 160 mg/kg body weight had a signiﬁcant anti-ulcerogenic activity against gastriculcer induced by NaOH and indomethacin. At lower dose, the extract also signiﬁcantly increased the gastric wall mucous content in pyloric ligated rats. The results were substantiated with histopathological ﬁndings. Evaluation agreed with the folkloric use of Pluchea indica as anti-ulcer tool.
ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to provide the rationale for the use of Terminalia bellirica as an anti-inflammatory agent using carrageenan-induced inflammation and antiulcer agent using ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury model in the Swiss albino rats. The anti- inflammatoryactivity of the extract was evaluated using carrageenan (1% w/v) induced inflammation model at doses of 50, 120 and 300 mg/kg, p.o while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. On the other hand, the antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of T. bellirica leaves at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as the reference. The rats were dissected, and their stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa. Further, the histopathological changes of paws and stomachs were analyzed. T. bellirica significantly (P<0.01) decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema; it exhibited a reduction of 50.00%, 55.88% and 61.76% at doses of 50, 120 and 300 mg/kg respectively. The methanolic extract also disclosed a good protective effect against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Oral administration of the extract`s doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the ethanol- acid-induced gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. These findings were further supported by the histological study. The study clearly shows that methanolic extract of T. bellirica leaf possesses potent anti-inflammatoryactivity and promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by regeneration of mucosal layer and substantial prevention of the formation of hemorrhage and edema.
Gastriculcer (GU) is a severe gastrointestinal illness. The incidence and prevalence of GU are increasing globally. This work aimed to evaluate the potential gastro-protective effects of olive leaves extract (OLE), a natural antioxidant, in experimentalrats of gastric mucosal damage induced by indomethacin (IND). The rats (n=40) were assigned into 4 groups including: control, ulcer (IND), and two protective OLE groups at two doses of low 300 and high 450 mg/kg b.wt (OLE 300 mg + IND and OLE 450 mg +IND). Each dose of OLE was orally given daily for 14 days. Then, the rats were sacrificed 4 h post IND given. The blood samples and gastric tissues were collected for biochemical analysis, calculation of ulcer index and histopathological examination. The results showed that OLE pretreatment and pre-induction of ulcer decline ulceration of gastric preserved the normal structure of gastric mucosa. There were significant decline in ulcer index, and total gastric acidity with significant increase of gastric pH level compared with IND group. The pretreatment with OLE significantly decreased the gastric tissue oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS)) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a significant elevation in gastric antioxidant enzymes activities compared with IND ingested rats. The high dose of OLE (450 mg/kg) showed a better protective capacity compared with the low dose of OLE (300 mg/kg). The results showed that OLE had a potent gastroprotective activity on IND induced GU, which could be explained by its effect as an anti- inflammatory and antioxidant agent.
In the present study, the protective effect of T. cordifolia was studied in two models of aspirin and ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage in albino rats. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) abuse is an important exogenous cause of refractory peptic ulcer constituting 39% of the cases of peptic ulcer. NSAIDs can cause a spectrum of injury to the gastroduodenal mucosa, ranging from hemorrhages and petechiae to erosions and ulcers. Aspirin, an NSAID, by inhibiting Cyclo-oxygenase enzyme leads to decreased production of PGE and endothelial cell PGI. NSAIDs can also cause mast cell degranulation resulting in the release of histamine. There is a lot of evidence from experimental data suggesting the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and lipid peroxidation as one of the mechanism in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. (Desai JK et al., 1997) In the aspirin induced gastric ulceration model of our study, pretreatment with T. cordifolia gave significant protection. The protective effect may be due to its inhibitory action on PG metabolizing enzyme 15- hydroxy - PG - dehydrogenase resulting in the elevation of the PGE 2 content of the gastric mucosa. (Konturek SJ
Three groups of Wistar albino rats (150–200 g), with each group containing six animals, were used. The first group served as a control (normal saline at 2 ml/kg orally), second group served as standard (omeprazole at 20 mg/kg), and third group served as the test group (EEPU at 500 mg/kg). All treatments were administered 1 h before stress in restraint cages that were kept at 3°C±1°C in a refrigerator for 4 h treatment. After 4 h, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and gastric lesions were enumerated after opening the stomach along the greater curvature, and ulcer scoring was done . Statistical analysis
oxygen species (ROS) mediated via lipid peroxidation  and that scavenging these free radicals may play an appreciable role in healing gastric ulcers. Defensive factors such as mucus and reduced lipid peroxidation protect gastric mucosa against a variety of noxious agents-induced damages. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) has been used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation or free radical scavenging activity in biological samples. These radicals are reported to be involved in acute mucosal ulceration induced by indomethacin . The product of these free radicals, the lipid peroxides, can elicit tissue inflammation . Thus risperidone from this study has been shown to have a strong reducing effect on lipid peroxidation and this could be a good reason for the prevention of mucosal damage. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes induced by indomethacin leads to the depletion of endogenous prostaglandins thus leading to decrease of gastric mucus production  and generation of reactive oxygen species, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of ulceration . Risperidone was found to have likely scavenged reactive oxygen species as evident in its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation level. The important roles of oxygen-derived ROS and lipid peroxides (LPO) in acute gastric lesions, which are induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin, have been supported by experimental data [40, 41]. Similarly, indomethacin has been shown to produce damage via increasing mucosal MDA levels in gastric tissue . Indomethacin causes gastric damage by not only inhibiting cytoprotective prostaglandin synthesis, but also by affecting antioxidant mechanisms, such as MDA. Thus, risperidone appears to exert its anti- ulcer effects by activation of antioxidant mechanisms in stomach tissues. This study showed that risperidone significantly prevented the negative effect of indomethacin on gastric MDA levels at all doses used. This report is supported by earlier work indicating that antioxidant parameters have been shown to be reduced in stomach tissue damaged by indomethacin . The roles of toxic oxygen radicals has also been reported to be involved in indomethacin- induced gastric damage as was determined in etiopathogenesis . Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are indicated in the mechanism of both stress and indomethacin-induced gastric damage . Excessive production of MDA and other reactive radicals cause oxidative damage which is represented by measuring lipid peroxidation levels
In gastro protective study Gastropathy is the term used when there is injury to the gastric mucosa associated with epithelial cell damage and regeneration. Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in clinical practice. A number of factors such as stress, chemical agents’ bile salts hyperosmolar Nacl, NSAIDs, may lead the gastro duodenal ulcer. Ulcers are caused due to imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors of gastric mucosa. The gastric wall mucus is thought to play an important role as defensive factor against gastrointestinal damage. Failure of the endogenous defense mechanism of the protective mucosal barrier leads to burning sensation in the abdomen. Duodenal ulcer more frequently (80% of PUDs) than gastric ulcers. The lifetime
integrity through the endogenous defence mechanisms . To regain the balance, different therapeutic agents are used to inhibit the gastric acid secretion or to boost the mucosal defence mechanisms by increasing mucosal production, stabilizing the surface epithelial cells or interfering with the prostaglandin synthesis. The causes of gastriculcer pyloric ligation are believed to be due to stress induced increase in gastric hydrochloric acid secretion and/or stasis of acid and the volume of secretion is also an important factor in the formation of ulcer due to exposure of the unprotected lumen
The rats were divided into six groups containing five rats in each group (one control, one standard and four test groups). Acute inflammation was induced according to oedema assay [5, 6]. The extracts were suspended in 2.0 % tween 80 and administered orally (200-400 mg/kg/b.w) to rats 1 hour before Carragenan injection. Diclofenac Sodium (10 mg/kg b.w) is given to standard group. Carrageenan was prepared as 1% w/v solution in 0.9 % w/v NaCl & injects 0.1 ml just underneath the plantar region.
several adverse effects, development of tolerance and recurrent infections often occur within a few weeks especially in case of H. pylori. Incessant efforts for searching of new novel anti-ulcer moiety are on progress intended to have fewer side effects with its potency. In recent years, demands of identification and evaluation of new drugs probably of plant origin are gaining popularity for treating peptic ulcer. Hence, herbal medicines are considered as better substitute for the treatment of peptic ulcer with lesser adverse effects. 11,12
Peptic ulcer is associated with multipathogenic factors and could be due to disturbances in natural balances between the aggressive factors (acid, pepsin, H.pylori , bile salts) and defensive factors (mucous, bicarbonate, blood flow, epithelial cell restoration and prostaglandins) 51-53 . There are several risk factors that may contribute to formation of ulcer in human beings such as stress, chronic use of anti-inflammatory drugs, continuous alcohol ingestion, H.pylori infection, Zollinger Ellison syndrome, etc. Generally various non-specific methods are used to restore these imbalances including regular food intake, adequate rest and avoidance of ulcerogenic agents (eg. Tobacco, alcohol and coffee) which are aimed to attenuate and possibly block the gastric acid secretion or to enhance the mucosal defense mechanisms 54 . In addition , there are also drugs, such as pump inhibitors, histamine (H 2) -antagonists, anticholinergics and antacids, used in the treatment of ulcer
Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150– 200 g were maintained in animal house and they were divided in to 4 groups of 6 animals each. Prior to the experimentation they were acclimatized to housing conditions for at least one week period of time to adjust to the new environment providing with food and water and
mediators is responsible for pain and inflammation. The antiinflammatory property of plant extracts could be due to the neutralization of chemical mediators like histamine, serotonin etc 24, 25 . In this present study result exhibits the paw volume is decreased when time is increased. It means that reduction of the swelling of inflammatory sites by inhibiting release of chemical mediators like histamine, bradykinin, serotonin & prostaglandin etc. Literature reveals that the phytoconstituents like terpenoids and steroidal saponins, tannins and flavonoids which had been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property 26-28 .These phytoconstituents
EEPA exhibited the significant anticancer activity against diethyl nitrosamine induced liver cancer in rats treated at the dose of 400 mg/kg, where as the treatment of 300 mg/kg did not show significant anticancer activity. Anti cancer activity of EEPA against the DEN induced liver cancer may be due to the presence of antioxidant phytoconstiuents like flavonoids. Apigenin present in this extract has been reported for hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is the basic mechanism behind carcinogenesis. EEPA exhibited significant anticancer activity by virtue of its anti oxidant activity and this may be due to the presence of apigenin.
In the formalin induced paw edema, Just before injection of the test compounds the volume of the paw was measured plethysmographically. Animals were pretreated of either test compounds (30mg/kg, p.o.) or aspirin (100mg/kg, p.o.). The control group received the same volume of the vehicle. Edema was induced after one hour by subplanter injection of 0.05 ml of a 2.5% solution of formalin into the left hind paw. The increase in paw volume was determined 4 h after injection of the phlogistic agent. The percentage anti-inflammatoryactivity was calculated by the formula: anti-inflammatoryactivity=(1-dt/dc)/100 where dt is the difference of paw volume in drug treated groups and dc is the difference in paw volume of the control group [15-16].
Anti-epileptic activity: A study was performed to evaluate the antiepileptic activity of methanol extract of leaves of Oxalis corniculata L. (MEOC) on Maximal Electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures models in Wistar rats. Animals were pretreated with MEOC at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. In MES model MEOC showed significant reduction in duration of hind leg extension with 200 mg/kg and duration of hind leg extension was dramatically reduced with 400 mg/kg. While in PTZ induced rats MEOC significantly reduced the duration of convulsion and delayed the onset of clonic convulsion. A dose dependent results were obtained in PTZ model by delayed the onset of clonic convulsions. The complete protective effect against mortality was reported in both the tests. 14
sesquiterpenes as well as their oxygenated derivatives are the predominant constituents but phenylpropanoids, fatty acids and their esters may also occur . Aromatic plants and their EO have traditionally been used since antiquity for their biological properties (bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal), as well as for cosmetic and medicinal applications. Nowadays many EO are commercially valued in the pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sanitary, cosmetic, and perfume industries . Chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Family: Asteraceae) is a well-known medicinal plant in folk medicine cultivated all over
abuse and chronic use of NSAID are considered as the major factors for peptic ulcer. There are several drugs available to treat peptic ulcers such as antacids, H-2 receptor antagonist, anti- cholinergics and proton pump inhibitors. However, these drugs would significantly pro- duce several side effects . Therefore, these findings indicate the study of theprotective role of Piperbetle from natural sources.