Top PDF Evaluation of cognitive functions in diabetic patients

Evaluation of cognitive functions in diabetic patients

Evaluation of cognitive functions in diabetic patients

only a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment, but also for progress from mild impairment to severe dementia. Patients with mild cognitive impairment with advanced age may progress to advanced cognitive impairment and dementia. It is important to predict this progression in terms of preventing and treating this major health problem. For this reason, authors examined the relatively young population of 50-70 years old and also investigated mild cognitive impairment in the diabetic population. In this study, authors used the MMSE test while examining the effect of diabetes on cognitive functions. The cut-off value for the diagnosis of dementia has been determined as 23 in many studies. However, authors aimed to detect mild cognitive impairment by determining the cut-off value as 27. Authors found a significant relationship between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction.
Show more

5 Read more

Evaluation of Contrast Sensitivity in Diabetic Patients

Evaluation of Contrast Sensitivity in Diabetic Patients

This study is an analytic observational with cross sectional design study with control was approved by the ethics committee of Medical Faculty of Sumatera Utara University. The research subjects were all patients in the Neuro Ophthalmology Division and Endocrine Metabolic Diabetes Division of Sumatera Utara University Hospital with control patients without diabetes mellitus, patients with diabetes mellitus less than 5 years and diabetic patients for more than 5 years from September to October 2018. The samples for 45 patients over 40 years were tested firstly for the acuity of vision, and followed by examination of the anterior segment using a Slit Lamp, then examination of intraocular pressure by using the Schioetz Tonometer to assess eyeball pressure, then examination of posterior segment using Funduscopy Direct then, contrast sensitivity testing was carried out using Pelli Robson Chart so that contrast sensitivity of patients without evaluation of diabetes mellitus could be evaluated, patients with diabetes mellitus less than 5 years and people with diabetes mellitus were more from 5 years. The data is entered with SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistic for Windows, Version 19.0). Anova One Way Test (relationship between age and contrast sensitivity values) p value > 0.05 is considered not significant. Chi-Square Test (relationship between characteristics of patient groups in research subjects against contrast sensitivity values) p value < 0.05 is considered significant. In the multiple comparisons test, the LSD method (the difference between the variables of contrast sensitivity values) showed that there were significant differences in contrast sensitivity values between the control patients without diabetes mellitus and those with diabetes mellitus less than 5 years, the group of patients without diabetes mellitus with groups people with diabetes mellitus more than 5 years and between groups of people with diabetes mellitus less than 5 years with a group of people with diabetes mellitus more than 5 years (p < 0.05).
Show more

6 Read more

Detection and evaluation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients by conventional and tissue doppler imaging

Detection and evaluation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients by conventional and tissue doppler imaging

11. Rodriguez L, Garcia M, Ares M, Griffin BP, Nakatani S, Thomas JD. Assessment of mitral annular dynamics during diastole by Doppler tissue imaging: comparison with mitral Doppler inflow in subjects without heart disease and in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J. 1996;131(5):982-7.

5 Read more

Evaluation of EX-PRESS glaucoma implant in elderly diabetic patients after 23G vitrectomy

Evaluation of EX-PRESS glaucoma implant in elderly diabetic patients after 23G vitrectomy

Materials and methods: This retrospective analysis comprised 18 patients (19 eyes). We applied EX-PRESS implants in 9 patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and in 10 patients with non-NVG. All patients had earlier history of diabetes and vitrectomy 23G for diabetic complications. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured and compared before; 7 days; 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; and a year after the surgery.

6 Read more

Evaluation and follow-up of cognitive functions in patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attack

Evaluation and follow-up of cognitive functions in patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attack

A significant worsening in the instrumental scores was detected among patients with stroke within the first month following the incident as compared to controls (P,0.01) (Figure 1). There were no significant changes from base- line in MMSE and forward counting in study groups (P.0.05), while significantly lower scores were obtained in backward counting and calculation skills in patients with stroke (P,0.01) (Figure 2). Although the two groups were comparable in terms of word list recall and word list recogni- tion skills (P.0.05), an assessment of word list memory and overall scores showed significant worsening among patients with stroke than controls (P,0.01) (Figure 3). Abstraction skills were significantly reduced in patients with stroke (P,0.01) (Figure 4). There were no differences in praxis measurements in either group. Clock drawing test results
Show more

10 Read more

Clinical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy.

Clinical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy.

About 10% of diabetic patients experience persistent pain.(44) Pain in DN can be spontaneous or stimulus induced, severe or intractable. DN pain is typically worse at night and can be described as burning, pins and needles, shooting, aching, jabbing, sharp, cramping, tingling, cold, or allodynia. Some patients develop predominantly small fiber neuropathy manifesting with pain and paresthesia early in the course of diabetes that may be associated with insulin therapy (insulin neuritis).(45) It is of less than six months duration, symptoms are aggravated at night, and manifest more in feet than hands. Sometimes acute DN pain is associated with weight loss and depression and has been termed as diabetic neuropathic cachexia.(46) This syndrome commonly occurs in men, and can occur at any time in the course of both type I and type II diabetes. It is self limiting and responds to symptomatic treatment. In these patients amyloidosis, heavy metal toxicity, Fabry’s disease, and HIV
Show more

80 Read more

Cognitive Functions in Essential Tremor

Cognitive Functions in Essential Tremor

Background: Essential tremor (ET) is no longer considered as tremor genic mono symptomatic movement disorder but it has several non-motor manifestations including cognitive dysfunctions. Objectives: to study the cognitive abnormalities in ET patients and their relation to the tremor severity. Methods: This study was performed on 30 ET patients and 15 healthy controls subjected to history taking, neurological examinations with tremor severity assessment using The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS). They were also submitted to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), Stroop Color Word Test, subtest of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), brain MRI volumetry and event related potential mismatch negativity (MMN). Results: the neuropsychological tests revealed significant impairment in the global cognitive evaluation, executive functions, attention and working memory of ET patients. Brain MRI volumetry showed significant reduction in cerebellar cortical and white matter volumes, thalamic volume and total white matter volume. Patients also had either absent or diminished amplitude and delayed MMN. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment is a common underdiagnosed ET manifestation affecting patients' socio–occupational career and should be respected in the management plan.
Show more

9 Read more

Association of Cognitive and Noncognitive Symptoms of Delirium: A Study from Consultation-liaison Psychiatry Set-up.

Association of Cognitive and Noncognitive Symptoms of Delirium: A Study from Consultation-liaison Psychiatry Set-up.

The present study has certain limitations, which include cross‑sectional evaluation of the patients, small sample size and inclusion of etiologically heterogeneous group. As the study did not include patients admitted to intensive care units, the findings cannot be generalized to this group of patients. Assessment of cognitive functions in the present study was limited to the use of HMSE and DRS‑R‑98. Accordingly, it cannot be conclusively suggested that HMSE is better than other instruments for assessment of cognitive functions in patients of delirium. Future studies must attempt to overcome Table 2: Comparison of severity of delirium symptoms on DRS-R-98 as per levels of severity of attention deficits on HMSE
Show more

6 Read more

<p>Determinants of Diabetic Complication Among Adult Diabetic Patients in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018: Unmatched Case Control Study</p>

<p>Determinants of Diabetic Complication Among Adult Diabetic Patients in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018: Unmatched Case Control Study</p>

Health workers in health institutions should identify patients ’ self-care demands and address patient needs by using a compressive care plan that includes a patient- centered approach to attain good glycemic control and improve treatment adherence. As this research fi nally shows, most of the determinants will not be determinants once again if the patient ’ s potential for preventing diabetic complications is maximized. Successful diabetes care requires a systematic approach to support patients ’ behavior change efforts, so clinicians and health-care teams should take responsibility and make efforts to change patient beha- vior. Health-care providers also need to be responsible for undertaking the regular evaluation of barriers to treatment outcomes, if patients are not meeting the desired level of
Show more

9 Read more

Shanghai cognitive intervention of mild cognitive impairment for delaying progress with longitudinal evaluation-a prospective, randomized controlled study (SIMPLE): rationale, design, and methodology

Shanghai cognitive intervention of mild cognitive impairment for delaying progress with longitudinal evaluation-a prospective, randomized controlled study (SIMPLE): rationale, design, and methodology

In recent years, cognitive training has gradually become an important therapeutic approach due to its convenience and effectiveness. It describes a group of brain games exercising mental processing ability such as attention, memory, calculation and so on [11]. An increasing num- ber of studies have proved that cognitive training has beneficial effects on delaying cognitive decline in the eld- erly. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study which did a 5-year follow-up of 2802 healthy aging people found that there was a significantly smaller proportion of cognitive decline and higher score of living abilities in the intervention group receiving various cognitive training [12]. Similar ef- fects of cognitive training are also found in MCI patients. Sylvie Belleville et al. [13] found that both MCI patients and healthy elders who received an 8-week intervention focusing on teaching episodic memory strategies had bet- ter performance in episodic memory assessment than the control group. An randomized clinical trial of 100 MCI patients found that 6-month cognitive training improved significantly cognitive functions of the intervention group in multiple domains and this improvement was well main- tained during a 18-month follow-up [14].
Show more

8 Read more

Cognitive assessment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients

Cognitive assessment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients

Evaluation of cognitive functions using different psycho- metric tests was carried for all participants including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is used to assess subjects’ orientation to time and place, instant- aneous memory, short-term memory, serial subtractions or reverse spelling, constructional capacities, and use of lan- guage [5]. Modified Mini-Mental State Examination test has more standardized administration and more graded scoring than MMSE; it also assesses a broader variety of cognitive domains and covers a wider range of difficulty levels [6]. Trail making test (TMT) is used for assessment of sustained atten- tion and information processing [7]; Passed Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)) is a measure of cognitive function that specifically assesses auditory information processing speed, working memory, and flexibility, as well as calculation ability [8]; Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT) is used to assess verbal memory depending on the concept of semantic cueing [9]; and Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) is used to assess visual memory, visual perception, and visual con- structive abilities [10] (Additional file 4).
Show more

9 Read more

Evaluation of Visual Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Diabetic Patients and Assessment of Post-operative Complications as Compared to Non-diabetics

Click here to download PDF version of the article !

Newer studies are in favour of lens implantation in diabetic eyes, as correction of aphakia with spectacle causes further image distortion and constriction of peripheral visual fields [15]. The need for this study is to establish the influence of glycaemic control on visual control to better advice patients before surgery. The aim of this study was evaluation and comparison of visual outcomes after cataract surgery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: patients with and without diabetic retinopathy; assessment of post-operative complications after cataract surgery in diabetics compared to non- diabetics; and analysis of increment in central foveal thickness using optical coherence tomography, after cataract surgery. Also, through this study, we wanted to determine whether uneventful SICS/phacoemulsification cataract surgery led to adverse visual outcomes in diabetics.
Show more

5 Read more

Comparison of Cognitive Functions between Diabetic and
Non Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients (Stage 5D ) and Its Correlation with Serum Uric Acid, Hemoglobin and
Serum Ferritin Levels

Comparison of Cognitive Functions between Diabetic and Non Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients (Stage 5D ) and Its Correlation with Serum Uric Acid, Hemoglobin and Serum Ferritin Levels

Cognitive deterioration was significantly present in CKD patients mainly because it was a pro inflammatory condition leading to generation of uremic toxins and various other oxygen free radicals and vasculo toxic cytokines, which all leads to endothelial damage. CKD is a non communicable disease with many comorbidities. Most common etiology of CKD is diabetes which is found to be an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in recent studies. Moreover in renal impairment patients due to disturbances in renin angiotensin system and erythropoietin secretion there occur other comorbid conditions like hypertension and anemia. Diabetes, hypertension, anemia everything finally affect the endothelial function of cerebral vasculature resulting in cognitive deterioration 1,8,93 .
Show more

192 Read more

<p>Association Between Cognitive Impairment and Blood Pressure Among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Iran</p>

<p>Association Between Cognitive Impairment and Blood Pressure Among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Iran</p>

The effects of diabetes are not limited to early and late consequences, such as hyperglycemia and complications of small and large arteries. 6 It may also lead to primary and secondary disorders as well as complications in the central nervous system (CNS) and its higher levels, ie, cognitive functions and processes. 6 The primary effects of diabetes on CNS can be due to hyperglycemia, de fi ciency in insulin func- tion, or both. Secondary effects, however, may be associated with diabetic vascular disorders, excessive insulin therapy, or brain damage caused by severe hypoglycemia. 7,8 One of the lesser known complications of T2DM is cognitive impairment (CI). CI caused by T2DM involves reductions in information processing speed, attention, memory, learning, problem- solving power, visual intelligence, and mental fl exibility. 9 Biessels et al studied CI in patients with T2DM and concluded that this disease was associated with Alzheimer ’ s disease. Indeed, the glucose metabolism process and metabolic disor- ders could be effective in reducing cognitive function. 10
Show more

8 Read more

Cognitive-executive functions of brain frontal lobe in aged adults

Cognitive-executive functions of brain frontal lobe in aged adults

13- Nebes RD, Butters MA, Houck PR, Zmuda MD, Aizenstein H, et al. Dual-task performance in depressed geriatric patients. Psychiatry Res. 2001;102:139-51. 14- Royall DR, Palmer R, Chiodo LK, Polk MJ. Declining executive control in normal aging predicts change in functional status: The freedom house study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:346-52.

6 Read more

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in hematological malignancies

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in hematological malignancies

Another point of study was the follow-up assessment after 6 months, and its impingement on chemotherapy-in- duced cognitive handicap revealed no statistically signifi- cant divergence. However, some other studies uncovered that deteriorated cognitive affair in children with cancer could be attributed either to cancer treatments including chemotherapy or to cancer per se as some patients who did not achieve remission had poorer cognitive function [35]; this controversy may be explained by relatively short stop of the study and in need for wide scale of patients. So, further larger, prospective, long-term studies are ne- cessary to definitively assess this impairment.
Show more

8 Read more

Effects of motor practice on cognitive disorders in older adults

Effects of motor practice on cognitive disorders in older adults

search Center also supported the contention that motor practice or learning can facilitate or strengthen motor and cognitive performance for AD and MCI patients. Although the laboratory-based evidence needs to be validated in a clinical setting, many of these investigations have important practical implications. For instance, using a rotary pursuit task (a fine motor task), mild AD patients significantly improved their movement accuracy as the results of extensive motor practice. Most importantly, these impaired participants retained the benefits of practice for up to 1 month following the end of behavioral intervention [17]. Another study indicated that mild-to-moderately impaired AD patients improved their motor performance of a beanbag tossing task (a gross motor task) after practice [15]. The findings of these studies, which demonstrated different patterns of motor skill control and learning, call for further investigation. For example, the optimal training regimen for this population in terms of the intensity, duration, or frequency of motor practice remains unclear. If AD or MCI patients only retain the learned motor skills for a short period of time after practice, it is important to discover optimal ways of maintaining the skill levels by providing them with some post-practice “booster” activi- ties. More clinical studies are also needed to determine how physical or motor training is best integrated with the traditional therapies for AD or MCI patients.
Show more

8 Read more

Homogeneous clusters of Alzheimer’s disease patient population

Homogeneous clusters of Alzheimer’s disease patient population

are accompanied by high values of the ventricular volume, the intracerebral volume, and the whole brain volume (see Table 6). Mean value for the ventricles is about 100 % higher than for cognitive normal patients. Patients in clusters A and B also have increased ven- tricles but their size is significantly smaller. It is very important to notice that in spite of the low level of brain atrophy the included patients have unexpectedly expressed prob- lems with dementia, and for all scales, including the FDG-PET, the values are between the values of the first and the second cluster (see Table  4). Clinically the patients in this cluster have specifically problems with RAVLT forgetting and divided attention as reported by the patient study partner (see Table 6). We name this cluster “traumatic AD” because it is known that head injuries may cause ventricular enlargement [19]. The sup- porting fact is that 85 % of included patients are males and brain injuries in some male sports like boxing and football as well injuries during military service may result in sig- nificant problems with dementia [20, 21]. Data available in the ADNI database did not allow us to evaluate this hypothesis.
Show more

14 Read more

Effect of Comorbid Metabolic Syndrome and Related Components on Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia

Effect of Comorbid Metabolic Syndrome and Related Components on Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia

The results of the present study must be interpreted within certain limitations. The relatively small sample size is the first limitation of our study, although the sample was comparable to that of other studies (11, 18). Second, the majority of the study group was composed of patients with schizophrenia (84.8%), and only a small number of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included in the study. This is a common limitation, as noted in similar studies (10, 17). Third, as we included only patients in symptomatic remission, the sample may not be representative of the entire population of patients with schizophrenia. Fourth, another limitation of the present study is this study had a cross-sectional design rather than a prospective design. Measuring cognitive levels in schizophrenic patients with premetabolic syndrome and observing changes in cognitive tests in follow-ups may lead to a better understanding of the effect of MetS and its components on cognitive functions. Fifth, the use of various MetS criteria in different studies is another limitation. Specific MetS-related components may have distinct effects on cognitive functions (7). As MetS is a categorical definition, it limits the inclusion of patients who are considered only to have premetabolic syndrome. We tried to overcome this problem by employing the most commonly used definition of MetS in the literature. Sixth, the present study applied cognitive tests to measure memory, attention, and executive function, and we did not measure all cognitive domains. The heterogeneity of cognitive tests used in different studies is a limitation. Finally, we did not collect information
Show more

11 Read more

Retinopathy Surgery in Patients with Diabetic Ophthalmoplegia in the City of Kashan

Retinopathy Surgery in Patients with Diabetic Ophthalmoplegia in the City of Kashan

systemic (vasculopathic) risk factors including high blood pressure ,hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease was determined by asking the patients or if there was any evidence of active medical treatment. Diabetic type included non-insulin dependent DM (NIDDM), using only oral hypoglycemic agents (OH) or insulin dependent DM (IDDM), using insulin with or without OH. Neuroimaging of central nervous system (MRI or CT-Scan) was performed to rule out other causes of CN palsy. The data were analyzed by using SPSS: 16.0. Descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation (SD) for continuous data and percent for the categorized data were calculated. Chi square test of significance was employed to compare the proportions. The level of significance was set to á=0.05.
Show more

5 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...

Related subjects